《景观设计学》2013年第2期

作    者:托马斯•费希尔(Thomas FISHER)、威廉•C•苏利文(William C. SULLIVAN)等
类    别:景观
出 版 社:高等教育出版社有限公司
出版时间:2013年4月

导言 目录 作品信息 书评

俞孔坚•一次景观伦理的心路历程
——《景观设计学》2013年第2期“主编寄语”
A Spiritual Journey of Landscape Ethics — Editorial of the No. 2 Issue for 2013, Landscape Architecture Frontiers
By Kongjian Yu


近一个月以来,我一直处于万分纠结的状态之中,有几夜辗转难眠:不为其他,而是因为一片果园,一片幸存于大城市版图中的绿洲——广州“万亩果园”;困扰我的不是因为我和我的同事们没有能力将这方土地设计成一处令世人惊叹的新景观,也不是因为当地政府没有财力或能力在这方土地上再建一处辉煌的城市景观;相反,是因为作为设计师,我们太容易将这里改变成我们自己想要的景观;作为甲方,他们也太容易就能改变这里的一切。困扰我的是关于如何对待这片土地的基本问题——景观的伦理问题。
“万亩果园”曾是珠江三角洲著名的水果之乡,水网纵横,荔枝、龙眼、杨桃等岭南果树密布其中。其间分布多个村落,地处果园中心地带的小洲村闻名遐迩,街道水巷穿插如织,古木浓荫,老宅依稀。几百年来,与珠江潮水同呼吸,与四周果园相共生。近年来,由于城市的扩张,果园被不断蚕食;由于大气和水环境恶化等环境污染问题的不断加剧,严重影响果品的质量和产量;而由于生产成本的增加和利润的减少,导致果农们放弃果木管理,转而将土地和住宅出租给外来务工人员,以谋得更好的生计,百年果园面临危机。在此背景下,广州市政府决定将果园收归国有,作为广州“南肺”,统一管理。
在斥巨资成功收归国有的一片欢呼声过后,政府却面临着一个更为棘手的难题:如何对待这片没有了果农的果园?如何改造并提升这片大都市中心的农业景观,使其能适应城市发展的需要,又能保留其作为果园的特色?如何认识日益扩张的城市和日益增长的城市人口——不仅是当代人,还有未来的城市居民——对这方土地的期待?最根本的是,城市包围中的“万亩果园”到底有着怎样的价值——生产价值,环境调节价值,生物栖息地价值,游憩、科普与美学和文化体验价值?为实现这些价值,我们将如何通过设计来改变它,使其在保留旧有价值的同时,创造新的价值?
痛苦的思索之后,我释然了,因为我在景观伦理的天平上找到了平衡:我不忍心砍掉在这里生长了几十年、上百年的荔枝树,去挖湖堆山,创造出一片全新的开阔的湖面和美丽的水景或人工湿地——而这正是部分人喜欢、曾有过经验并博得喝彩的途径;我也不忍心毁掉这朴实无华的沟渎阡陌,将其改造成精于奇巧的小桥流水、奇花异卉、铺陈白玉怪石、点缀亭台楼阁的所谓园林景观——而这正是设计师们最擅长与最热衷的,也正是万亩果园一期工程中所采用的方法;我也不忍心忽视几代人、十几代人在这片珠江三角洲大地上所付出的艰辛与智慧的烙印,而正如许多保护主义者所提倡的,放任果园,任凭其衰退演变,这或许能创造出一个难得的城市自然生态系统,但却失去了一处难得的农业遗产景观和都市人迫切需要的休闲体验。
经过艰难的抉择,我释然了,因为我在纷繁与迷雾中寻找到了作为景观设计师的良心,这种良心常常因为迷恋于自我表现而让位给了奇特的景观,这种良心常常因为追求商业利益、迎合领导和讨好甲方而迷失;这种良心常常羁绊于设计师的技艺和能力的局限而模糊;这种良心也常常因为讨得世俗的一时欢愉而被放弃……
终于释然了,因为我已明了,这片果园是地域文化景观的代表,是地域的农业遗产景观。它是当地人与珠江三角洲在自然过程中交互作用的产物,是当地人民和社会对珠江地域自然过程和格局相适应的文化表达,是几代人甚至几十代人的艰辛和智慧在大地上的烙印,它赋予了广州和广州人独特的个性;它曾经,而且还将为世代生活在这方土地上的人民带来福祉和文化认同,并承载了这方土地上的人们的喜怒哀乐,爱恨情仇。
终于释然了,因为我因此而懂得如何去设计,通过设计其管理和改造的方式,来延续这片独特的地域文化景观的演绎过程,来维护这一被围困于都市中的农业遗产的真实性和完整性,并使其适应新的自然和环境,产生新的价值,以满足新时代对它的需求。未来的万亩果园,将是一处生机勃勃的都市农业景观:通过果园认养和都市农业管理过程,延续果园的生产性景观;向农民学习,通过果林的间种技术,形成更为丰富的岭南百果之园、百蔬之园、百花之园;通过简单的填挖方技术——延续珠江三角洲的桑基鱼塘的农业传统——在浓密的果林基质中,通过光和水的调整,营造丰富的栖息地斑块,形成闹市中的百鸟之园、百兽之园和百蝶之园;在上述新果林景观的基底上,再引入一个都市游憩系统,包括自行车和步行栈道,以及空中游览道,使都市人能够充分体验这一新都市生态农业景观的丰产、健康与美丽。



