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再造大地——俞孔坚在第48届IFLA大会上的革命性报告
  • http://www.Landscape.cn/news  2011年07月04日 作者:Susanne Fritz 来源:www.architonic.com 浏览:
  •   2011年6月28日(瑞士苏黎世),在国际景观设计师协会第48届世界大会上,北京大学建筑与景观设计学院院长、土人首席设计师俞孔坚教授做了题为“再造大地”的主旨报告。该报告引起了轰动,被当地媒体称为具有革命性的报告,对世界景观设计产生了巨大影响。引文见外刊文章,作者:苏珊·弗里茨(Susanne Fritz)。 译文如下:

      俞孔坚教授作为土人景观的创始人,是世界顶尖的优秀设计师。他的“功能性景观”的概念与当代瑞士对农业的定义惊人地一致,在瑞士很久以前农业就不仅仅是为了提供农产品而存在。我们的文化景观,也就是我们所认为的自然,其生态和保护正在变得前所未有的更加重要。

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    “最小的投入最大的回报”——这是对如诗般的“红飘带公园”最为贴切的描述。


      俞孔坚教授从回顾个人经历开始,展开了他在苏黎世市政厅的演讲。俞教授生于二十世纪六十年代的中国,来自农村。这样的背景影响了他对自然和景观的培育之间的关系的理解。他相信,景观的培育只有适应自然条件才会有好的收益,这种生态经济的方法,成为了他规划设计中最明显的特色。

      俞孔坚曾经是全中国几百候选人当中60个得到学习园林设计机会的学生之一,讽刺的是,他之前那些在植物方面的学习和工作经历与其说是为了志趣更不如说是为了谋生。直到后来在完成学业后的一次旅行当中,他忽然意识到环境状况的重要性,并从此投身其中力图找出解决问题的方法。后来他得以带奖学金进入哈佛大学学习,获得博士学位后,这个谦逊有礼的中国人怀揣着不亚于发起一场“大脚革命”的决心,踌躇满志地回到了祖国。

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    红飘带不仅仅是装饰性的设施,其目的不是去征服和禁锢自然,而是更醒目地呈现自然之美。 

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    镶嵌在长椅内的灯具在晚上不仅可以渲染出浪漫的氛围,同时也保证了步道的安全。


      “大脚革命”是一种借喻,取自中国妇女解放以后破除缠足陋习这一史实。它基于这样一种认识:压制自然的文明发展意味着对资源的浪费和挥霍。相比之下,融合了生态学原则,并顺应自然法则的文明发展则会更加繁荣、多产。

      俞孔坚教授开创了一条简单但是革命性的解决之道:运用生长于当地“繁殖力旺盛的植物”进行大面积的造景。这些俞孔坚教授以“杂乱无序”形容的植物无需修剪和灌溉,它们却有着天然的美。向日葵和稻谷则有着象征性的特质,它们的果实可以被收获。 


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    红飘带公园:上千米长的长椅甚至可以从空中看到。

      堤岸和河道被修建成公园,并为水体提供了更广阔的空间。沼泽植物比如莲花、芦苇、水稻等,可以为河堤提供自然灵活的防护。对于土人设计如此大尺度的项目来说,这种“自然的手段”可以用很短的时间使大面积被遗弃的土地重焕生机。 

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    沈阳建筑大学校园


      在沈阳建筑大学项目中,土人设计运用多产景观、自然水灌溉的理念,在六个月内就完成了校园的建设。场地原先是一片冲积地,洪水来袭时起到缓冲的作用,此前种植有水稻和荞麦。校园中各个建筑单体由小径相连,并通向为学生设置的室外空间里,学生们可以在那里学习、交谈,甚至冥想。当收获季来临,生长在通道两旁的稻谷可以收割来出售,收割后的田地还能喂养山羊。
     

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    沈阳建筑大学:校园里种植有稻谷和荞麦,山羊在收割后校园里觅食。

