《景观设计学》2013年第6期

作    者:弗雷德里克•斯坦纳(Frederick STEINER)、伊恩•毕夏普(Ian BISHOP)等
类    别:景观
出 版 社:高等教育出版社有限公司
出版时间:2013年12月

导言 目录 作品信息 书评

俞孔坚•地理设计展望
——《景观设计学》2013年第6期"主编寄语"
The Promise of Geodesign — Editorial of the No. 6 Issue for 2013, Landscape Architecture Frontiers
By Kongjian Yu


    2013年10月28~29日,北京大学成功举办了地理设计国际会议。在Esri公司(特别是Esri中国)的慷慨赞助下,大会聚集了世界顶级的跨学科的地理设计研究和实践团队,包括地理设计先驱者卡尔•斯坦尼兹和史提芬•欧文,在地理信息与空间分析方面卓有贡献的科学家迈克尔•F•古特柴尔德、伊恩•毕夏普和矢野桂司,著名的景观与空间规划教育家、研究者弗雷德里克•斯坦纳和克里斯托弗•吉鲁特,地理设计先行实践者石川幹子、亨克•J•舒尔滕、道格拉斯•奥尔森和艾略特•哈特利,技术革新者威廉姆•R•米勒(Esri公司地理设计服务商主管)和克里斯托弗•卡佩里(Esri全球业务总监),以及政府决策者章新胜(世界自然保护联盟理事会主席)和董祚继(国土资源部规划司司长)。会上,38位嘉宾发表了精彩的演讲,来自10多个国家和中国30多个省市的500余名代表参加了大会。与此同时,近10万名场外观众观看了大会在线直播,并通过新浪微博(一种类似推特的中国微型博客服务)参与了会议的交流与互动环节。据我所知,这是在中国乃至亚洲举办的规模最大的地理设计国际会议。
    关于这次大会的起源可追溯到两年多前,当卡尔•斯坦尼兹教授和我在哈佛大学地理信息中心共进午餐,讨论什么是真正的"地理设计"以及为什么地理设计如此重要时。斯坦尼兹教授将地理设计简单地定义为一种"通过设计改变地理环境"的方法。但是,景观设计师、城市规划师、土地利用规划师和区域规划师,甚至包括农民,正在通过设计来改变地理空间形态—这就是为什么我们要讨论地理设计的原因所在。“我们需要组织一个会议来对地理设计进行研讨。”“为何不在中国——这个地理空间形态变化如此迅速且亟需设计的引导的地方——举办这场会议?”“我们可以邀请来自世界各地的顶级专家共探地理设计”。由此,卡尔向Esri创始人兼总裁杰克•丹杰蒙德写信咨询其为本次会议提供赞助的可能性。随后,哈佛大学斯蒂芬•欧文教授也加入到了会议的先期筹备团队中。我们很快就确定了会议的主题——“地理设计:人地关系优化设计的理论与实践”。2012年9月,杰克•丹杰蒙德来到北京参观了北京大学和土人设计近年来完成的课题和项目,他发出惊叹:“你们所做的正是地理设计!”杰克对在北京大学召开地理设计国际会议非常支持,他表示,“在北京大学召开首届亚洲地理设计会议是一个非常好的提议,Esri将对其进行全力资助。”这就是此次地理设计会议的由来。
    什么是地理设计?为什么要讨论地理设计以及地理设计是做什么的?基于这个优秀团队为期两天的集中讨论(团队成员均为地理设计研究和实践领域的开拓者和领导者),加上我个人的理解,我谨代表大会主办方做以下总结:
    地理设计是一种思考方式(是什么),旨在解决复杂的空间问题(做什么)。这类问题的复杂性超出了人脑的认知和理解能力,因此,借助系统的地理信息系统和空间分析工具进行计算和提出相应的解决方案变得尤为必要(为什么)。
    今天我们所面临的挑战非常巨大且日益复杂:气候变化、粮食安全、城市化、地下水位下降、空气和水污染,以及生物多样性的减少等—以上列举的仅是很小的一部分。为了解决这些问题,我们需要大数据和系统的解决方案,这些均超越了任何个人头脑的能力范围。设计,作为一个解决问题的专业,需要充分利用现有的丰富数据来应对现代挑战。地理设计则为我们提供了一种提升能力的方法,即利用大量的信息技术、强大的计算工具和大数据,联合多方利益相关者和愈来愈多的参与者,采用合适的方案去解决我们目前所面临的挑战。地理设计将有望提升整个设计行业,以满足时代的需求。