I had been struggling for nearly a month, and had spent a couple of wakeful nights, over nothing but the Wanmu Orchard, a piece of land that had survived the urban sprawl and metropolis growth of Guangzhou. What concerned me about this project was not that my colleagues and I may not be capable of turning it into a stunning new landscape, or that the local government may not have sufficient funds to support this new urban project. As a designer, I could have easily transformed the orchard into whatever landscape I wanted, just as the client, the Guangzhou government, could have easily advocated for a new landscape. Rather, what bothered me was the fundamental question of how to approach this piece of land — the ethics of landscape.

The historic Wanmu Orchard was famous in the Pearl River Delta as a land of fruit trees. The orchard was crisscrossed by a network of rivers and lakes, and densely covered with regional Lingnan fruits such as lychee, loganberry, and starfruit. Among the many villages, the Xiaozhou Village, located in the heart of the orchard, was especially well known. Here, streets and water alleys intermingled, and older homes were covered with the dense shade of ancient trees. For hundreds of years, the village and groves had breathed with the ebb and flow of the Pearl River. More recently, however, urban sprawl had encroached on the groves. The fruit quality and quantity have been severely affected by air and water pollution, as well as increasing production costs and decreasing fruit prices. As a result, fruit growers gave up maintaining the trees, favoring to lease land and houses to immigrant farmers and workers, in order to earn a better living. In response, the Guangzhou government decided to nationalize the orchard into a “southern lung” of Guangzhou under unified municipal management.

Following public support over the successful nationalization of the orchard, the government is confronted with a stickier problem: How to approach an orchard when the fruit growers are no longer there? How can an agricultural landscape in the heart of the metropolis be managed to meet the demands of urban development and maintain its characteristics as an orchard? What will be the future expectations of this land in the context of ever-expanding cities and the ever-increasing urban population? And most fundamentally, what is the value, be it production, habitat, recreation, aesthetics, or cultural experience, of the Wanmu Orchard if it is completely encircled by the city? To address multiple interpretations of the site, how will we instill new landscape values, while maintaining the old ones?

After agonizing reflection, I found relief through a balance of landscape morals and ethics. I do not have the heart to cut down the lychee trees standing there over decades or even hunderd years, to dig new lakes, pile up hills, or create new waterscapes, all of which have been favored by the public and local leadership. I cannot bear to transform the natural and benign orchard into an exquisite garden, dotted with pavilions, terraces, and towers, or boasting exotic flowers and rare herbs with imported stones and small bridges over flowing streams. These approaches, which the local government is well versed in and fond of, was the approach taken in the first phase of the Wanmu Orchard project. Neither can I stand the sight of interfering and letting the orchard regress without active maintenance, as many preservationists have advocated. Instead, perhaps the orchard site will give birth to an urban wetland system, as called for by conservationists. Yet, this would also be at the expense of an agricultural heritage landscape, or at a recreational experience.

I found relief through the process of this tough choice. At the conjunction of jumble and mist I found my conscience as a landscape architect. Such conscience has often been sacrificed in favor of self-expression, or lost in the course of catering to leaders or commercial interests. Such conscience has too often been impeded by the limitations of designers’ craft and ability. And such conscience has been too often extinguished in favor of temporal success and popularity.

