《景观设计学》2014年第1期

作    者:李明翰(Ming-Han LI)、卡罗尔•R•约翰逊(Carol R. JOHNSON)、斯蒂格•L•安德森(Stig L. ANDERSSON)等
类    别:景观
出 版 社:高等教育出版社有限公司
出版时间:2014年2月

导言 目录 作品信息 书评

俞孔坚•天堂的遗憾
——《景观设计学》2014年第1期"主编寄语"
A Pity Of Heaven — Editorial of the No. 1 Issue for 2014, Landscape Architecture Frontiers
By Kongjian Yu


     “时间景观"看起来是一个伪命题,因为景观本身就是时间的。正如已故文化景观学者约翰•布林克霍夫•杰克逊所定义:“景观是一种空间,在这里,自然过程被刻意地加速或减慢……它体现了人在取代时间而做工”。从这个意义上来说,哀牢山上的梯田是哈尼人民通过在山坡上的填挖方劳作,刻意使水流减慢的景观;华北平原上的农田林网是将风的过程减慢的景观;而整齐的果园和鱼塘、被裁弯取直的大江大河都是人们将自然的过程加速而产生的景观。时间——作为大地景观的雕刻师,无处不在。

     而人类活动能否在大地上留下痕迹,最终取决于残酷无情的、不可逆转的时间。无论其权势有多强大、业绩有多辉煌、其力图减缓或加速自然过程的力量有多巨大、其景观或纪念碑有多恢弘,或早或晚,都会因时间而湮灭。于是便有了陈子昂“前不见古人,后不见来者”的悲鸣、孔夫子“逝者如斯夫”的无奈。这似乎是人类哭诉不完的悲哀。然而我则为之庆幸,因为这世上只有时间是公平的,否则,我们的地球上早已堆满了帝王和贵族的纪念碑和金字塔。

     因此,景观的时间性的另一种表达,即所谓的“景观的可持续性”。时间是一把尺子,它衡量着人类活动的意义之深浅:我们需从人类和其唯一的星球的整体可持续性上,来评价人类的一切景观行为的意义。在这一点上,我们必须回到进化论的奠基人查尔斯•罗伯特•达尔文,而离我们更近的是生态规划之父伊恩•麦克哈格所给出的标准——适应!正如生物适应自然而繁衍,人类适应自然而昌盛、而美丽。麦克哈格以时间为轴线,将气候、地质、地貌、土壤、水文、植被、生物和人类活动过程进行分层叠加,来定义景观的空间分布,阐述了生物对自然过程的适应过程,以及人类活动对自然和生物过程的适应过程;提出了“设计遵从自然”的景观设计基本原理——只有懂得适应自然过程,人类如同其他生物一样才能够得以进化和繁荣。适应自然,不是被动于自然,而是人取代时间的作用,按照自然过程和格局的规律,来减缓或加快自然的过程。而创造人与自然和谐共荣的境地,所呈现的形态是一种如约翰•莱尔所说的“深邃的形”,而非“肤浅的形”,更非“虚假的形”。

     然而,我所看到的城乡景观,无论古今中外,大多是“肤浅的形”和“虚假的形”。实际上,作为景观设计目标的“天堂”,也因为对时间的罔顾,而成为了虚假的天堂。景观设计师们所接触到的甲方,尤其是财大气粗的开发商和权势可畏的城市决策者,大多是在追求罔顾时间规律的“肤浅的形”和“虚假的形”。君不见北京街头冬季保温障中的常绿树和黄杨篱!君不见小区里满眼的娟花和塑料棕榈!那是领导们为了留住时间和在“四季常青,三季有花”的口号下产生的“肤浅的形”和“虚假的形”。人间的权贵们总想营造出"冬无严寒、夏无酷暑、树木常青、百花常开"的天堂,甚至渴望营造出能使自己不死的天堂。殊不知,帝王和贵族们都在违背自然过程的路径上,投入无限的人力和资金,在与时间做斗争的过程中,创造和维护着“肤浅的形”和“虚假的形”。最终,无情的时间使那些"天堂"一旦成为“没有了我们人类的世界”,便会很快回归“杂草丛生”、野兽出没的自然“荒野”。倒是那高山上的层层梯田,因为其采用最节约的人工和最少的投入,适应自然的过程和格局,顺应自然节律而播种、灌溉和收获,使投入与收获达到平衡,从而创造出了“深邃的形”。这代表了人类的欲望与自然力之间的平衡,虽历经数千年的时间,依旧持续存在至今。