In 28th and 29th of October, 2013, Peking University hosted the Geodesign International Conference. With generous sponsorship from Esri (Esri China in particular), this conference assembled the very best team in research and application of geodesign, across the disciplines, including geodesign forerunners, Carl Steinitz and Stephen M. Ervin; dedicated scientists in geographical information and spatial analysis, Michael F. Goodchild, Ian Bishop and Keiji Yano;prominent educator and researchers in landscape and spatial planning, Frederick Steiner and Christophe Girot; leading practitioners of geodesign, Mikiko Ishikawa, Henk J. Scholten, Douglas Olson and Elliot Hartle; technique innovators, William R. Miller (director of geodesign services) and Christopher Cappelli (Esri corporate director); and government policy-makers, Xinsheng Zhang (president of IUCN) and Zuoji Dong (director of Planning Division, Ministry of Land and Resources). In total, 38 distinguished guests delivered speeches to an audience of over 500 delegates coming from over 10 countries and 30 provinces in China. Meanwhile, near 100,000 people watched the live video online and were involved in real time interactions through Weibo.com (a Chinese Twitter-like micro-blogging service). To my knowledge, it is the largest international conference on geodesign in China and Asia. 
     The story of this gathering goes back two and half years ago, when Professor Carl Steinitz and I lunched together at the Geo-information Center in Harvard, discussing what is really "geodesign", and why geodesign is important. He defined it simply as a method to "change geography by design". But, as landscape architects, city planners, land use planners and regional planners, and even farmers, we are changing geography by design — so why geodesign?"Sounds we need a conference to talk about that." "Why not in China — the geography is changing rapidly and badly need design?" "We will need to assembly the best experts from around the world to talk about that." This led to Steinitz writing a letter to Jack Dangermond, the founder and president of Esri, seeking a possibility in sponsoring such a conference. Soon after, Stephen Ervin from Harvard also joined the pilot team to pursue this event. We agreed on the theme — Geodesign: Maximizing Beneficial Impacts. Not by coincidence, in September, 2012, Dangermond came to Beijing to see what we were doing here at Peking University and Turenscape. "Ow, what you are doing is all about geodesign." "It is a great idea to have the first Asian geodesign conference here at PKU, and Esri will sponsor it." Dangermond immediately saw the potential of holding the conference here at Peking University and was very supportive. The result is this unprecedented gathering of geodesign pioneers here today. 
     What is geodesign? Why geodesign and for what do we geodesign? Based on the two days' of intensive discussion among the members of the dream team, who initially defined and are leading this new field of research and practice, and based on my own understanding, I would like to take this opportunity as the conference organizer, to make the following summary: 
     Geodesign is a way of thinking (the what) in finding solutions for complicated spatial problems (for what). Because of their complexity, which goes beyond the human brain's capacity of cognition and comprehension, it becomes necessary to depend on some systematic geographic information system and spatial analysis tools to compute and assist in coming up with appropriate solutions (the why). 
     The challenges we are facing today are big and becoming more and more complicated: climate change, food security, urbanization, ground water drop, air and water pollution, loss of biodiversity — to name just a few. To solve these problems, we need big data and systematical solutions, which are beyond the capacity of any single human brain. Design, the profession of problem solving, needs to harness the wealth of data available in meeting our modern challenges. Geodesign gives us a way to extend our capability, with the vast information technology, powerful computation tools and big data, multiple shareholders and ever increasing participants, to conceive appropriate solutions to address our present challenges. Geodesign promises to upgrade the professions of design to meet the demands of this era. 

