《景观设计学》2013年第1期

作    者:皮埃尔•比朗格尔(Pierre BÉLANGER) 赖德霖(Delin LAI)等
类    别:景观
出 版 社:高等教育出版社有限公司
出版时间:2013年2月

导言 目录 作品信息 书评

俞孔坚•跨越边界
——《景观设计学》2013年第1期“主编寄语”
Crossing Boundaries — Editorial of the No. 1 Issue for 2013, Landscape Architecture Frontiers
By Kongjian Yu



景观是土地和土地上的物体所构成的综合体,是个复杂的系统,是自然和人文现象的整合,是各种自然过程、生物过程和社会文化过程相互作用的界面;景观是生态系统、是生物的栖息地、是人类的家园、是自然过程与人类历史及文化过程在大地上的烙印,是人类寻常和不寻常的体验空间与审美的风景,是个体与群体的精神和信仰的折射和载体。我们要探讨景观的结构和功能及它们之间的相互关系的规律;探讨景观中自然和人文过程及其相互关系;探讨景观作为一个综合的系统与人类社会系统的相互关系,特别是景观对包括生产与供给服务,环境调节服务,游憩、审美启智及精神信仰等文化服务在内的人类社会系统的服务。
景观设计学是关于景观的分析、改变和管理的理论、方法、技术和艺术。《景观设计学》定位于景观设计的学术研究与设计实践的交叉领域,探讨如何通过景观设计学途径,解决中国和世界生态与环境问题的新观念、新理论和新方法;通过介绍和推广前沿景观设计实践,倡导有助于实现美丽中国与美丽地球的新美学和新文化;架设研究与社会需求之间的桥梁、科学与艺术之间的桥梁,引领当代景观设计学科的发展。


Landscape is a complex system made up of land and objects on it, integrating natural and humanist phenomenon where various processes of nature, biology and social culture have always interacted. It is also an ecological system, habitat of creature, and home of human beings. Natural process and human history and culture have branded on it. Landscape gives us ordinary and extraodinary experience of space and aesthetics of scenery, reflecting and embodying spirits and belief of individuals and groups. We need to discuss the structure and function of landscape and the law of relation between them, and the natural and humanist process and their relation in landscape, the relation between landscape as a integrated system and human society system, especially the service to human society provided by landscape (including producing and supporting service, environmental conditioning service, and cultural service in recreation, aesthetics, education and spiritual belief).

Landscape architecture is a discipline that encompasses theory, practice, technology and
arts bringing forth analysis, changes and management of landscape. Landscape Architecture Frontiers will put its focus on the intersecting spheres of academic research and design practice in landscape architecture, discussing new opinions, theories and approaches to address environmental and ecological issues through landscape architecture; advocating new aesthetics and new culture which benefit the beauty of China and the world by introducing and promoting most recent practice of landscape architecture. It acts as a bridge connecting research and social needs, science and art, leading the development of the discipline. Our audience includes researchers and professional architects, faculties and students, policy makers in related fields and people who work on the environmental constructions in both urban and rural areas.

主编寄语(俞孔坚)

论文
新地理景观(皮埃尔•比朗格尔)
香港与深圳的工程化水域(邓信惠)

观点与评论
中国当代景观设计(吴欣)
跨越边界?搭建桥梁!(杰基•布鲁克娜)
从西方建筑“画意”美学的发展看景观设计与城市设计和建筑的联系(赖德霖)
什么决定了城市的意象?(赵燕菁)

原创实践
美国伯明翰市铁路公园(Tom Leader景观设计事务所)
台湾鳌鼓湿地森林园区整体规划(陆晓筠)
移动的区块—化洪涝为丰产盛景的公共空间(ACT景观设计事务所)
比利时海里纳利斯公园(Stoss景观都市主义设计事务所)