Finally I found relief, and an ethics of landscape pointed a way out. It is now clear to me that the orchard is a representation of the regional cultural landscape and the agricultural heritage landscape of the region. Its current state is the outcome of years of interaction between the local people and the natural process of the Pearl River Delta. The orchard is both a cultural expression of the adaptability of the local people, and an ode to the natural processes and patterns of the Pearl River Delta. Both of which have endowed the city of Guangzhou with its unique character. It has historically, and will continue to, provide economic well-being and cultural identity to the people living on this land generation after generation. The fruit will continue to bear their joy and sorrow, love and hatred.

Relief came from a realization of how to approach this landscape, and how, by designing the management and transformation, I could contribute to the design process of a unique regional and cultural landscape. The authenticity of the agricultural heritage landscape that had survived urban growth would be preserved. The orchard would be adapted to a new nature and environment, and thus create new values that met the requirements of the new era. In the future, the Wanmu Orchard will be a vital and vibrant urban agricultural landscape. The fruits of the orchard will be maintained through grove adoption and production of urban agriculture. By learning from local farmers, a more abundant Lingnan garden of fruits, vegetables, and flowers will take shape through intercropping fruit trees. Mulberry-based fishponds, an agricultural tradition in the Pearl River Delta, will be resumed through basic cut and fill topography. On the bases of the existing fruit trees groves, generous habitat patches will be constructed to form a garden of birds, beasts, and butterflies in the bustling downtown area. An urban recreational system, of bicycle and pedestrian trails, and a clean air corridor will be brought into this new orchard landscape. Through these transformations, the residents of Guangzhou will be fully able to savor the fertility, wholesomeness, and beauty of this new urban ecological and agricultural landscape.

主编寄语(俞孔坚)

论文
景观伦理(托马斯•费希尔)
无界之城:对中国大学校园规划策略的探索(何志森、查尔斯•安德森、卡里拉•扎卡里亚)

观点与评论
技术、环境与人(吴国盛)
设计的理想国(周博)
重赋土地以灵魂——城市景观视觉主义批判(李溪)
一次关于城市景观对人类健康影响的学术对话(上)(姜斌、威廉•C•苏利文、张俊彦)
中外棕地再生案例比较中的环境伦理(曾颖、郑晓笛)

原创实践
非正规垂直社区:委内瑞拉加拉加斯市大卫塔(U-TT建筑与都市主义实践事务所)
共享设计的交互平台:澳大利亚凯兰园区总体规划(McGregor Coxall景观与城市设计事务所)
画个圆圈介入自然—辽宁兴城一等海公寓外部景观设计(房木生)
苏州太湖沿岸慢行步道(示范段)设计(苏州致朗景观设计顾问有限公司)
法国南特市布缇尔-橡树生态区设计(安妮-西尔维•布乃尔)
福州古窑址公园(淮安国宾馆)景观生态保护设计(成都景虎国际景观设计有限责任公司)

探索与过程
炸弹、树木和黄金:老挝战后景观重建中采矿与排雷的同化过程(陆小璇)
边界都市主义:重绘朝鲜和韩国之间的非军事区(金东世)

 

Editorial (by Kongjian YU)

Papers
The Ethics of Landscape (by Thomas FISHER)
Framed to Be Open: Exploring the Strategies of Planning University Campuses
in China (by Jason HO, Charles ANDERSON, Khalilah ZAKARIYA)

Views and Criticisms
Technology, Environment and Human Being (by Guosheng WU)
The Utopia of Design (by Bo ZHOU)
Reviving the Soul of Land — Criticism on Ocularism of Urban Landscape (by Xi LI)
A Dialogue on the Impact of Urban Landscape on Human Health (I) (by Bin JIANG, William C. SULLIVAN, Chun-Yen CHANG)
Perspective of Environmental Ethics in Brownfield Regeneration through Comparative Case Studies between China and Abroad (by Ying ZENG, Xiaodi ZHENG)

Original Practices
Informal Vertical Communities: Torre David in Caracas, Venezuela (by Urban-Think Tank)
An Interactive Platform for Shared Design: The Callan Park Master Plan, Australia (by McGregor Coxall)
Draw a Circle in Nature — Landscape Design for High End Ocean Apartment in Xingcheng, Liaoning (by Musheng FANG)
Design of the Bicycle and Pedestrian Trail along Taihu Lake (Demonstration Part), Suzhou Suzhou (by Z-land Landscape Design & Consulting, Inc.)
Bottière-Chênaie Eco-district in Nantes, France (by Anne-Sylvie BRUEL)
Ecological Protection Landscape Design of Ancient Kilns Park (Huai’an State Guesthouse), Fuzhou (by International Landhoo of Chengdu Landscape Design Co., Ltd.)