主编寄语(俞孔坚)

论文
复杂性的表达(弗雷德里克•斯坦纳)
地理设计中的优化(伊恩•毕夏普)

观点与评论
2013地理设计国际会议特别报道(《景观设计学》编辑部)
理性教育:香港大学景观设计学硕士设计论文教学体系(彭文辉、邓信惠)
寻找定位的挪威设计——挪威2013奥斯陆建筑三年展参观感悟(佘依爽)

原创实践
地理设计在宏观土地利用规划实践中的应用——北京市土地利用变化预景模拟与评估(游鸿)
悉尼丽泽德洛格公园(McGregor Coxall景观与城市设计事务所)
方圆——2013第22届法国肖蒙国际花园展作品(俞孔坚、陆小璇)

探索与过程
管理“通往中国之路”:秘鲁亚马逊流域的设计、领域和数据(阿什利•斯科特•凯利、彭文辉)
开采景观的再造(基斯•洛曼)

 

Editorial (by Kongjian YU)

Papers
Representing Complexity (by Frederick STEINER)
Optimization in Geodesign (by Ian BISHOP)

Views and Criticisms
Special Focus on 2013 Geodesign International Conference (by LA Frontiers)
Teaching Rationale: MLA Design Thesis at the University of Hong Kong (by Matthew PRYOR, Dorothy TANG)
Norwegian Design: Searching for Orientation — Inspiration from the 2013 Oslo Architecture Triennale (by Yishuang SHE)

Original Practices
Practice of Geodesign Approach in Macro-scale Land Use Planning — Scenario-based Simulation and Evaluation of Land Use Change in Beijing (by Hong YOU)
Lizard Log Parklands, Sydney (by McGregor Coxall)
Square and Round — the Fang Yuan Garden in 2013 the 22nd Chaumont International Garden Festival (by Kongjian YU, Xiaoxuan LU)

Experiments and Processes
Governing the Road to China: Design, Territory and Data in the Peruvian Amazon (by Ashley Scott KELLY, Matthew PRYOR)
The Reworking of Landscapes of Extraction (by Kees LOKMAN)

 

【中文刊名】《景观设计学》——地理设计
【英文刊名】Landscape Architecture Frontiers • Geodesign
【作者】弗雷德里克•斯坦纳(Frederick STEINER)、伊恩•毕夏普(Ian BISHOP)等
【出版社】高等教育出版社有限公司
【页码】162页彩色印刷
【刊号】ISSN 2095-5405
【出版日期】2013年12月
【定价】48.00元

复杂性的表达
Representing Complexity

作者:芮妮•周   Author: Renee CHOW

摘要 ……
伊恩•麦克哈格对地图叠加法的改进为地理信息系统(GIS)奠定了基础。他通过叠加地图的方法来说明生态系统之间的各种关系以及景观格局,这可谓是自1413年左右经菲利波•布鲁内莱斯基改良透视画法以来,设计行业中最重要的表现方式和设计手段。除了地图叠加法,麦克哈格还采用了很多其他表现方法来分析景观的复杂性,并说明规划及设计如何与生物物理过程、地质特征相互作用。这些主要用来表现景观复杂性的空间分析手法和表现技法将扩展地理设计的适用性和优越性。善用这些表现技法可以大力推进当前的地理设计,正如地图叠加法加速了GIS的诞生。除了地图叠加法以外,曾经被麦克哈格和他在宾夕法尼亚大学的同事们以及Wallace,McHarg,Roberts及Todd事务所(简称WMRT事务所;现Wallace,Roberts及Todd事务所,简称WRT)所使用过的其他表现方法还包括:地图、断面图、分析图、鸟瞰图、块状图、绘画以及摄影图片。我们将逐一介绍这些表现方法,并讨论其应用于地理设计中的可能性。更全面地探索这些表现技法将有助于推动地理设计的应用,也有助于我们了解麦克哈格在地图叠加法之外的其他贡献。