探索与过程
分解保护:格兰德河三角洲的生态流动与生态基础设施设计(埃米莉•施里克曼)
能源来世:冰岛雷克雅尼斯地热梯度规划(凯瑟琳•德•阿尔梅达)
雕刻荒野:重绘美国西部公共土地上的景观线(萨拉•雅各布斯)

 

Editorial (by Kongjian YU)

Papers
The New Geographic Landscape (by Pierre BÉLANGER)
Engineered Waters of Hong Kong and Shenzhen (by Dorothy TANG)

Views and Criticisms
Contemporary Landscape Design in China (by Xin WU)
To Cross Boundaries? Build a Bridge! (by Jackie BROOKNER)
Examining the Relationship between Landscape Architecture as well as Urban Design and Architecture (by Delin LAI)
What Determines the Image of a City? (by Yanjing ZHAO)

Original Practices
Birmingham Railroad Park, USA (by Tom Leader Studio)
Aogu Wetland Forest Park Master Plan, Taiwan (by Shiau-Yun LU)
Shifting Fields — Public Space Using Flooding as a Productive Phenomenon (by Active City Transformation, ACT)
Herinneringspark, Belgium (by Stoss Landscape Urbanism)

Experiments and Processes
Conservation Disassembled: Choreographing Infrastructural and Ecological Flows in the Rio Grande Delta (by Emily SCHLICKMAN)
Energy Afterlife: Choreographing the Geothermal Gradient of Reykjanes, Iceland (by Catherine DE ALMEIDA)
Inscribing Wilderness: Redrawing Lines of Landscape and Vision on Western Public Lands in USA (by Sara JACOBS)
 

【中文刊名】《景观设计学》——跨越边界
【英文刊名】Landscape Architecture Frontiers • Crossing Boundaries
【作者】皮埃尔•比朗格尔(Pierre BÉLANGER)、赖德霖(Delin LAI)等
【出版社】高等教育出版社有限公司
【页码】158页彩色印刷
【刊号】ISSN 2095-5405
【出版日期】2013年2月
【定价】48.00元

新地理景观
The New Geographic Landscape

作者:皮埃尔•比朗格尔   Author: Pierre BÉLANGER

摘要 ……
设计学科中复兴的地理学科以及新兴的生态学视角,正在改变长期以来对技术工程的过分强调以及城市规划方式停滞不前的状态。这将重塑当代景观设计实践道路并开辟新的研究领域—从景观设计学到景观都市主义,再到景观基础设施。为了应对都市区域面临的一系列迫切挑战,新的地理学视角使得对“基础设施生态”进行设计成为可能。这其中包括对生物物理过程进行动态重组,并与决定当今城市经济基础的因素相关,即在技术层面上对废弃物、水、能源、食品以及交通系统等进行最基础的技术性管理。这些新的景观地理元素将成为城市基础设施运作的组成部分,通过综合性策略塑造、引导、影响并应对包括气候变化、资源流动和人口迁移在内的21世纪城市文化所面临的紧迫问题。

关键词 ……
基础设施;生态学;经济;工程;景观;地理

Abstract ...
From the overexertion of technological engineering and the inertia of urban planning, the revival of geography and the recent emergence of ecology across the design disciplines are redrawing the contours of current practice, and opening new territories of research — from landscape architecture, to landscape urbanism, to landscape infrastructure. In response to the predominant challenges facing urban regions today, this new geographic optic opens the potential for the design of "infrastructural ecologies", involving dynamic configurations of live, biophysical processes in relation to the basic, technological management of waste, water, energy, food and mobility systems that underlie urban economies today. Operating as urban infrastructures, these new landscape geographies provide synthetic strategies that can shape, direct, influence and respond to the most pressing challenges of 21st century urban culture, ranging from changing climates, resource flows, and population migrations.

