《景观设计学》2013年第4期

作    者:安琪•施托克曼(Antje STOKMAN)、俞孔坚(Kongjian YU)等
类    别:景观
出 版 社:高等教育出版社有限公司
出版时间:2013年8月

导言 目录 作品信息 书评

俞孔坚•两条远方的河流
——《景观设计学》2013年第4期“主编寄语”
Two Rivers in a Distant Place — Editorial of the No. 4 Issue for 2013, Landscape Architecture Frontiers
By Kongjian Yu


     最近,因为两条美丽河流的召唤,我做了一次远行,但结果却令我忧伤。
     这是两条流淌在内蒙古高原上的河流,一条名为哈拉哈河,另一条名为伊敏河。哈拉哈河艰难地行走在阿尔山的火山岩中,时而钻入岩壳之下,不留痕迹,如同顽皮的孩童;时而因堰塞而成湖泊,静若处子,饱含羞涩;时而穿破坚硬的玄武岩,形成跌宕的激流,泛起白色的浪花,欢快地在岩壁间与白桦林间奔流,像是充满活力的躁动的青年。在那河流之上,我看到漂流的人们奋力划动橘色的橡皮筏,兴奋地搏击着迎面而来的浪花;而在岸上,三三两两的游客说说笑笑,漫步在木栈道上,游走于白桦林间。在阅尽阿尔山的绵绵山峦、妙曼云雾和苍茫林海之后,哈拉哈河最终流向广阔无垠的呼伦贝尔草原,汇入中国和蒙古国共有的美丽湖泊——贝尔湖。
     伊敏河则更像是持重而安详的母亲,缓缓地流淌在辽阔的草原上,敞开母爱的怀抱,接纳来自八方的、恣意流淌的泉流;以无限的温存,像一条松散的绸带,蜿蜒在被当地牧民称为“父亲”的呼伦贝尔草原之上,雕刻出一片片月牙形的沙洲。这些留存在河中的沙洲,成为了植被茂密的湿地。两岸的草地一直延伸到水边,成群的牛羊在草地上自由地嬉戏。我看到岸边垂钓的人们,在接受母亲河慷慨的馈赠的同时,也收获了无限的欢乐和满足。
     这是两条有着不同性格的河流,却都同样无私地向人们奉献着她们所能给予的一切。如果能够得到善待,她们还将持续地、无止尽地如此奉献。生态学家们将这种奉献称之为生态服务,包括:供给服务——提供食物和洁净的水源;调节服务——调节洪涝和干旱、气温之寒暑,净化水质;生命承载服务——为众多的生物提供栖息地,以及繁衍和迁徙的通道;文化服务——提供诸如审美、启智、身心再生和精神寄托。
     然而,这两条身处祖国偏远边疆的河流,却和中国大地上千万条大大小小的河流一样,面临着同样的厄运。就在哈拉哈河流经的河谷滩地上,一个旅游小镇正在如火如荼地兴建着。那埋葬在美丽草甸之下已万年之久的黑色草炭被挖开,潜涌在地下的泉水被排干,而下游的河水也变得不再清丽;水泥防洪堤将蜿蜒的自然河道渠化成狭窄的、僵直的水沟,并在防洪大堤上修建了高速公路。欢快而鲜活的哈拉哈河瞬间失去了生命,如同魅力无限的少女变成了一具糜烂的尸体。
     同样,就在伊敏河流经并哺育的海拉尔市,我也看到了她的悲戚:多台采砂机正拖着长长的锈色铁管,吃力地抽取水底的河砂,如同吸血鬼在贪婪地允吸着一个美丽生命的骨髓。两岸的河柳与杨林早已被砍去,沙洲上丰富多彩的花甸已变成深浅不一的乱石坑,滞留下一汪汪浑浊的死水,如同美丽肌肤上溃烂的疮痍。而一项宏伟的水利工程和河道景观工程正在轰轰烈烈地上演:高高的防洪堤将挤压原本宽阔的河漫滩,迫使水流只能在狭窄的水泥河道中流过;恢弘的建筑物将在河堤两岸的大片湿地和草甸上拔地而起;至少三条橡胶坝将在河道上建造,渴望令呼伦贝尔成为一座“美丽的水城”。这项号称投资40亿的“河道美化工程”将彻底改变这温存如母亲的伊敏河的命运。
     这两条地处偏远边疆的美丽河流的厄运令我忧伤,因为我已确信,那屠杀河流生命的恶魔已无处不在,并且竟如此地肆无忌惮。是无知?是贪婪?是腐败?是道德的沦丧?抑或是设计专业的苍白无力?我因此再次呼吁:救救远方的哈拉哈河,救救伊敏河,救救曾给予我们和我们的祖先以恩惠,并还将恩泽千万后代的每一条河流!善待河流吧,因为善待河流就是善待人类自己。




Recently I traveled to two previously beautiful rivers, but the result I found was sad and depressing.
   