关键词 ……
景观表现;伊恩•麦克哈格;地理设计;地图叠加法;景观设计

Abstract ...
Ian McHarg helped build the foundation for geographical information systems (GIS) through his refinement of map overlay methods. McHarg’s use of map overlays in revealing ecological relationships and landscape patterns is arguably the most important representational tool and strategy for design since Filippo Brunelleschi’s refinement of perspective around 1413. In addition to overlays, McHarg employed other representational tools to analyze landscape complexity and to present how planning and design interventions interacted with biophysical processes and geological features. Spatial analytic strategies and representational techniques that focus on landscape complexity can expand the applicability and saliency of geodesign. This expansion could be similar to the influence of overlays to the creation of GIS. The other representational techniques employed by McHarg and his colleagues at the University of Pennsylvania and Wallace, McHarg, Roberts and Todd (now Wallace Roberts & Todd, WRT) include: maps, transects, diagrams, bird’s eye perspectives, block diagrams, drawings, and photography. Each of these techniques will be introduced as they were used by McHarg then discussed for potential geodesign applications. A more comprehensive exploration will help expand the potential of geodesign and also acknowledge McHarg’s broader contributions beyond map overlays.

Key words ...
Landscape Representation; Ian McHarg; Geodesign; Overlay Mapping; Landscape Architecture

 

地理设计中的优化
Optimization in Geodesign

作者:弗雷德里克•斯坦纳   Author: Frederick STEINER

摘要 ……
在景观决策中采用优化算法已经被看作是设计过程的对照。实际上,迈克尔•F•古特柴尔德已明确地将最优化、小尺度(small-d)设计归为运筹学和管理科学的一部分,并将其与隶属于景观设计与规划的大尺度(big-d)设计进行了区分[1]。本文论证了通过优化技术与地理设计技术的结合,以促进形成而非缩小景观设计或规划的决策空间。古特柴尔德认为优化并不一定局限于形成单一的决策方案,而是通过对目标和限制因素(空间和全球性)的调控,产生一系列不同的决策方案。优化算法的优势在于众多的决策方案是位于非支配集中的。当用户使用互动式地理设计工具来勾勒形状和编辑属性时,无论以何种标准衡量,所得到的许多解决方案都将次于另一些解决方案。优化方法能够剔除这些劣等方案,有利于设计师和利益相关者的决策过程。空间及其属性抉择的互动过程非常重要;然而真正的挑战在于构建能够将这些功能与稳健优化算法相联系的系统。本文总结了森林管理和区域景观规划的各种可能性,并探索了抉择过程中的快速响应时间,这能够支持在非劣等方案间做出选择,以及应对随时间变化的不确定性和环境条件。

关键词 ……
地理设计;优化;森林管理;区域规划

Abstract ...
The use of optimization algorithms in landscape decision-making has been seen as the antithesis of a design process. Indeed, Michael F. Goodchild clearly distinguished optimization, small-d design as part of operations research and management science, from big-d Design, which is the province of landscape architecture and planning[1]. This paper argues a case for integration of optimization techniques and geodesign technologies to help shape, but not narrow, the decision space associated with a landscape design or planning situation. Optimization need not, as Goodchild argues, be limited to production of a single point in the solution space. By creative manipulation of objectives and constraints (both spatial and global) a disparate set of possible futures can be generated. The advantage of using optimization is that all these points within the solution space are on a non-dominated surface. When the user is limited to a set of interactive geodesign tools, sketching shapes and editing attributes, many of the generated solutions may be inferior, on all criteria, to another solution. Optimization removes these inferior solutions and makes it easier for the designer, and the stakeholders, to review the options and make decisions. The interactive processes of spatial selection and attribution are still important; the challenge is to build systems that link these capabilities to robust optimization algorithms. The paper reviews these possibilities in the context of forest management and regional landscape planning and explores options for achieving fast response times, which supporting selection among the non-inferior solutions and dealing with uncertainty and conditions that change over time.