Experiments and Processes
Bombs, Wood and Gold: Synchronizing the Processes of Mining and Demining in the Post-war Landscape of Laos (by Xiaoxuan LU)
Borders as Urbanism: Redrawing the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) between Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and Republic of Korea (by Dongsei KIM)
 

【中文刊名】《景观设计学》——景观伦理
【英文刊名】Landscape Architecture Frontiers • Landscape Ethics
【作者】托马斯•费希尔(Thomas FISHER)、威廉•C•苏利文(William C. SULLIVAN)等
【出版社】高等教育出版社有限公司
【页码】162页彩色印刷
【刊号】ISSN 2095-5405
【出版日期】2013年4月
【定价】48.00元

景观伦理
The Ethics of Landscape

作者:托马斯•费希尔   Author: Thomas FISHER

摘要 ……
本文探讨了我们应该如何对待景观所涉及的伦理内涵。文章分为3个部分,从时间和伦理角度来分析景观,得出以下结论:如果我们对自然界的支配地位不加以分析且不应对这一挑战,将无法与我们居住和依存的景观形成可持续发展的关系。
这3个部分依次分析了在责任伦理、契约伦理和结果伦理影响下不同类型的景观。责任伦理通常决定了我们如何看待以某种方式纪念过去的地点,可能是我们祖先的埋葬地,又或是保护野生动物免遭人类侵害的地方;同样,契约伦理定义了我们处理当代景观的典型方法,即以财产所有权决定所有者对土地拥有可对其进行改造的处置权;最后,结果伦理通常引发我们对未来景观的思考,即我们应该如何依照预期结果评价现在的行为。
这一切使我们面临困境:无论我们看起来如何道德地操控景观,为了满足自身需求我们已破坏栖息地、导致其他物种灭绝,我们要如何为自己进行辩护?这一问题涉及道德伦理,不再强调我们对于改变景观的责任,而是应改变自身的私欲和需求。换言之,倘若我们不挑战现存的信念和价值观,将无法履行对自然界的责任。

关键词 ……
伦理学;责任;契约;结果;美德

Abstract ...
This article explores the ethical implications of how we treat landscapes. It lays out a three-part, temporal and ethical analysis of landscape architecture and concludes that without an analysis of and challenge to our assumed dominance over the natural world, we will never achieve a sustainable relationship to the landscapes that we inhabit and depend upon for our survival as a species.
The three-part analysis aligns different types of landscapes with duty, contract, and consequential ethics. Duty ethics often determines how we treat places that memorialize the past in some way, whether it be where our ancestors are buried or where wildlife are protected from human intrusion. Likewise, contract ethics typically defines how we typically approach contemporary landscapes, with property rights determining who gets to manipulate the land and what activities occur there. Finally, consequentialist ethics often drives our thinking about future landscapes, how we should judge our current behavior in terms of its expected consequences.
All of this leaves us with a dilemma: however ethical we might seem in our manipulation of landscapes, how can we justify our damage of habitat and extinction of other species while we accommodate our own needs? That question leads us to virtue ethics, which puts the emphasis not on our responsibilities in altering landscapes, but instead on changing our own expectations about ourselves and our needs. In other words, we cannot fulfill our responsibility to the natural world without challenging our own beliefs and values.

Key words ...
Ethics; Duty; Contracts; Consequences; Virtue

 

无界之城:对中国大学校园规划策略的探索
Framed to Be Open: Exploring the Strategies of  Planning University Campuses in China

作者:何志森、查尔斯•安德森、卡里拉•扎卡里亚   Author: Jason HO, Charles ANDERSON, Khalilah ZAKARIYA

摘要 ……
在追求现代化的过程中,中国展开了大学新校区的建设。这些新校区通常采用一种如同“紫禁城”般的、脱离于周边环境的规划方式。在这种模式下,大多数大学资源被布置在围墙内,而且不允许周边居民使用。这样的布置方式强调了公私分离的政治管理体制,产生了一种带有歧视性的城市排外政策。本文在认识到边界的重要性的同时,也通过重新审视边界在自下而上的过程中,以及共享资源的生产中现有的作用,提出了有别于传统的大学校区总体规划的规划方式。这些规划方式不是提供一种“一次性”的设计方案,而是将真实生活状况视为一种不断变化的过程、一个动态的系统,并制定了一套可以被规划师、城市设计师、建筑师与景观设计师用来重新定义公共与私人边界的策略。