    The two rivers were the Halaha River and Yimin River in the Inner Mongolian Plateau. The Halaha snakes laboriously among the volcanic rocks of the Arxan Mountains. From time to time she steals into the rock caves without a trace, like a mischievous kid; sometimes she rests in a lake, like a quiet and timid girl; other times she penetrates the hard basalt, running cheerfully among the
rocks and silver birches like an energetic and restless youngster. It was on this part of the Halaha that I saw orange rubber rafts carried by the current and filled with excited people confronting the rapids, many tourists chatted and laughed on shore while walking among silver birches. After passing through the neighboring mountains, amiss a sea of mysterious clouds, fog, and forest, the Halaha River flowed across the Hulun Buir Grassland, into beautiful lakes on the Chinese and Mongolian boarder, and finally into Buir Lake.

    The Yimin, by contrast, meanders vast and flat grassland, like a gentle and peaceful mother opening her arms, full of maternal love, and embracing the flow of water from any direction. With infinite tenderness, like a roll of loose ribbon, the Yimin River carves out crescent sandbanks on the Hulun Buir Grassland, a region known as “father” by the local herdsmen. The sandbanks retained in the river become wetlands with lush vegetation. Grassland extends to the water, where flocks of cattle and sheep play and graze. On the banks people fish, receiving generous gifts from the mother river, delightedly and contently.

    These two rivers are physically different but offer whatever they could in the same way. If treated nicely, they would continue to offer what ecologists called “ecological services”. Both rivers provide services such as supply (of food and clean water), adjustment (of discharge in flood and drought times, temperature in cold and hot seasons, and water purification), life carrying (of providing habitats and migratory passages for a large amount of living creatures), and culture (such as aesthetic appreciation, intellectual inspiration, physical and mental recovery, and a place to put hopes).

    However, these two rivers are threatened in the same way that hundreds of rivers in China are threatened. During my visit, the beaches of the Halaha River were buzzing with construction for a new tourist town. Black peat, which had been buried below the beautiful meadow for thousands of decades, was being dug out, underground streams were being drained, and the lower reach of the river was no longer clean. The natural meandering water had been channelized with cement flood control embankments, transforming the river into a narrow and hardened ditch, all for the purpose of constructing highway embankments. The delightful and fresh Halaha had lost her vitality in a flash, like a charming girl instantly turned into a decomposing, dead body.

    Similarly, in Hailar, where the Yimin River passes, I saw her ruefulness. A row of dredging vehicles, connected with long, rusted iron pipes, were sucking sand from the riverbed, like a greedy vampire sucking bone marrow from a beautiful life. Willows and poplars had been cut down and removed from both banks, and the once colorful flowerbeds on the sandbanks were now
filled with quarries, ponding stagnant water, like an ulcer on beautiful skin. A new monumental water conservancy project was forcing the river to be re-channelized. The new flood control embankments will compress the flood plain, forcing the river to flow into a narrow cement river course. Grand buildings are planned in the wetlands and meadows on both sides of the river. Finally, at least three rubber dams will be built on the river to complete the vision of making Hulun Buir a “beautiful water city”. In total, four billion RMB have been invested in this “river beautification project” that will, by the time it is completed, have drastically changed the destiny of Yimin, the mother river.

    I was saddened and downhearted by the misfortune experienced by these two remote and beautiful rivers. I felt certain that the devil butchering these rivers has brewed massacres everywhere. But why? Is it ignorance? Or greed? Or corruption? Or lost morals? Or the powerlessness of design? In response to what I have seen firsthand, I would like to once again make an appeal: Please save the Halaha River, please save the Yimin River, and please save every river that has provided gifts to our ancestors and will continue to provide gifts to our future generations. Treat the rivers well, for their fate is tied to ours.