Key words ...
Infrastructure; Ecology; Economy; Engineering; Landscape; Geography

 

香港与深圳的工程化水域
Engineered Waters of Hong Kong and Shenzhen

作者:邓信惠   Author: Dorothy TANG

摘要 ……
香港和深圳共享的不仅是一条边界。每天有超过43万名旅客往来于两城之间,两城已超出了显而易见的联系与竞争关系。特定的政治和经济条件,使那些在香港和深圳的未来中扮演重要角色的资源、基础设施和生态等因素能够以独特的方式进行交换。“伙伴城市”是一个研究和设计项目,从气候变化和环境变迁的视角具体审视这些因素之间的联系,以求揭示香港和深圳之间相互依存的关系。面对当前的环境状况和未来海平面上升的趋势,3种跨境景观—淡水资源、港口基础设施和河口生态,显得尤为脆弱。这3种景观也具备创造该地区的另一种未来的潜能。

关键词 ……
香港;深圳;伙伴城市;工程化水域

Abstract ...
Hong Kong and Shenzhen share more than a border. With over 430 thousand travelers crossing the boundary between the two cities each day, the relationship between the two cities extends beyond the highly visible connections and rivalries. The specific political and economic conditions have enabled unique exchanges of resources, infrastructure, and ecologies — all playing important roles in the futures of Hong Kong and Shenzhen. “Counterpart Cities” is a research and design project that examines these specific links through the lens of climate change and environmental transformation as a vehicle to reveal the interdependencies between Hong Kong and Shenzhen. Three transboundary landscapes: fresh water resources, port infrastructures, and estuarine ecologies, are particularly vulnerable under current environmental conditions and future sea-level rise, and demonstrate potential for alternative futures of the region.

Key words ...
Hong Kong; Shenzhen; Counterpart Cities; Engineered Waters

 

中国当代景观设计
Contemporary Landscape Design in China

作者:吴欣   Author: Xin WU

摘要 ……
“跨界”是一种思维模式。跨界,须认识到学科的特有体系以及其内在的局限性,并要走出藩篱,了解不同的领域。设计的重点不在于符合某个领域的既有逻辑,而是要从问题出发,针对问题寻找解决方式。一个好的设计师应具备好奇心、开放的态度和广博的视野,以及能将从不同领域得到的灵感综合运用到设计中的能力。

关键词 ……
中国当代景观设计;跨界;好奇心;创意;博雅教育

Abstract ...
Being interdisciplinary is a way of thinking, and need to realize the specificity of the discipline and its limits; need to jump the fence in order to engage other disciplines. The central concern of design is not to match up the logic or expectation of a particular discipline, but to based on the issues and to search for possibilities. A good designer should have curiosity, openness and broadness as well as the capability of synthesizing his / her knowledge and experience into design.

Key words ...
Contemporary Landscape Design in China; Interdiscipline; Curiosity; Creativety; Liberal Arts Education

 

跨越边界?搭建桥梁!
To Cross Boundaries? Build a Bridge!

作者:杰基•布鲁克娜   Author: Jackie BROOKNER

摘要 ……
我们生活的时代要求我们必须从根本上改变人类与地球之间的关系。我们面临的危机要求我们集中所有创意,创造出适应性的、综合性的解决方案,还有系统性的思考方式。这不仅是生物或生态与艺术的结合,它还包括化学、物理、工程学,以及心理学和所有社会科学等学科的结合。而这种结合也不是单纯地把它们拼凑在一起,而是要把这些不同的学科结合在一起以萌发新想法。这种复杂的、系统性的以及多学科或跨学科的途径正是我们寻找解决方案时应采取的切入点。

关键词 ……
跨学科;结合;社区参与

Abstract ...
We are living in a time that we must radically transform our human relationships to the earth. The crisis we are facing demands us to pool all of our creativity together, and demands adaptive, integrated solutions and systemic thinking. It is more than biology or ecology combining with art. It might be chemistry, physics, and certainly engineering, as well as psychology, and all the social sciences — and not so much a combining of these, as finding emergent ideas when these different kinds of knowledge come together. This kind of complex, systemic and multi- or trans-disciplinary approach is what we need to even begin finding solutions adequate to the need.