      瑞士主办了今年的IFLA大会,无论牛群的散养是否会使其乳制品工业更具竞争力,在这个国家牛羊是景观的捍卫者,因为它们是构成当地传统景观不可或缺的元素,同时也是维持瑞士典型的山地草场和高山草甸生态多样性不可替代的角色。

      中国景观特有的传统特色则是梯田,层层抬高的田地不仅避免了流水的侵蚀,同时能让水体在一层层的跌落过程中得到净化。这种古老的观念被运用到了宁波的一个80公顷公园当中,这样,就可以得到约有250,000 m³被植物净化过的干净水。
     

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    景观作为生命系统用以净化水体:上海世博后滩公园


      另一个俞孔坚教授喜欢用的更深的隐喻表现在红飘带中,红飘带具有装饰的作用:它不禁锢自然反而可以强调自然之美。一条超大尺度的丝带贯穿了整个红飘带公园,长达上千米的坐凳从空中俯瞰时清晰可见。尽管其尺度如此之大,土人设计的信条始终是“最小的投入最大的回报”。与该项目所覆盖的范围相比,红飘带仅仅通过对环境很小的干预就巩固了河岸,增强了其易达性,从而成为被自然环绕的公共休闲场所。

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    现代版的稻田


      土人设计目前为全国三分之一的城市政府提供景观顾问服务,雇员超过六百人。俞孔坚教授在北京大学的景观设计课程的毕业生也已经从两人增加到两百人。就在这个国家不计环境代价地追求激进的工业化时,人们已经开始进行反思。人们犯下了种种错误,但这些错误(至少是部分错误)正在被认识到。

      俞孔坚教授在和我谈话时说:“IFLA大会是景观设计行业最为重要的会议”,他笑了笑,“在苏黎世举行这次议会真的是太棒了,虽然你们这里无需做什么事情,毕竟瑞士已经是个引人入胜的地方了。过程也许是缓慢的,但没有犯过重大的错误。”或者也许这些问题已经被发现并改正了。
     


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    天津桥园公园:废弃地的生态修复 用以提供多种生态服务

      点此访问IFLA全球大会网站 

      附原文: 

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      Author  
      Susanne Fritz
      Zürich, Switzerland

    Professor Kongjian Yu, founder of Turenscape Landscape Architects, is one of the world’s leading landscape designers. He gave a revolutionary lecture at the IFLA congress in Zurich, entitled ’Reinventing the good earth’.  

    Prof. Kongjian Yu, founder of Turenscape Landscape Architects, is one of the world's leading landscape designers. His concept of functional landscape architecture shows astounding parallels to the contemporary definition of Swiss agriculture, the main aim of which long ago went beyond simply supplying the country with agricultural produce. Ecology and custody of our cultural landscape, which is by us perceived as nature, are becoming ever more important.
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    "Minimize Intervention and maximize Return” - a rational description of the very poetic project "Red Ribbon Park"
     
    Prof. Kongjian Yu's address to a large audience in Zurich's Kongresshaus began with a retrospective journey through his life. Born in China in the 1960s, he came from a farming background. This influenced his perception of the interconnections between nature and the cultivation of the landscape. He believes that the latter can only produce a good yield if it adapts itself to the conditions imposed by the former – an ecological and economic approach which is the dominant feature of his landscape planning.
     
    Among hundreds of candidates from the whole of China Kongjian Yu was one of 60 students to be given the opportunity of studying garden design – for him an ironic development because his previous dealings with plants had been in terms of earning a living rather than aesthetic pleasure. On a journey through China after completing his studies he perceived the condition of the environment as critical and made the decision to dedicate himself to finding solutions to the problem. He received a grant to study at Harvard University and, armed with his doctorate, this polite and modest man returned to China with an objective which was no less than the 'Big Foot Revolution'.
     