主编寄语(俞孔坚)

论文
城市湿地建设的战略性途径:自然保护、工程与景观设计的融合(安琪•施托克曼、约翰内斯•约尔格)
景观绩效:湿地治理系统和自然化景观的量化效益与经验总结(李明翰、布鲁斯•德沃夏克、罗毅、马特•鲍姆加登)

观点与评论
土壤:水系统中被忽视的向度(张志维)
基于自然过程的人工干预下的水系统生态设计(郑曦)
人性化的城市雨水景观设计对策(孙鹏、王志芳、姜芊孜、王华清)
关于中国“风景园林学”的5个问题(杨锐)

原创实践
跨尺度的城市水系生态设计:昆明滇池水系绿道(俞孔坚、孙鹏、贾军)
基于现实的生态建设—杭州“西溪里”项目景观设计与思考(盛梅)
芜湖商务文化中心中央公园(奥雅设计集团)
荷兰费尔森市维克格公园(Bureau B+B城市规划与景观设计事务所)
荷兰阿姆斯福特市法特霍斯特社区总体规划(West 8城市规划与景观设计事务所)
荷兰鹿特丹市班特布雷水广场(DE URBANISTEN城市研究和设计工作室)

探索与过程
林中物流:描绘瓦尔登湖及其全球本土化资源传递(梅格•斯杜德)
曼谷水文和农业网络的重新构想(川•苏帕旺斯)

 

Editorial (by Kongjian YU)

Papers
Strategic Approaches to Urban Wetlands: Reconciling Nature Conservation, Engineering
and Landscape Architecture (by Antje STOKMAN, Johannes JÖRG)
Landscape Performance: Quantified Benefits and Lessons Learned from a Treatment Wetland System and Naturalized Landscapes (by Ming-Han LI, Bruce DVORAK, Yi LUO, Matt BAUMGARTEN)

Views and Criticisms
Soil: the Unseen Layer of Water (by Chih-Wei G. V. CHANG)
Ecological Water System Design under Human Intervention Based on Natural Processes (by Xi ZHENG)
People-oriented Design Solutions in Urban Rainwater Landscapes (by Peng SUN, Zhifang WANG, Qianzi JIANG, Huaqing WANG)
Five Questions about Landscape Architecture in China (by Rui YANG)

Original Practices
Ecologies for an Urban River System across Scales: Dianchi Greenways in Kunming (by Kongjian YU, Peng SUN, Jun JIA)
Building an Environmental Friendly Community — Design and Review on Xixi Village in Hangzhou (by Mei SHENG)
Central Park of the Central Commercial and Cultural District, Wuhu (by L&A Design Group)
Wijkeroogpark in Velsen, the Netherlands (by Bureau B+B Urban Design and Landscape Architecture)
Master Plan for Vathorst in Amersfoort, the Netherlands (by West 8 urban design & landscape architecture b.v.)
Water Square Benthemplein in Rotterdam, the Netherlands (by DE URBANISTEN)

Experiments and Processes
Logistics in the Woods: Mapping Walden and its Glocal Resource Relays (by Meg STUDER)
Re-envisioning Bangkok’s Hydro and Agro Network (by Chon SUPAWONGSE)

【中文刊名】《景观设计学》——水系统生态设计
【英文刊名】Landscape Architecture Frontiers • Ecological Water System Design
【作者】安琪•施托克曼(Antje STOKMAN)、俞孔坚(Kongjian YU)等
【出版社】高等教育出版社有限公司
【页码】166页彩色印刷
【刊号】ISSN 2095-5405
【出版日期】2013年8月
【定价】48.00元

城市湿地建设的战略性途径:自然保护、工程与景观设计的融合
Strategic Approaches to Urban Wetlands: Reconciling Nature Conservation, Engineering and Landscape Architecture

作者:安琪•施托克曼、约翰内斯•约尔格   Author: Antje STOKMAN, Johannes JÖRG

摘要 ……
湿地是世界上最具生产力,同时也是最为濒危的生态系统之一。城市化是湿地面临的一项主要威胁。在城市环境中,与湿地相伴而生的是与水相关的疾病、洪水、污染以及恶劣的生活环境,这样的状况已持续了相当长的一段时间。
自20世纪末,人们对待湿地的态度发生了根本性的转变:《拉姆萨尔湿地公约》的提出强调了湿地在自然保护方面的诸多积极的价值,并且推动了湿地管理新概念的产生以消减其健康隐患。同时,工程学大力倡导人工湿地和生物过滤池能够有效地吸收并净化来自雨洪径流、废水,以及受污河流中的污染物这一理念。景观设计将具有审美与娱乐价值的城市湿地公园与生态和技术要素整合在一起,发展出了更为出色的理念,展示出在城市环境中,湿地恢复与建造这一综合性的战略途径所具有的巨大潜力。本文呈现了有关城市湿地的不同观点,并且对相应的案例如何在城市生态系统中发挥重要作用进行了讨论。