关键词 ……
边界;渗透性;共享资源;区划

Abstract ...
In the quest for modernization, China has embarked upon the construction of new university campuses. These new campuses are often planned in a way similar to the ‘Forbidden City’, isolated from the surrounding context. Under this model, most of the university resources are arranged within boundary walls and not allowed to be used by neighboring residents. This type of arrangement reinforces the politics of public-private separations and produces a discriminating urban policy of exclusion. While acknowledging the significance of boundary the paper speculates alternatives to the traditional master plan of university campus, through re-examining the current role of boundary in the bottom-up process and the production of shared resources. Instead of providing one-off design solutions, the alternatives re-examine a real-life condition as an evolving process and dynamic system through a set of strategies by which planners, urban designers, architects and landscape architects can use in redefining the boundary between public and private. 

Key words ...
Boundary; Permeability; Shared Resource; Zoning

 

技术、环境与人
Technology, Environment and Human Being

作者:吴国盛   Author: Guosheng WU

摘要 ……
过去,我们认为技术是被动的、中性的,只是人类用来达成自我目的的工具。但现在,我们发现技术本身具有某种自主性和能动性。通过技术,人和环境始终处在一种动态的关联之中。技术能动性意味着设计者、技术创作者都无法确切地预知新的技术会带来哪些后果,技术在今天具备强大的引领性的力量。

关键词 ……
技术;环境;人;能动性;动态关联

Abstract ...
We used to believe that technologies were passive and neutral tools for people to achieve their goals. But now we start to realize that technologies have certain autonomy and dynamism. Technology has created the dynamic association of humans and the environment. With the progress of technology, neither designers nor inventors would be able to accurately predict the consequences of new technology. That is why technology today is a strong leading force.

Key words ...
Technology; Environment; Human Being; Dynamism; Dynamic Association

 

设计的理想国
The Utopia of Design

作者:周博   Author: Bo ZHOU

摘要 ……
20世纪60年代由维克多•帕帕奈克提出的“设计伦理”对西方现代设计思想的发展产生了非常深远的影响。这是一种批判性思考,是对过度地看重消费、不重视环境和用户体验的商业设计的反思。本访谈讨论了设计伦理的核心内容,以及道德伦理的思考与设计实践之间的关系。

关键词 ……
设计伦理;维克多•帕帕奈克;道德思考;消费

Abstract ...
The concept of design ethics was first put forward by Victor Papanek in 1960s. It is a rethinking for the commercial design excessively valuing consumption as well as ignoring the environment and users' experience, which has influenced the western design theory deeply. This interview discussed the core content of design ethics, and the relationship between ethical thinking and design practice.

Key words ...
Design Ethics; Victor Papanek; Ethical Thinking; Consumption

 

重赋土地以灵魂—城市景观视觉主义批判
Reviving the Soul of Land — Criticism on Ocularism of Urban Landscape

作者:李溪   Author: Xi LI

摘要 ……
“景观”一词,以及它在西方景观史上的意义,都与权力的象征有着某种联系。这个词语从表面上看与“自然”有着千丝万缕的联系,但无论是“Landscape”一词的最初指涉,还是后来发展起来的“风景园”,其内部都隐藏着人类充满权力的注视目光。通过对“景观”词义发展史的简单梳理,本文将呈现东西方对于景观概念在视觉问题上存在的差异,并对当下景观设计中的视觉主义做出批判。

关键词 ……
景观;视觉主义;自然;栖居

Abstract ...
The word “landscape”, as well as its meaning in the western history of landscape, has something to do with the symbol of power. The word has seemingly countless ties with “nature”, but both the original reference of “landscape” and the landscape garden that rose later has the attentive eye for power hidden inside. By analyzing the development history of the word “landscape,” this paper will highlight the different concepts of "landscape" between the eastern and the western world, and make criticism of "ocularism" in current design of landscape.