Key words ...
Trans-disciplinary; Combination; Community Participation

 

从西方建筑“画意”美学的发展看景观设计与城市设计和建筑的联系
Examining the Relationship between Landscape Architecture as well as Urban Design and Architecture

作者:赖德霖   Author: Delin LAI

摘要 ……
通过考察18世纪后期以来画意美学的发展,尤其是它在20世纪对于城市规划和建筑设计的影响,将有助于我们认识现代建筑发展过程中景观设计、建筑设计和城市设计三者之间的互动与联系,并在此基础上重新审视景观设计学的重要性。笔者认为,20世纪画意美学发展的历史见证了城市设计、建筑和景观等学科之间的互动。它还将进一步启发我们在面对人类生存环境的种种新问题时进行学科间“跨越边界”的思考。

关键词 ……
画意;景观;市镇景观;街道画意;新粗野主义

Abstract ...
An overview of the development of picturesque aesthetics in the late 1800s, particularly its influence upon urban planning and architectural design in the 20th century, will shed light on our understanding of the interaction and connection of landscape architecture, architecture and urban design disciplines in the development of modern architecture; further, it will drive us to rethink the significance of landscape architecture in the contemporary study and construction of built environment. The developing history of picturesque aesthetics in the 20th century has witnessed the interaction among the disciplines of urban design, architecture and landscape architecture. It will further inspire us to think “crossing boundaries” between different disciplines on the variety of new issues associated with the living environment of human beings.

Key words ...
Picturesque; Landscape; Townscape; Street Picturesque; New Brutalism

 

什么决定了城市的意象?
What Determines the Image of a City?

作者:赵燕菁   Author: Yanjing ZHAO

摘要 ……
不同意象的城市,有着与其文化类似的传承关系。但对这种遗传性一直无法进行深入的分析。解开城市风貌之间相似或差异的关键密码,就是城市在其发展过程中所形成的制度。工程技术和城市制度的交汇共同决定了城市的意向。城市风貌不是自由设计的随机结果,而是制度基因的复制和遗传。

关键词 ……
城市意象;城市制度;技术;规范;产权

Abstract ...
Different images of cities are inherited from their own culture. However, the inheritance is hardly to be analyzed dedicatedly. The password of different appearances of cities is the institution formed in the development process of a city. The convergence of engineering technology and institution of a city determines the image of the city. The appearance of a city is not simply an outcome of design, but duplicate and inheritance of institution genes.

Key words ...
Image of City; Institution of City; Technology; Standard; Property Ownership

 

美国伯明翰市铁路公园
Birmingham Railroad Park, USA

作者:Tom Leader景观设计事务所   Author: Tom Leader Studio

摘要 ……
项目通过一支强大而有凝聚力的顾问团队以及广泛而深入的公/私合作,对场地原有仓库、砖厂的物料进行回收利用,利用地形起伏创造出不同景致,并融入多种可持续设计元素,为游客提供了多尺度的公共空间。

关键词 ……
铁路公园;废弃场地;更新;公共空间

Abstract ...
Through a cohesive team of consultants and an extensive public/private partnership, this project reused the materials recovered from the warehouse and brick-making site, created knolls and views taking advantage of the topography, and built sustainable features and multiple design scales of program usage for visitors.