Key words ...
Geodesign; Optimization; Forest Management; Regional Planning

 

2013地理设计国际会议特别报道
Special Focus on 2013 Geodesign International Conference

作者:伊恩•毕夏普   Author: Ian BISHOP

摘要 ……
2013年10月28~29日,地理设计国际会议在北京大学召开。此次会议围绕“地理设计:人地关系优化设计的理论与实践”的主题,采用主旨报告、专题讨论及论文征集等方式对地理设计的定义、框架、未来发展前景以及实践等方面进行了深入的交流与讨论。本文汇集了此次会议与会嘉宾的精彩言论。

关键词 ……
地理设计;优化设计;理论;实践;北京大学

Abstract ...
28th~29th October, 2013, the Geodesign International Conference was held in Peking University. The conference included keynote speeches, lighting talks and conference proceedings, discussing the geodesign's concept, framework, promise and practice around the theme "Geodesign: Maximinzing Beneficial Impacts". This article collects the important speeches of this conference.

Key words ...
Geodesign; Maximizing Beneficial Impacts; Theory; Practice; Peking University

 

理性教育:香港大学景观设计学硕士设计论文教学体系
Teaching Rationale: MLA Design Thesis at the University of Hong Kong

作者:彭文辉、邓信惠   Author: Matthew PRYOR, Dorothy TANG

摘要 ……
中国面临着巨大的环境和社会挑战,景观设计在帮助中国社会战胜这些挑战方面发挥着重要的作用。景观设计师需要能够在有关环境、文化和社会问题的讨论中发挥参与、理解和分析的权威作用,并且能够提出合理的论据,从而制定有意义的行动。随着景观设计师在中国的影响力的不断扩大,我们的教学不应再局限于景观的专业知识,以及构成、材料、技术方面的操作技能,而应转向引导学生解决问题的理性教育。应该在教学中向学生传授严谨的知识和理论框架,以利于他们未来的职业实践,进一步说,即扩展学科领域。香港大学的景观设计教育经历了20年的发展,我们在有关设计论文的过程和价值方面也积累了一些思考。设计论文要求学生在景观设计学科领域内提出具有批判性的观点,并通过设计过程检验其假设是否成立。论文的最终目标在于促进景观设计领域中的知识、方法和实践的运用,为学生进入实践领域做准备,以及让他们——学科未来的领导者——积极参与这一过程,并培养其批判性的自我反思能力、创新能力,以及对社会、经济、环境可持续性发展的坚定信念。本文结合景观设计硕士设计论文课程,提出了相应的方法,并对部分学生成果进行了展示。

关键词 ……
景观设计论文;景观研究生教育;景观设计;设计基本原理;扩展领域的研究

Abstract ...
China faces massive environmental and societal challenges, and Landscape Architecture has a vital role to play in helping the community to overcome these. Landscape architects need to be able to engage, understand and analyze authoritatively in topical discourses on environmental, cultural and social issues, and to be able to present rational arguments for meaningful action. This expanding sphere of influence requires that the teaching of landscape architecture reach beyond technical knowledge of landscapes and skills in the manipulation of its forms, materials and technologies, and address the issue of rationale. It needs to give students the intellectual rigor and theoretical framework for their future professional practice and, more broadly, to expand the discipline. After twenty years of Landscape Architecture education at HKU, we have some thoughts regarding the process and value of a design thesis in this regard. Design Thesis should require students to articulate a critical position within the discipline of Landscape Architecture and test the proposition through a design process. The ultimate goal of the thesis process should be to advance the knowledge, methods, and practices of landscape architecture and to prepare students to enter the world of practice and participate actively as future leaders of the discipline, with the capacity for critical self-reflection, innovation, and strong convictions regarding the social, economic, and environmental sustainability of the built environment. This paper presents the approach, and some of the outcomes, of our Master of Landscape Architecture Design Thesis course.