Key words ...
Landscape; Ocularism; Nature; Residence

 

一次关于城市景观对人类健康影响的学术对话(上)
A Dialogue on the Impact of Urban Landscape on Human Health (I)

作者:姜斌、威廉•C•苏利文、张俊彦   Author: Bin JIANG, William C. SULLIVAN, Chun-Yen CHANG

摘要 ……
此次对话强调了城市景观对人类身心健康的影响这一议题的重要性。围绕这个主题,从以下4个方面展开了探讨:(1)研究议题的重要性;(2)关于城市景观如何影响身心健康的实证研究证据;(3)城市景观如何影响社会交往;(4)欣赏自然对于健康的益处。对话的最后,探讨了在这一领域展开国际教育合作的可能性。

关键词 ……
城市景观;身心健康;科学证据;社会交往;环境公平

Abstract ...
This dialogue emphasized the importance of exploring multiple impacts of urban landscapes on human health. We identified four main aspects of research on this topic: (1) The importance of this issue; (2) Empirical evidence regarding connection between landscape and human health; (3) How urban landscape influences social interactions; (4) The health benefits of contacting with nature. In the end, we discussed how to develop an international education collaboration in this field.

Key words ...
Urban Landscape; Human Health; Empirical Evidence; Social Interaction; Environmental Justice

 

中外棕地再生案例比较中的环境伦理
Perspective of Environmental Ethics in Brownfield Regeneration through Comparative Case Studies between China and Abroad

作者:曾颖、郑晓笛   Author: Ying ZENG, Xiaodi ZHENG

摘要 ……
随着我国城市化的不断发展,过度开发自然资源及粗放的工业活动导致了土地污染与环境恶化,引发了一系列涉及棕地再开发的环境安全事件。在景观行业内,中外均已开展了相当数量的实践活动。应对棕地问题,迫切需要我们建立协调人与自然环境关系的环境伦理意识。通过对国内外棕地再生案例中的环境伦理观进行比较研究,分析其异同,本文希望从环境伦理角度为应对当前和未来的棕地再开发中面临的挑战提供一些借鉴。

关键词 ……
景观设计;棕地;环境伦理;环境公正;再生;比较研究

Abstract ...
With the continuous development of urbanization in China, excessive exploitation and use of natural resources and extensive industrialization have resulted in land pollution and environmental degradation, and triggered a series of environmental safety issues associated with brownfield regeneration. A considerable amount of practice has been carried out across the world in the field of landscape architecture. Brownfield regeneration urges us to recognize environmental ethics in seeking harmony between human and nature. By comparing and studying the similarities and differences between Chinese and foreign brownfield regeneration projects, this paper aims to provide insights from the perspective of environmental ethics to help us confront with the challenges from current and future brownfield regeneration practice.

Key words ...
Landscape Architecture; Brownfield; Environmental Ethics; Environmental Justice; Regeneration; Comparative Study

 

非正规垂直社区:委内瑞拉加拉加斯市大卫塔
Informal Vertical Communities : Torre David in Caracas, Venezuela

作者:U-TT建筑与都市主义实践事务所   Author: Urban-Think Tank

摘要 ……
大卫塔,这座委内瑞拉第三高、伫立于加拉加斯市前中央商务区核心地带的45层的高楼,随着其开发商的离世,以及1994年委内瑞拉金融危机的到来,失去了财团的资金支持,逐渐被遗弃,并成为流民的聚集地。现在,它已成为一个自发形成并不断扩容的自组织社区,为750多个家庭提供了住所,一些人称之为“垂直的贫民窟”。设计团队的干预方案旨在改善居民的生活状况,减少能量消耗,降低碳排放量,从而使整个结构自给自足。

关键词 ……
大卫塔;垂直社区;贫民区;设计干预

Abstract ...
Torre David, the third tallest building in Venezuela, stands at an impressive 45 floors in the heart of Caracas’ former central business district. In the wake of the 1994 Venezuelan banking crisis the developer passed away and the financial group supporting the construction collapsed, leaving the building abandoned and a magnet for squatters. Today it is the improvised, continually revised home for more than 750 families living as a self-organized community in what some have called a vertical slum. The project team designed interventions to improve the residents’ living conditions, reduce energy consumption and render the structure self-sufficient.