Key words ...
Railroad Park; Derelict Site; Revivation; Renewal; Public Space

 

台湾鳌鼓湿地森林园区整体规划
Aogu Wetland Forest Park Master Plan, Taiwan, China

作者:陆晓筠  Author: Shiau-Yun LU

摘要 ……
坐落在亚洲重要的候鸟迁徙路径上的鳌鼓湿地总面积约为1 470hm2,原为填海造陆而成的农牧地,却因地层下陷及土壤盐碱化意外地逐渐恢复为海岸湿地及野鸟的天堂。然而,目前鳌鼓湿地仍面临着旱季雨季水资源变化剧烈、畜殖场废水排放、人工造林使海岸林相单一化及观光与保育冲突等重要问题亟待解决。本规划的核心理念是保育及恢复栖息地,旨在建立一系列湿地重生策略,通过“播种”的概念强化场地的自然演替,让栖息地环境逐步发挥生态服务、环境教育与生态旅游的功能。

关键词 ……
海岸湿地;栖息地复育;水资源规划;可持续环境设计;分区规划与管理;生物多样性

Abstract ...
Aogu Wetland is a 1,470 hectares site located on the route of Asian migrating birds. The site was reclaimed from the sea and unexpectedly reverted to a coastal wetland because of land subsiding and the cessation of farming in the area. However, Aogu is facing lots of problems, such as seasonal flood and drought, water pollution from farming, afforestation project, and conflict between wildlife conservation and the tourism industry. The project focuses on establishing a series of re-habitation strategies on site that is reclaimed for human development, and emphasizes the site as a seeding process for the natural systems, as well as environmental education and eco-tourism.

Key words ...
Coastal Wetland; Habitat Restoration; Water Resource Planning; Sustainable Environment Design; Zoning Planning and Management; Bio-diversity

 

移动的区块化洪涝为丰产盛景的公共空间
Shifting Fields — Public Space Using Flooding as a Productive Phenomenon

作者:ACT景观设计事务所  Author: Active City Transformation, ACT

摘要 ……
“移动的区块”旨在创造能够提供更丰富体验的场地,强调相邻功能和特点的关系,使洪水和不断升高的海平面成为生产性,而非破坏性现象,并有益于转变及加强一个城镇的特征。

关键词 ……
瑞典;公共空间;移动的区块;洪水;生产性

Abstract ...
The intent of Shifting Fields is to create a more experience-rich site, which underlines the relationships to the adjacent functions and characteristics. Flooding and continually rising sea levels can become a productive — rather than destructive — phenomenon, and also can help to transform and strengthen a town’s identity.

Key words ...
Sweden; Public Space; Shifting Fields; Flood; Productivity

 

比利时海里纳利斯公园
Herinneringspark, Belgium

作者:Stoss景观都市主义设计事务所   Author: Stoss Landscape Urbanism

摘要 ……
以对第一次世界大战的记忆为出发点,比利时海里纳利斯公园扎根于景观实践、当地固有景观和弗兰德斯战场本身的生态与历史中,创造出一系列不断发展变化的景观设施,向游客展示该地区的过去、现在和未来。

关键词 ……
战争;景观;生态;记忆

Abstract ...
Based on in the practices, precedents, histories and ecologies of the Flanders Fields, the designers of Herinneringspark in Belgium created a set of continuously evolving landscape installations featuring the memory of World WarⅠ, and aimed to tell stories of its past, present and future to visitors.

Key words ...
War; Landscape; Ecologies; Memory

 

分解保护:格兰德河三角洲的生态流动与生态基础设施设计
Conservation Disassembled: Choreographing Infrastructural and Ecological Flows in the Rio Grande Delta

作者:埃米莉•施里克曼   Author: Emily SCHLICKMAN

摘要 ……
本项目位于社会、经济及环境条件都不断变化的景观之中,体现了废料经济与泻湖生态两大系统的重要性,同时通过精心重组区域尺度的基础设施和生态物质流动,为该地区塑造了具有自我恢复能力和生产力的新景观。

关键词 ……
分解;保护;废船拆卸;废料;三角洲

Abstract ...
This project investigates the current tension between waste economies and lagoonal ecologies in the Rio Grande Delta. It questions the notions of growth through production and conservation through preservation by offering a new model for the region that couples marine disassembly practices with the conservation of ecologically sensitive areas. Situated in a shifting landscape — socially, economically, and environmentally — the project acknowledges the importance of both systems and attempts to choreograph infrastructural and ecological flows to enhance regional resiliency and productivity.