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    The metaphor of red ribbon has a decorative feature in that it does not confine nature but serves to highlight its beauty 
     
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    The illumination of the bench at night is not only romantic but also provides safety to the path
     
    The 'Big Foot Revolution' is a metaphor which is derived from overcoming the oriental custom of deforming women's feet. It is based on the perception that aspects of civilisation which suppress nature represent a waste of resources. In contrast, forms of civilisation which operate in harmony with ecological principles and the sensible application of natural laws are much more productive.
     
    Prof. Kongjian Yu developed simple but revolutionary solutions. By means of 'productive plants' which are native to the region it is possible to landscape large areas and create fields. The 'disorderly' plants, as Yu describes them, don't need to be pruned and watered, and they have a natural beauty. Sunflowers and rice have a symbolic character – and their fruits can be harvested.
     
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    Red Ribbon Park project: The kilometre long bench can even be seen from space 
      
    Embankments and canals are replaced by parks which provide space for water. Marsh plants such as lotus, reeds and rice provide natural and flexible reinforcement for the shoreline. For the giant dimensions of the Turenscape Landscape Architects projects these 'natural' solutions represent a method of revitalising large, desolate areas within a short space of time.
     
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    Shenyang Architectural University Campus 
     
    For the Shenyang Architectural University project Turenscape Architects took advantage of this concept of productive planting and natural water regulation, creating the campus landscape within only six months. The site was declared to be alluvial land, a buffer zone for floodwater, and rice and buckwheat were planted on it. Narrow paths connect the individual buildings on the campus and lead to platforms which provide space in the open air for study, debate and even meditation. Once it has been harvested the rice can be purchased, while goats feed on the plant residues left on the site after the harvest.
     
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    Shenyang Architectural University: rice and buckwheat were planted, goats feed on the plant residues left on the site after the harvest 
     
    In Switzerland, which this year is hosting the IFLA, cows and goats are 'custodians of the landscape', regardless of whether the dairy industry can be managed competitively with free-ranging cattle. They are part of our landscape tradition and maintain the biodiversity of our typical upland pasture and alpine meadows.
     
    In contrast the characteristic traditional feature of the Chinese landscape is the paddy fields which counteract the erosion of the slopes and at the same time have a purifying effect on the water as it trickles downwards. This ancient principle has been applied in Ningbo within an 80-hectare park, with filtration of the water which seeps through the plants enabling 250,000 m³ of clean water to be obtained.
     
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    Landscape as a living machine to clean polluted water: Houtan Park of Shanghai Expo
     
    A further metaphor which Prof. Kongjian Yu likes to use is in the red ribbon, which has a decorative feature in that it does not confine nature but serves to highlight its beauty. A ribbon of supernaturally large dimensions runs through the Red Ribbon Park project. The kilometre long bench can even be seen from space. In spite of this the slogan of Turenscape Architects is 'Minimize Intervention and maximize Return'. Measured against the size of the area which has been landscaped the bench represents a real enhancement to the riverbank with minimal intervention, making it accessible to people and turning it into a promenade in the heart of natural surroundings.
     
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    Modern version of paddy field
     
    Turenscape now advises one third of the mayors of Chinese cities and employs a workforce of over 600. Prof. Kongjian Yu's course in landscape architecture at Peking University has grown from 2 to 200 graduates. Just as fast as the country pursued a course of radical industrialisation without any regard for its cost to the environment, a major rethink now seems to have taken place. Mistakes have been made, but they are (at least in part) also being recognised.
     
    In the course of our conversation with Prof. Kongjian Yu he commented: "The IFLA is the most important congress for landscape architecture," adding with a smile "It's great that it is taking place here in Zurich – even though there's not much for you to do here, everything is already very attractive. The processes may be slow, but no major mistakes are made." Or perhaps they have already been identified and corrected.
     
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    Tianjin Qiaoyuan Park: Ecological recovery of a deserted site for multiple eco-services 
     
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