关键词 ……
整合设计;景观基础设施;生态系统绩效;生态工程;人工湿地;水资源综合管理

Abstract ...
Wetlands are at the same time among the most productive and the most threatened ecosystems of the world. One of the major threats for wetlands is urbanization. In the urban context there is a long history of associating wetlands with a number of water-related diseases, floods, pollution and poor living conditions.
Since the end of the 20th century, there has been a paradigm shift in the attitude towards wetlands: the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands has promoted the importance of new concepts of wetland management in order to reduce health hazards by highlighting the many positive wetland values from the perspective of nature conservation. At the same time, engineering has broadly introduced the concept of constructed wetlands and biofilters as a way of effectively trapping and removing the pollution from stormwater run-off, wastewater and polluted river water. Linking the ecological and technical dimensions and integrating them with the high aesthetic and recreational value of urban wetland parks, landscape architecture has developed fascinating concepts demonstrating the high potential of an integrated strategic approach to the recovery and creation of wetlands in the urban context. This paper brings together these different perspectives on urban wetlands and argues by discussing different case-studies how wetlands can take a prominent role in urban ecosystems.

Key words ...
Integrated Design; Landscape Infrastructure; Ecosystem Performance; Ecological Engineering; Constructed Wetland; Integrated Water Management

 

景观绩效:湿地治理系统和自然化景观的量化效益与经验总结
Landscape Performance: Quantified Benefits and Lessons Learned from a Treatment Wetland System and Naturalized Landscapes

作者:李明翰、布鲁斯•德沃夏克、罗毅、马特•鲍姆加登   Author: Ming-Han LI, Bruce DVORAK, Yi LUO, Matt BAUMGARTEN

摘要 ……
根据景观设计基金会的定义,景观绩效是一项“衡量景观解决方案在实现其预设目标的同时满足可持续性方面的效率的指标”。景观绩效在近些年成为了一个非常热门的研究焦点,其理论框架建立在可持续性的三元体系之上:环境、经济和社会。建成景观设施的绩效可通过其环境、经济和社会效益的量化结果得到体现。本文记述了一项对一个范围约1 300hm2、采用了湿地治理系统和自然化景观的总体规划性社区所进行的景观绩效调查,并对其中的经验进行了总结。研究团队确定了环境、经济和社会衡量标准,收集了能够反映出该系统绩效成果的数据,并对水质、土壤肥力和草本植物多样性进行了调查。此外,研究团队还对潜在和实际利益进行了量化,包括固碳,以及通过减少草坪修剪、肥料施用和用于灌溉的饮用水而节省成本。文中对环境、经济和社会方面的效益成果进行了讨论,并对建设过程中和建成之后各个阶段的管理和维护事项的相关经验进行了总结。

关键词 ……
雨洪;水质;景观维护;草原;景观感知

Abstract ...
Landscape performance, as defined by the Landscape Architecture Foundation, is “the measure of efficiency with which landscape solutions fulfill their intended purpose and contribute toward sustainability.” It is becoming a popular research focus in recent years; and its theoretical framework is built upon the sustainability triad: environment, economy and society. Through the quantification of environmental, economic and social benefits of a built landscape, its performance can be determined. This paper presents results from a landscape performance investigation and the lessons learned from a 3,200-acre master planned community that employs a treatment wetland system and naturalized landscapes. The research team identified environmental, economic and social metrics, and then collected data that reveals the performance results of the installed systems. Water quality, soil fertility, and herbaceous plant diversity were investigated. In addition, the research team quantified potential and actual benefits, including sequestration of carbon dioxide, and cost savings through the use of reduced mowing, fertilizer use, and reduction of irrigation with potable water. Environmental, economic and social benefit results are discussed. Lessons learned from management and maintenance issues during and post construction phases are summarized.

Key words ...
Stormwater; Water Quality; Landscape Maintenance; Prairie; Landscape Perception

 

土壤:水系统中被忽视的向度
Soil: The Unseen Layer of Water

作者:张志维   Author: Chih-Wei G. V. CHANG

摘要 ……
健康的土壤在水文中扮演着调节水量与控制水质的重要角色,对于水与土之间相互影响的忽视,往往是造成水系统设计失败的原因。例如,土壤过度夯实或结构遭到破坏,会在雨洪管理中影响土壤的渗透率与保水力,因而增加地表径流;土壤中有机质的流失,会降低土壤的净水效能,破坏营养物质与沉积物,从而导致水污染。为了将土壤知识纳入景观设计工作中,本文建议在设计过程中增加土壤管理专项。其中与水系统相关的最佳实践包括:1)保护既有的土壤以保持原有水文;2)避免及改善土壤夯实以增加保水率;3)保存及重建土壤有机质以改善水质。