Key words ...
Torre David; Vertical Community; Slum; Design Intervention

 

共享设计的交互平台:澳大利亚凯兰园区总体规划
An Interactive Platform for Shared Design: The Callan Park Master Plan, Australia

作者:McGregor Coxall景观与城市设计事务所   Author: McGregor Coxall

摘要 ……
McGregor Coxall景观与城市设计事务所受委托为位于罗泽尔地区的占地面积61hm2的凯兰园区制定总体规划、融资模式及管理计划。这片场地曾是悉尼最具政治敏感性和争议性的公共场地之一。在该项目中,McGregor Coxall运用了澳大利亚最富创新性的社区参与策略,使用了一种世界领先的互联网交互工具:www.callanparkyourplan.com.au。在收集了1 600位用户的90 000页反馈意见,以及经过无数次社区讨论会后,设计团队为一个“健康保护区”制定了总体规划。规划在一种历史景观的背景下,通过教育与研究,提供现代化的身心医疗服务。该规划使得凯兰园区能够成为未来悉尼内西区最具地方代表性的公共财富。

关键词 ……
咨询;社区参与;总体规划;创新;健康;互动

Abstract ...
McGregor Coxall was appointed to develop a master plan, financial model and plan of management for the 61 hm2 Callan Park site in Rozelle. It has a history as one of the most politically sensitive and contentious public sites in Sydney. To deliver this project they developed the most innovative community engagement strategy ever undertaken in Australia utilising a world-leading interactive web tool www.callanparkyourplan.com.au. After 90,000 page views of feedback from 1,600 users and numerous community workshops, the team developed a master plan for a Wellness Sanctuary. The plan includes modern mental and physical health services with education and research in an historic landscape setting. The plan secures the future of Callan Park as a regionally significant public asset for Sydney's inner west.

Key words ...
Consultation; Community Engagement; Master Plan; Innovative; Health; Interactive

 

画个圆圈介入自然—辽宁兴城一等海公寓外部景观设计
Draw a Circle in Nature— Landscape Design for High End Ocean Apartment in Xingcheng, Liaoning

作者:房木生   Author: Musheng FANG

摘要 ……
设计师通过设置一个简单、完整的圆形路径,将人带入一片树林中,并由此展开人与自然的各种对话,从而阐释人工与自然之永恒的景观设计主题。

关键词 ……
景观设计;人工;自然;圆圈;介入

Abstract ...
The design of this project uses a simple, circular path, which can bring people into the woods. It launches conversations between human and nature, thus the checks and balances between them, the eternal theme of landscape architecture is revisited.

Key words ...
Landscape Architecture; Man-made; Nature; Circle; Intervention

 

苏州太湖沿岸慢行步道(示范段)设计
Design of the Bicycle and Pedestrian Trail along Taihu Lake (Demonstration Part), Suzhou

作者:苏州致朗景观设计顾问有限公司   Author: Z-land Landscape Design & Consulting, Inc.

摘要 ……
项目位于苏州高新区沿太湖的湖岸线上,开阔的湖景与连绵的绿色吸引了附近镇区的居民和远道而来的游客。本项目通过寻求对植被和环境影响最小的慢行线路,同时采用当地的材料与工法来表现地缘景观的特色,最终呈现出与自然环境极为融合的设计方案。

关键词 ……
低影响;慢行;地缘景观

Abstract …
With an expansive lake view and a vast stretch of green grassland, the site, which is located along the shore of Taihu Lake in Suzhou New District, has attracted residents nearby and visitors from afar. By designing a bicycle and pedestrian route with the minimum impact on the surrounding vegetation and environment, the project tries to feature the geo-landscape with local materials and construction methods, and has managed to come up with a design in perfect harmony with its natural environment.

Key words …
Minimum Impact; Bicycle and Pedestrian; Geo-landscape

 

法国南特市布缇尔-橡树生态区设计
Bottière-Chênaie Eco-district in Nantes, France

作者:安妮-西尔维•布乃尔   Author: Anne-Sylvie BRUEL

摘要 ……
布缇尔-橡树生态区项目植根于当地的历史和地理条件。其设计通过凸显当地的特色来决定如何在场地中对项目进行安置,以及如何将该项目作为一个整体来定位,在过去农耕时代遗留下来的地块框架上衍生出了新的公园和公共空间。

关键词 ……
法国;生态区;场地历史;雨洪管理

Abstract ...
The Bottière Chênaie Project was rooted in the site's history and geography. Our work looks to express these attributes in order to anchor the project in the site, to position it as a single place. The park and the public spaces are in keeping with the framework of parcels from the past agricultural occupation.

Key words ...
France; Eco-district; Site History; Stormwater Management

 

福州古窑址公园(淮安国宾馆)景观生态保护设计
Ecological Protection Landscape Design of Ancient Kilns Park (Huai’an State Guesthouse), Fuzhou

作者:成都景虎国际景观设计有限责任公司   Author: International Landhoo of Chengdu Landscape Design Co., Ltd.