     因此,“时间景观"并非伪命题。因为,即使是人类祈求和刻意营造的“天堂”,也罔顾了时间的存在。



"Temporal Landscape" is a seemingly false proposition, since landscape is per se related to time. Landscape, as defined by the late cultural landscape scholar John Brinckerhoff Jackson, is "a space deliberately created to speed up or slow down the process of nature…represents man taking upon himself the role of time". In this sense, the terraced fields of Mount Ailao are a landscape created through the filling and excavation of hillsides by the Hani ethnic group to deliberately slow down the affects of time. The tree-networked farmlands of the North China Plain are a landscape slowed down by the wind. In contrast, the orderly-arranged orchards and fishponds, as well as the channelized rivers, are landscapes of accelerated natural processes. Time, as the sculptor of landscape, is ubiquitous. 

     Whether human activity leaves a trace on the land ultimately depends on the ruthless and irreversible time. Significant as the influence might be, splendid the accomplishment, enormous the power to either decelerate or accelerate natural processes, magnificent the landscapes or monuments, they will sooner or later perish with the time. Therefore, "the ancestors cannot be seen, nor can the future generations," cried out Chen Zi'ang, a poet of China's Tang Dynasty. Confucius could not help but sigh, "time passes away like the flow of water." It seems that such doleful exclamations are never ending. But, I take these proverbs to be a blessing because in this world, only time can be deemed as fair. Otherwise, our planet would be piled with monuments and pyramids left behind by kings and nobles. 

     The other expression of landscape as a time-related process is the so-called "the Sustainability of Landscape". With time as a ruler, the meaning of human activities can be measured. We need to evaluate the meaning of all landscape behaviors of human according to the overall sustainability of human beings as well as the only planet they live on. In this case, we need to go back to the standard given by Charles Robert Darwin, the founder of evolution theory, and later by Ian McHarg, the farther of ecological planning — Adaption! As living things adapt to the nature to propagate, so do human to prosper and become beautiful. With time as a base, McHarg superimposed layers of climatic, geologic, topographic, earth, hydrologic, vegetation, organic and processes of human activities to define the spatial distribution of landscapes, elaborating the process of living things adaptation towards nature, as well as that of human beings towards natural and organic processes, and proposes a basic principle of "Design with Nature" for landscape architecture, where human beings will evolve and prosper like other living things only when they know how to adapt to natural processes. To adapt to nature does not mean to be passive, but instead to control the role of time by decelerating or accelerating natural processes according to the patterns of natural processes and layouts. In doing so a harmonious state can be created between humans and nature—a display of "deep form", as described by John Lyle, opposed to "shallow form" or the "fake form". 

     Unfortunately, a significant portion of the landscapes I have seen in both rural and urban areas, ancient to modern, home and abroad, are "shallow form" and "fake form". In fact, "heaven", as the goal of landscape design has become a fake goal with disregard to time. Most of the wealthy property developers and influential urban decision-makers that landscape architects have come into contact with seek shallow and fake forms, without considering the patterns of time. For example, take a look at the evergreen trees and box hedgerows that are protected with heat preservation during the winter on the streets of Beijing. Or the silk flowers and plastic palms that are seen throughout residential areas. These shallow and fake forms are created because top officials wish to stop time, and are governed by slogans demanding that "trees be green in four seasons, and flowers seen in three seasons". It is often the dream of influential officials to build a paradise of "winter without coldness, summer without intense heat, and a whole year with green trees and flowers in blossom" — a heaven that can make them immortal. What the emperors and the nobles did not know is that while investing bottomless labor and resources into the fight against time, they were creating and maintaining the "shallow form" and "fake form". In the end, once these"paradises" become "the world without human beings" under the unrelenting force of time, they would eventually transform into a natural wilderness where weeds thrive and animals hunt. In contrast, the terraced fields in the high mountains have adapted to the process and pattern of nature with the most economical labor and low input. Seed-sowing, irrigation, and harvest are all carried out according to the rhythms of nature, a balance achieved between input and harvest, creating a deep form. It represents a balance between human desires and natural forces and has endured for thousands of years. 

     So "Temporal Landscape" is not a false proposition, because even in "heaven" dreamed of and created by human beings, the existence of time also is often ignored.