关键词 ……
健康土壤;土壤夯实;土壤有机质流失;雨洪管理;土壤保护;土壤管理

Abstract ...
Healthy soil performs important functions in regulating water volume and controlling water quality. However, overlooking such dynamics between soil and water often leads to design misassumption and water system failure. For instance, the compacted soil and disturbed soil profile result in poor water retaining capacity and increased surface runoff. The organic matter loss decrease soil’s effectiveness at binding and breaking down nutrients and sediments, which further pollute the water system. To incorporate soil sciences in design and construction processes, implementing a soil management plan is suggested. The best soil practices for water system includes 1) Protecting soil structure to conserve hydrological performance; 2) Avoiding and amending soil compaction to increase water retaining capacity; 3) Conserving and restoring soil performance in water cleansing.

Key words ...
Healthy Soil; Soil Compaction; Soil Organic Loss; Stormwater Management; Soil Conservation; Soil Management

 

基于自然过程的人工干预下的水系统生态设计
Ecological Water System Design under Human Intervention Based on Natural Processes

作者:郑曦   Author: Xi ZHENG

摘要 ……
水系统生态设计是一种利用人工干预的方式,介入自然过程、调节人居环境的工程化的生态处理方式。本文探讨了水系统生态设计的内涵、不同尺度的水系统之间的关联,并结合具体项目说明如何进行水系统生态设计与建设,以及古代理水理念对于当代水系统生态设计的借鉴意义。

关键词 ……
水系统;生态设计;人工干预;古代理水理念

Abstract ...
Ecological water system design is an approach to ecological engineering that intervenes natural processes and regulates the living environment through human intervention. This article discusses the scope of ecological water system design and the relationships between water systems at different scales. Citing several built projects, this paper illustrates how to construct ecological water systems, while also analyzing the instructive significance of ancient water management to current methods of ecological water system design.

Key words ...
Water System; Ecological Design; Human Intervention; Ancient Water Management Concept

 

人性化的城市雨水景观设计对策
People-oriented Design Solutions in Urban Rainwater Landscapes

作者:孙鹏、王志芳、姜芊孜、王华清   Author: Peng SUN, Zhifang WANG, Qianzi JIANG, Huaqing WANG

摘要 ……
城市雨洪综合利用的根本目的在于促进地方水文的良性循环,解决地方水问题。城市是人类活动的集中地区,城市中的大多数工程设施都无可避免地要考虑人的使用需求,然而这一点却常常为传统的工程设计所忽视。本文提出了两种人性化的城市雨洪综合利用对策—弹性对策以及防御对策,并归纳总结了针对不同策略的设计手法,以期进一步促进雨洪综合利用在城市中的推广,从而构建城市中的“人水和谐”。

关键词 ……
人类活动;景观设计;城市水文;雨洪利用

Abstract ...
The fundamental purpose of the comprehensive utilization of urban stormwater is to improve the cycle of local hydrology, and respond to local water issues. Most of urban engineering facilities cannot avoid considering human uses and needs, because a city is a concentrated area of human activities. However, this point is often overlooked by the traditional design in engineering. In this paper, two people-oriented design strategies of comprehensive stormwater utilization are proposed: adaptive strategy and protective strategy. Moreover, it summarizes the design solutions for different strategies to further promote the comprehensive stormwater utilization in cities to establish a harmonious relationship between human and water.

Key words ...
Human Activities; Landscape Design; Urban Hydrology; Stormwater Utilization

 

关于中国“风景园林学”的5个问题
Five Questions about Landscape Architecture in China

作者:杨锐   Author: Rui YANG

摘要 ……
本文从“风景园林学”的学科名称展开,分别就5个问题进行了讨论:在新一轮的国家学科调整中,为何会将“风景园林学”定为一级学科的名称?“学科”的概念以及建设“风景园林学术共同体”的重要性?风景园林学的前景如何?中国的风景园林学所要解决的关键问题是什么?以及当代中国需要怎样的风景园林学?

关键词 ……
风景园林学;学科发展;名称;风景园林共同体;当代中国

Abstract ...
Using the discipline name of “Landscape Architecture” as a framework, this article addresses five questions: Why did “Feng Jing Yuan Lin Xue (风景园林学)” become the Chinese name for the discipline of landscape architecture during the national disciplinary adjustment? What is the concept of “Discipline” and the significance of “Landscape Architecture Academic Community”? What is the future trajectory of landscape architecture in China? What are the key issues that need to be addressed by landscape architecture in China? And what kind of landscape architecture does contemporary China need?