摘要 ……
福州古窑址公园一期(淮安国宾馆)在建设过程中面临保护与有限利用的双重问题。设计过程中,景观设计师需要通过综合的专业知识和技巧使二者达到和谐与统一,具体涉及与保护地下文物有关的场地标高、古树复壮、规划选线等问题。通过各方的努力,呈现一个集生态保护与历史文化于一体的特色公园。

关键词 ……
生态保护;文化遗存;古树复壮

Abstract ...
During the construction process, the Ancient Kilns Park in Fuzhou faces dual problems of how to protect the site with limited use. In the process of design, landscape architects need both comprehensive professional knowledge and skills to achieve the goal of balancing and harmonizing the two major demands, especially upon the issues related to the protection of underground cultural relics, including site elevation, ancient trees rejuvenation and routes selection. Through efforts on all aspects, the Ancient Kilns Park presents a feature as the combination of ecological conservation and history and culture of the site.

Key words ...
Ecological Conservation; Culture Heritage; Ancient Tree Rejuvenation

 

炸弹、树木和黄金:老挝战后景观重建中采矿与排雷的同化过程
Bombs, Wood and Gold: Synchronizing the Processes of Mining and Demining in the Post-war Landscape of Laos

作者:陆小璇   Author: Xiaoxuan LU

摘要 ……
该项目提出要在资源开采与战后金属循环经济之间建立新的联系,通过重建因战争而伤痕累累的景观,进而改善民生。这是一种“以开采金矿进行排弹”的战略。仍残留着越南战争留下的8 000万余枚炸弹的老挝战后景观,成为重新思索采矿过程的契机;同时,矿藏勘探和采挖过程也将成为复原和重建这片危险之地的重要机制。

关键词 ……
战后景观;战后金属循环;粮食生产;资源开采;森林砍伐

Abstract ...
The project poses a new linkage between resource extraction and post-war metal cycling economies, strengthening a livelihood that heals a war-scarred landscape. It proposes a strategy of "demining bombs by mining gold". The bomb-soaked landscape of Laos, which has 80 million unexploded bombs left over from the Vietnam War, provides an opportunity to rethink the processes of mining. Simultaneously, mineral exploration and excavation processes become mechanisms of rehabilitating and reconstructing the hazardous ground.

Key words ...
Post-war Landscape; Post-war Metal Cycling; Food Production; Resource Extraction; Deforestation

 

边界都市主义:重绘朝鲜和韩国之间的非军事区
Borders as Urbanism: Redrawing the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) between Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and Republic of Korea

作者:金东世   Author: Dongsei KIM

摘要 ……
面对全球边界数量不断增加的情况以及全球化迅速发展带来的紧张局势,设计师对于边界“建设-运营-解体”机制的理解与应对手段仍然非常有限。在这样的背景下,本文对“边界都市主义”这一新的概念框架体系进行了概述。该体系将边界视作一种通过持续不断的空间性协商作用所产生的复杂空间状态。文中对研究的起源、目标及其背后更为广阔的背景进行了讨论,揭示出在都市主义背景下,边界由“物体”到“过程”这一不断演变的呈现方式,以及在地缘政治学语境下边界变化的趋势与状态。随后,本文阐述了理解边界的“4种视角”,即“历史-壁垒-流动-全球性”,是在不同因素的共同作用下形成的,并运用这4种视角来检验世界上军事化程度最高、局势最为紧张、最为封闭的边界之一——朝韩非军事区。

关键词 ……
边界;非军事区;地缘政治学;地图绘制;都市主义

Abstract ...
Despite the increasing number of borders and tensions in the rapidly globalizing world, designers’ understanding of the agency within the borders’ “construction-operation-deconstruction” process has been limited. Within this context, a brief reflection of how the new conceptual framework of “Border as Urbanism,” one which understands a border as a complex spatial condition that emerge from a series of continuous spatial negotiations is outlined. The origin, intention, and the larger background of the research are described. The evolving representations of borders in urbanism from an “object” to a “process” and current trends and conditions of borders within geopolitics are additionally unfolded. This then leads to how the “four lenses” of “History-Barrier-Flows-Global” are formulated as a result of this interdisciplinary synthesis, and this is applied to one of the most militarized, effective, closed border in the world, the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ).

Key words ...
Border; Demilitarized Zone (DMZ); Geopolitics; Mapping; Urbanism