Key words ...
Landscape Design Thesis; Graduate Landscape Education; Landscape Architecture; Rationale for Design; Research in the Expanded Field

 

寻找定位的挪威设计—挪威2013奥斯陆建筑三年展参观感悟
Norwegian Design: Searching for Orientation — Inspiration from the 2013 Oslo Architecture Triennale

作者:佘依爽   Author: Yishuang SHE

摘要 ……
在北欧五国中,挪威设计并不是最为突出与典型的。但随着世界对生态环境愈加重视的潮流,社会经济环境优越、人口密度低、人与自然关系极其密切的挪威正成为实现人与自然和谐发展的最佳实验场。近十几年来,挪威首都奥斯陆进行了一系列卓有成效的建设,包括图伊豪尔门新区的更新、艾克贝格雕塑公园的对外开放、奥斯陆歌剧院的建造等,这些成果都标志着挪威试图在人与自然、传统与现代的语境下找到属于自己的设计定位。挪威奥斯陆建筑三年展通过一系列的展览、讲座、会议、参观、交流、研修班等形式,将挪威寻找问题与答案、寻找设计定位的过程展现在世人面前,让世界认识挪威设计,最终实现以建筑设计影响人类生活的目的。

关键词 ……
挪威奥斯陆建筑三年展;建筑;景观;人与自然;传统与现代

Abstract ...
Norwegian design is neither the most outstanding or most typical among Nordic countries. Boasting good socio-economic conditions, low population density, and an intimate understanding of human and nature interactions, Norway has been the ideal place to realize harmonious development between nature and human society. Over the past decade, Oslo, the capital of Norway, has witnessed a series of high profile construction projects, including the renovation of Tjuvholmen District, the opening of Ekeberg Park, and the construction of the Oslo Opera House. These projects demonstrate the country’s ambition to locate its own design aesthetic in the context of humans and the environment, traditional and modern. The Oslo Architecture Triennale (OAT) responds to this search through a series of exhibitions, lectures, conferences, visits, publications, and seminars. Broadcasting Norwegian design around the world will help to achieve the larger goal of influencing human life through architecture and design.

Key words ...
Oslo Architecture Triennale (OAT); Architecture; Landscape; Human and Nature; Tradition and Modernity

 

地理设计在宏观尺度土地利用规划实践中的应用—北京市土地利用变化预景模拟与评估
Practice of Geodesign Approach in Macro-scale Land Use Planning — Scenario-based Simulation and Evaluation of Land Use Change in Beijing

作者:游鸿   Author: Hong YOU

摘要 ……
本文以北京市为例,阐释了地理设计在宏观尺度土地利用规划实践中的应用。本研究设计了一个简单而全面的框架,来研究景观变化的机制,设计和模拟未来的土地利用变化预景,从而对其进行评估并提出开发决策建议。本文同时讨论了如何利用综合的方法,例如定量分析和定性分析、自上而下的数学回归分析和自下而上的启发式方法(如神经网络和元胞自动机),以解决大多数如北京这样的大城市所面临的不确定性和复杂性问题。最后,对本案例中将地理设计应用于宏观尺度上的优点和限制条件进行了总结。

关键词 ……
地理设计;土地利用变化;预景模拟;北京

Abstract ...
This paper demonstrates the practice of the geodesign approach in macro-scale land use planning in Beijing. In this research, a simplified but comprehensive framework is designed to learn the mechanisms of landscape change, formulate and simulate future land use change scenarios, perform evaluations to support development decisions. It also discusses how to utilize hybrid methodologies, such as quantitative and qualitative, top-down mathematical regressions and bottom-up heuristic approaches like neural network and cellular automation, to address the uncertainty and complexity issues mostly confronted by megacities like Beijing. Finally, several lessons about the benefits and restricts of geodesign applications in macro-scale research learned from this case study are highlighted.