Key words ...
Landscape Architecture; Discipline Development; Name; Landscape Architecture Academic Community; Contemporary China

 

跨尺度的城市水系生态设计:昆明滇池水系绿道
Ecologies for an Urban River System across Scales: Dianchi Greenways in Kunming

作者:俞孔坚、孙鹏、贾军   Author: Kongjian YU, Peng SUN, Jun JIA

摘要 ……
本项目对昆明滇池治理问题提出了系统的解决方案,通过建构生态安全格局,将35条流入滇池的河流作为水生态净化系统和过滤器。整合雨洪利用系统、生物栖息地网络、文化遗产网络,以及自行车和步行绿道,构成一个综合解决城市水环境问题的生态基础设施。项目对绿道系统周边的土地利用进行调整,力求通过解决河流生态恢复、两岸雨污治理、提高土地利用综合效益、增强河流吸引力等问题,实现生态效益、社会效益和经济效益的最大化,还昆明以宁静、美丽、健康和充满活力的母亲河。

关键词 ……
生态安全格局;跨尺度设计;生态恢复;雨洪管理

Abstract ...
The project launches a systematic planning for the Dianchi Lake pollution treatment. An ecological security pattern is set up and 35 rivers flowing into Dianchi Lake are taken as ecological water purification system and filters. The stormwater collection system, bio-habitant network, cultural heritage and greenways for bicycles and pedestrians are integrated as an ecological infrastructure to solve urban water environment problems in a comprehensive way. It adjusts the land use surrounding the greenway system, and attempts to maximize the benefit of ecology, citizens and economics through river ecological restoration, rain sewage management, improvement of land use efficiency. Finally, Panlong River, the mother river of Kunming, would be revitalized to be peaceful, beautiful, healthy and active.

Key words ...
Ecological Security Pattern; Cross-scale Design; Ecological Restoration; Stormwater Management

 

基于现实的生态建设—杭州“西溪里”项目景观设计与思考
Building an Environmental Friendly Community— Design and Review on Xixi Village in Hangzhou

作者:盛梅   Author: Mei SHENG

摘要 ……
本项目是一个在综合雨水管理指导下完成的景观设计作品,通过雨水工程师与景观设计师的合作,室外空间与生态雨水系统形成充分融合、相互依存的关系,使环境的生态可持续性和品质得以保证。同时,通过在项目实施中暴露出的矛盾,本文对景观设计行业发展中一些尚待解决的问题进行了讨论。

关键词 ……
综合雨水管理;可持续设计;政府规范;绿色基础设施;专业衔接;专业教育

Abstract ...
The design of Xixi Village is a project guided by the Low Impact Development principles. Through collaborations between landscape architects and engineers, an integrated stormwater system has been created within a community’s outdoor space and water features, providing a showcase of environment-friendly development. Through the process of this project, issues of collaboration between architects, landscape architects and engineers were exposed and addressed. Longstanding practices of stormwater management must be challenged to assure sustainable development that would reduce flooding, improve water quality and enhance overall living quality.

Key words ...
Stormwater Management; Sustainable Design; Government Regulations; Green Infrastructure; Inter-disciplinary Collaboration; Professional Education

 

芜湖商务文化中心中央公园
Central Park of the Central Commercial and Cultural District, Wuhu

作者:奥雅设计集团   Author: L&A Design Group

摘要 ……
该项目位于芜湖商务文化中心,为占地48hm2的带状城市公共绿地。景观规划运用了“河、道、丘、林”四大要素,打造出一条“山水间的绿飘带”,并结合周边城市功能,布置了林荫山地园、雕塑园等8个主题园区。为了保证公园的生态功能,项目采用一系列如石笼驳岸与生态草沟等低成本的环保设计元素,彰显出“可持续发展”的生态设计理念。

关键词 ……
中央公园;主题园;生态;河道

Abstract ...
The recent construction of the Wuhu commercial and cultural district created a dynamic commercial space while also establishing an ecologically functional landscape nestled within a high-density urban area. Using a series of low-cost methods such as stone gabions, bioswales, and native planting, the design successfully turned 3.2 kilometers of undeveloped land with poor soil and consistent flooding into an active and popular urban park, providing a vegetative leisure space for the local community.