Key words ...
Disassembly; Conservation; Shipbreaking; Waste; Delta

 

能源来世:冰岛雷克雅尼斯地热梯度规划
Energy Afterlife : Choreographing the Geothermal Gradient of Reykjanes, Iceland

作者:凯瑟琳•德•阿尔梅达   Author: Catherine DE ALMEIDA

摘要 ……
能源是生命的基础和现代文明发展的推动力。能源产业被重新视为将与各类其他基础设施、经济及生态进行重叠和混合的运作过程。“能源来世”探索了位于冰岛西南部的雷克雅尼斯地热电站产生的地热废水的再利用过程。地热残余能量的再利用是一个再生产和分离的过程,该过程利用地热原理、温度梯度的压缩和扩展创造出了新的景观形式。藻类种植和生产、植被恢复策略,以及对不同温度的体验共同形成了热资源公园。热能再次被证明可作为一种无形的、现象学的设计材料,可通过其内在的传导、对流和辐射特性与技术,以特定的材料和形式加以获取、储存与释放。

关键词 ……
能源;能源生命循环;地热;微气候;温度;梯度

Abstract ...
Energy is the basis of life and the fuel for modern civilization. The energy industry is reconsidered by uncovering where operations can overlap and hybridize with other infrastructures, economies, and ecologies. Energy Afterlife explores the reutilization of geothermal effluent from Reykjanes Geothermal Power Plant in southwest Iceland. Reusing its residual energy creates a post-production, spin-off process that yields a new landscape formed by thermal principles and the compression and extension of its temperature gradient. Algae cultivation and production, revegetation strategies, and temperature’s experiential qualities are interwoven to form a thermal resource park. Heat is reexamined as an invisible, phenomenological design material, which can be captured, contained, and released through conduction, convection, and radiation properties and techniques inherent in particular materials and forms.

Key words ...
Energy; Energy Life Cycle; Geothermal; Microclimates; Temperature; Gradients

 

雕刻荒野:重绘美国西部公共土地上的景观线
Inscribing Wilderness: Redrawing Lines of Landscape and Vision on Western Public Lands, USA

作者:萨拉•雅各布斯   Author: Sara JACOBS

摘要 ……
重叠的边界和模糊的管辖权限塑造了美国西部的景观。“雕刻荒野”项目提议扩建亚利桑那国家观景游径,其原有的直线几何形式定义了这片土地的边界,但物理意义与法律意义上的空间并非总是一致的,造就了其层叠的历史。通过将“荒野”视为各种边界相互重叠和渗透的空间,本方案试图重新校准呈现在地图之上的区域控制线,以及通过景观维护形成的景观线之间的关系。这条跨州界、跨部门的游径将创造一片自治区域,从而重新划分通过地图和规划手段所形成的空间,将原本被忽视并被定义为“荒野”的区域带进人们的视线,思考、评估和预测对这一区域进行保护管理的可能性。

关键词 ……
荒野;公共土地;地图绘制;亚利桑那国家观景游径

Abstract ...
Overlapping boundaries and ambiguous jurisdictions have shaped the landscapes of the western United States. Inscribing Wilderness proposes expanding the Arizona National Scenic Trail, the rectilinear geometries that have defined the borders of these landscapes create layered histories where physical and juridical space does not always match. Understanding that wilderness is a construction where boundaries are plural and porous, the proposal recalibrates lines of control, as displayed on maps, and lines on the ground, the result of landscape maintenance. The trans-state, trans-agency trail would create an autonomous territory, thus redrawing space through map and plan, where the irony of wilderness is exposed to confront visions, value, and expectations of conservation.

Key words ...
Wilderness; Public Lands; Mapping; Arizona National Scenic Trail