Key words ...
Geodesign; Land Use Change; Scenario-based Simulation; Beijing

 

悉尼丽泽德洛格公园
Lizard Log Parklands, Sydney

作者:McGregor Coxall景观与城市设计事务所   Author: McGregor Coxall

摘要 ……
西悉尼公园信托基金委托McGregor Coxall景观与城市设计事务所对丽泽德洛格公园(前身为皮梅拉公园)的设施进行翻新和扩建。项目不仅需要对现有卫生间、烧烤和野餐设施进行升级和扩建,还需要重建儿童游乐区、开发出一处大型活动场地,并修建一座可连接一个重要的新停车场的交通桥。对于场地的自然特色的呼应,并以强大的可持续发展策略作为支撑共同推动了场地的重新设计。场地的供电由太阳能发电设施提供,冲厕则利用了大坝中的水,所有的中水被重新用于灌溉,再生材料也尽可能地得到再利用。游乐区通过将循环水引入儿童游乐泵和水道系统中,在一种独特的令人欣喜而愉悦的游乐体验中使设计理念得以延伸。

关键词 ……
可持续发展策略;能源策略;自维持方式;再利用

Abstract ...
The Western Sydney Parklands Trust engaged McGregor Coxall to revitalize and extend the facilities of Lizrard Log Parklands (formerly known as Pimelea). This included an upgrade and extension to the existing toilet blocks, BBQ and picnic facilities, redevelopment of the children’s play area, the development of an events space and an access bridge along with the construction of a significant new car park. A sensitive response to the rural nature of the site, underpinned by a strong sustainable strategy, drove the site’s redesign. Power for the site is generated by solar panels, toilet flushing utilizes dam water, all grey water is reused for irrigation and recycled materials are used where possible. The play area extends this concept by introducing recycled water through a children’s play pump and water course system within a unique play experience that both excites and delights.

Key words ...
Sustainable Strategy; Energy Strategy; Self-Sustaining Approach; Reuse

 

方圆—2013第22届法国肖蒙国际花园展作品
Square and Round — The Fang Yuan Garden in 2013 the 22nd Chaumont International Garden Festival

作者:俞孔坚、陆小璇   Author: Kongjian YU, Xiaoxuan LU

摘要 ……
“方圆”是2013肖蒙国际花园展的参展作品,并将作为永久作品保留。作为对中国传统园林的当代解读,其整体形式设计为外方内圆,通过建立围合的空间和运用小中见大的中国园林手法以及填挖方平衡的工程技术,将当代雨水利用理念与传统造园哲学相结合,创造出亲切而富有美感的观赏和体验空间。

关键词 ……
肖蒙国际花园展;中国传统园林;当代解读;雨水利用

Abstract ...
Installed in Château Chaumont, this small rain garden, Square and Round (Fang Yuan, 方圆), is a contemporary re-interpretation of Chinese traditional gardens by applying the formal language of curvilinear and square, the spatial experiential strategy of enclosure and making small into big, and through the construction technique of cutting and fill. This project integrates the contemporary concept of stormwater management with the Chinese gardening philosophy about man and nature, and provides an intimate pleasant experience both for viewing for performing.