Key words ...
Central Park; Theme Park; Ecology; Waterway

 

荷兰费尔森市维克格公园
Wijkeroogpark in Velsen, the Netherlands

作者:Bureau B+B城市规划与景观设计事务所   Author: Bureau B+B Urban Design and Landscape Architecture

摘要 ……
古老的斯奇比克河在维克格公园中得到了重现,与公园延伸空间中新建的步行道和自行车道相互呼应。河流时隐时现,仿佛在和游客们捉迷藏。精心设计的混凝土河堤和自然式河岸勾勒出溪流的轮廓。淡水流入大坝底部盛满北海半咸水的池塘中。这一淡咸水的交换过程所产生的特殊盐度为喜半咸水环境的动植物的生长创造了绝佳的栖息地。

关键词 ……
公园;水;融汇;植物群落;动物群落
Abstract ...
The old brook Scheybeek is made visible in the park. The brook has been staged together with the new pedestrian and bicycle paths in the extended spaces in the park. A game of meeting and disappearing takes place between the visitor and the stream. The stream’s profile is composed from a specially designed concrete element and a natural embankment. The sweet brook water flows out into a pond of brackish North Sea water at the bottom of the dike. The unique salinity originating from this exchange of water is the perfect place for flora and fauna specific to brackish water.

Key words ...
Park; Water; Encounters; Flora; Fauna

 

荷兰阿姆斯福特市法特霍斯特社区总体规划
Master Plan for Vathorst in Amersfoort, the Netherlands

作者:West 8城市规划与景观设计事务所   Author: West 8 urban design & landscape architecture b.v.

摘要 ……
在荷兰阿姆斯福特市法特霍斯特社区的总体规划中,高柏伙伴规划园林和建筑事务所及West 8城市规划与景观设计事务所强调景观并非城市发展的附加物或美化手段,而应被看作是独立的实体和规划中充满活力的组成部分。该总体规划依照荷兰传统运河城市的形式进行设计,通过水路而非公路进行组织,使得法特霍斯特社区成为了一座生机勃勃的水城。

关键词 ……
社区;运河;水之城;生态改善

Abstract ...
The master plan for Vathorst in Amersfoort, the Netherlands, was developed by Kuiper Compagnons and West 8, highlights that the landscape is not an afterthought or a beautifier to urban development, but is considered a vital entity in itself and an active component of the plan.The master plan was designed in the tradition of old Dutch canal cities, using waterways as organizing elements rather than roadways, allowing Vathorst to be an active water city.

Key words ...
Community; Canal; Water City; Ecological Improvement

 

荷兰鹿特丹市班特布雷水广场
Water Square Benthemplein in Rotterdam, the Netherlands

作者:DE URBANISTEN城市研究和设计工作室   Author: DE URBANISTEN

摘要 ……
作为一项创新的双重战略,班特布雷水广场将城市蓄水与城市公共空间质量的提升结合起来。广场在平时保持旱景状态并作为年轻人运动和玩耍的空间;当遭遇强降雨时,广场将一改往常的外观和功能,“变身”为一个临时的雨水储存设施。三个下沉广场被用来收集雨水:两个较浅的广场在平时能够迅速收集广场周边的雨水;一个较深的广场只有在遭受连续降雨时才会启动雨水收集功能。

关键词 ……
水广场;参与式设计;雨水储存设施;不锈钢水槽

Abstract ...
The design of Water Square Benthemplein is an innovative twofold strategy that combines water storage and improves the quality of urban public space. Most of the time the square is dry and used as a recreational space for youth sports and play. When confronted with heavy rainfall, the square changes from its usual appearance and function, becoming a temporary rainwater storage facility. Three basins were designed to collect rainwater: two undeep basins will receive water for the immediate surroundings and one deeper basin will only receive water when it is consistently raining.

Key words ...
Water Square; Participatory Design; Rainwater Storage Facility; Stainless Steel Gutter

 

林中物流:描绘瓦尔登湖及其全球本土化资源传递
Logistics in the Woods: Mapping Walden and its Glocal Resource Relays

作者:梅格•斯杜德   Author: Meg STUDER

摘要 ……
尽管近来景观都市主义将关注点放在农业乌托邦以及分散聚落策略方面,但梭罗的《瓦尔登湖》,或称《林中生活散记》,这部经典的环境保护主义著作,仍然被解读为关于自我审视的田园生活经历。笔者目前的项目—“边缘运作”或称“林中物流”,则对《瓦尔登湖》进行了“量化分析”。“边缘运作”研究透过梭罗的“城郊”视角,关注由瓦尔登湖向外扩展的一系列过程—从林地到壁炉、到临近的铁路运输线、再到全球市场—从而重现了美国南北战争前的波士顿地区的资源消费模式,试图探寻一个不同视角下的气候控制、工业化,以及城市(或城郊)资源系统等方面的历史。
本文以该项目的原起以及用于追溯梭罗与物质世界的对立的研究为主要内容。“重绘瓦尔登”是本研究中的一个章节,试图通过地图绘制重现梭罗所描绘的1846年的采冰贸易。运用科学史、统计学、测量学以及后结构主义建筑理论中直接和间接的资料,本文对这一与景观都市主义中常见的全球尺度量化地图法以及过程图形化相呼应的题目进行了探索。如同凯勒•伊斯特林的《番茄世界》或皮埃尔•比朗格尔的一系列当代景观研究,“边缘运作”或“林中物流”项目强调了存在于(走向工业化的)农业中的潜在挑战、社会经济矛盾以及政治决策过失等各个方面之间复杂、动态以及基于过程的联系。

关键词 ……
瓦尔登湖;全球化;物流;田园风格;测绘;都市主义

Abstract ...
Despite recent Landscape Urbanist interest in agrarian utopias and dispersed settlement strategies, Walden, or Life in the Woods, a canonic conservation text, is still often read as an inward-looking, pastoral experiment. My current project, Edge Operations or Logistics in the Woods, ‘runs the numbers’ from Walden. Appropriating Thoreau’s peri-urban position, Edge Operations works outward from Walden Pond — from woodlots to fireplaces, adjacent rails to global markets — re-constructing the (domestic) consumption patterns of antebellum Boston for an alternate history of climate control, industrialization, and its (sub)urban resource systems.
This essay describes the origin of this project and the research used to trace Thoreau’s material encounters. Excerpts from “Re-Surveying Walden”, one chapter of the project, map Thoreau’s descriptions of the ice harvest of 1846. These, with primary and secondary sources — in history of science, statistics, surveying and post-structural architectural theory — are explored for their resonance with quantitative, global mappings and the process diagrams typical of landscape urbanism. As in Keller Easterling’s Tomato World or Pierre Bélange’s contemporary research, Edge Operations or Logistics in the Woods highlights the complex, dynamic, and process-based alliances of (industrializing) agriculture, its lurking contests, socio-economic conflicts, and political culpabilities.

Key words ...
Walden; Globalization; Logistics; Pastoral; Mapping; Urbanism

 

曼谷水文和农业网络的重新构想
Re-envisioning Bangkok’s Hydro and Agro Network

作者:川•苏帕旺斯   Author: Chon SUPAWONGSE

摘要 ……
作为一个拥有动态潮汐变化和快速城市化发展背景的地区,湄南河河口340km2的废弃水产养殖景观为那些旨在应对城市扩张、生态衰退、水文涨落、淡水供应,食物生产以及废物处理等多重挑战的景观设计干预提供了新的机会。水是一种活跃机体。潮汐过程的引入是恢复多样化生态性能、支撑经济和推动曼谷潮间带景观的城市转型的一种城市设计途径。建立等级和水文分流意在提升城市适应多种水文情况的能力,而非对水文情况加以控制或逆之而为。作为一座位于季风河口地带的城市,曼谷必须是柔软的、吸纳力强且具有适应性的。该项目的操作策略可以应用于现存的其他水文和农业网络,以建立一种能够体现综合性的水文生态功能,并能够应对多种时间跨度和空间维度上的环境变化的新的景观基础设施。

关键词 ……
河口;动态变化;流动性;层级;操作

Abstract ...
As a conjunction of tidal dynamics and rapid urbanization, 340 square kilometers of the derelict aquacultural landscapes on the Chao Phraya Estuary offers a fresh opportunity for a landscape architectural intervention in addressing multiple challenges of urban expansion, decaying ecology, hydrologic fluctuation, freshwater supply, food production and waste. Water is an active agency. Introduction of tidal process is an urban program device that reactivates diverse ecological performances, underpin economics, and drive urban transformation over Bangkok’s intertidal landscape. Creation of levels and hydrologic distributaries aims to engage adaptability to multiple water regimes rather than control or work against it. Bangkok, the city in the monsoon estuary must be soft, absorbent and adaptive. The operative strategies of this project can be applied to the remaining hydro and agro network to build a new landscape infrastructure that performs mixed hydro-ecological functions and responses to environmental shifts in diverse range of times and spatial scales.

Key words ...
Estuary; Dynamics; Fluidity; Level; Operation