Key words ...
Chaumont International Garden Festival; Chinese Traditional Garden; Contemporary Re-interpretation; Stormwater Management

 

管理“通往中国之路”:秘鲁亚马逊流域的设计、领域和数据
Governing the Road to China: Design, Territory and Data in the Peruvian Amazon

作者:阿什利•斯科特•凯利、彭文辉   Author: Ashley Scott KELLY, Matthew PRYOR

摘要 ……
对无人居住的场所进行设计通常会让我们无所适从。包括生态和基础设施旅游及村镇开发在内的前沿项目,要么存在于极大的地域尺度中(如跨海高速公路),要么存在于民间组织展开工作的本地尺度下。因此,关于“保护”的一系列观念(例如为减贫而进行的森林砍伐,或是仅限于科学范畴的生物多样性等)常常会造成当地特性与全球-地区环境脱节的情况。这些高度斑块化的均质景观对保护规划造成了极大的障碍。作为哈佛大学“南美计划”的一部分,我们在香港大学的研究工作力求建立一套研究架构,用以阐述在“南美洲区域基础设施一体化倡议”下促成的高速公路的修建,对区域的森林砍伐现象造成的巨大却非直接的影响。GIS作为这一架构中的重要工具,对原始数据和保育科学的途径进行了深入挖掘。本文呈现了在这一过程中我们如何将GIS作为创造性媒介(并非仅仅是分析媒介),在数据匮乏的地区运用该媒介对复杂且特征清晰的地表和区域进行精确控制的尝试。

关键词 ……
环境解说;南美基础设施一体化倡议;地理信息系统;森林砍伐;政治生态;中国-拉美研究

Abstract ...
We are typically at a loss when designing for places without people. Frontier projects, including eco- and infrastructural tourism and rural development planning, operate where geography is either incredibly large (inter-oceanic highways) or in the very local, immediate work of NGOs. Here, "myths" of conservation discourse (poverty driving deforestation, biodiversity as merely scientific, etc.) frequently decouple the global-regional from the specifics of place. These densely mosaicked and homogenous landscapes present formidable barriers to conservation planning. Run at HKU as part of Harvard’s South America Project, the work seeks a research agenda capable of narrating IIRSA highways' immense yet indirect role in deforestation. GIS serves as the primary tool for these narratives, deeply entrenched in the raw data and instruments of conservation science. This effort is described through speculations on GIS as a creative medium (not simply analysis) in data-poor regions, with precise control over complex, highly articulated surfaces and territories.

Key words ...
Environmental Interpretation; IIRSA; GIS; Deforestation; Political Ecology; China-Latin American Studies

 

开采景观的再造
The Reworking of Landscapes of Extraction

作者:基斯•洛曼   Author: Kees LOKMAN

摘要 ……
在不断推进的城镇化、粮食与水资源紧缺、能源资源消耗、环境退化等种种现实下,区域主义再次成为我们审视那些构成当代景观的驱动力和参与者的批判框架。在这一背景之下,本文的核心内容为“流的重组”,该方案为“转变中的城市—低碳未来(2012)”国际设计竞赛的获胜方案①。这一方案构想了一种工业过程、生态系统与文化网络的流相互交织的动态空间布局方式。通过对区域尺度上的各种叠加的参与者、场所和活动的可视化与设计,“流的重组”以目前废弃的产品为资本,将其转化为有价值的资源。由此,方案的重点从设计结构定式和硬性基础设施转变为提出干预策略,以激活存在于现状景观结构中的潜力。

关键词 ……
人类纪;区域主义;开采景观;流的重组

Abstract ...
With the realities of ongoing urbanization, food and water scarcity, depleting energy resources and environmental degradation, regionalism is re-emerging as a critical framework to study the forces and actors that shape our contemporary landscapes. Within this context, this paper focuses on Reassembling Flows; the winning entry of a recent international design competition entitled "Transiting Cities — Low Carbon Futures (2012)"①. The project envisions a dynamic spatial arrangement of interconnected flows of industrial processes, ecological systems, and cultural networks. By visualizing and designing the various overlapping actors, loci and activities on a regional scale, Reassembling Flows capitalizes on currently discarded waste products and transforms them into valuable resources. Here, the emphasis shifts from designing fixed and hard infrastructures to strategic interventions that activate latent potentials of already existing landscape structures.

Key words ...
Anthropocene; Regionalism; Landscapes of Extraction; Reassembling Flows