主编寄语(俞孔坚)

论文
景观绩效研究:社会、经济和环境效益是否总是相得益彰?(罗毅、李明翰)

观点与评论
城市景观设计中的时间变化(卡罗尔•R•约翰逊)
因时而变的植物景观(董丽)
氛围:景观设计中的质量、感知与时间概念(斯蒂格•L•安德森)
荏苒之美(大卫•莱瑟巴罗)
春秋冬夏——北京百子甲壹宋庄工作室的景与观(彭乐乐)

原创实践
林中澄明——德国因戈尔施塔特冲积平原森林中的临时装置(OFICINAA设计事务所)
多伦多市高架公路桥下公园(PFS)
24节气园——日本丰洲公园城市社区景观设计(Earthscape景观设计事务所)
一个湖泊的重生——大同文瀛湖景观设计(AECOM)
自然的水系与文化的传承——美国印第安纳州拉法叶市沃巴士河道未来30年规划(徐之成)
时空雕塑(贝尔纳多• 迪亚斯、谷井千晶、钟秋莹)

探索与过程
高海岸:走向雪的海拔经济(亚历山大•阿罗约)
阿尔卑斯山转型过程——瑞士山区作为一种运行中的城市生态系统(达亚•柏高•斯图兹•司提帕查尔)


Editorial (by Kongjian YU)

Papers
A Study of Landscape Performance: Do Social, Economic and Environmental Benefits Always Complement Each Other? (by Yi LUO, Ming-Han LI)

Views and Criticisms
Examples Showcasing Time Changes of Urban Landscape Architecture (by Carol R. JOHNSON)
Plant Landscape Changing over Time (by Li DONG)
Atmosphere: Quality, Perception and the Concept of Time in Landscape Architecture (by Stig L. ANDERSSON)
The Layers of Time (by David LEATHERBARROW)
Spring and Autumn, Winter and Summer — Scenery and Impression from Atelier 100s+1 Songzhuang Office in Beijing (by Lele PENG)

Original Practices
Lichtung — An Ephemeral Installation in the Floodplain Forest of Ingolstadt, Germany (by OFICINAA)
Underpass Park, Toronto (by PFS)
24 Solar Term Gardens — The Landscape Design of the Park City Toyosu Community, Japan (by Earthscape)
The Rebirth of a Lake — Landscape Design of Wenying Lake in Datong (by AECOM)
Natural Water as Cultural Water — A Thirty Year Plan for Wabash River Corridor in Lafayette, Indiana, USA (by Zhicheng XU)
Timescape (by Bernardo DIAS, Chiaki YATSUI, Qiuying ZHONG)

Experiments and Processes
The High Coast: Toward an Altitudinal Economy of Snow (by Alexander ARROYO)
Alps as Process — Engaging Montane Switzerland as an Operating Urban Ecology (by Daia Paco Stutz STEPPACHER)
 

【中文刊名】《景观设计学》——时间景观
【英文刊名】Landscape Architecture Frontiers • The Layers of Time
【作者】李明翰(Ming-Han LI)、卡罗尔•R•约翰逊(Carol R. JOHNSON)、斯蒂格•L•安德森(Stig L. ANDERSSON)等
【出版社】高等教育出版社有限公司
【页码】158页彩色印刷
【刊号】ISSN 2095-5405
【出版日期】2014年2月
【定价】48.00元

景观绩效研究:社会、经济和环境效益是否总是相得益彰?
A Study of Landscape Performance:Do Social, Economic and Environmental Benefits Always Complement Each Other?

作者:罗毅、李明翰   Author: Yi LUO, Ming-Han LI

摘要……
本研究的目的包括两个部分:1)介绍景观绩效的背景和景观设计学基金会的案例研究调查计划;2)探讨景观环境、经济和社会效益在可持续性方面是相互冲突还是相互融合。根据景观设计学基金会的定义,景观绩效是用来“衡量景观设计措施在多大程度上实现既定目标,并且是否有助于实现可持续发展”。景观设计学基金会根据可持续性概念,通过量化环境、经济和社会效益建立了调查景观绩效的研究框架。目前常见的可持续发展观念通常围绕着探讨环境、经济和社会这三方面的效益展开,但是尚难以了解这三者的相互关系。大量文献证实了人类活动已对自然环境造成了严重影响,这意味着,在获得某些效益的同时,其他一些效益将受到阻碍,因而有必要在景观绩效中权衡各个方面。了解环境、经济和社会效益间的相互关系能够使设计师提升这三者的共容关系、缓和冲突关系,并在未来创造出高绩效景观。本研究中,我们运用景观设计学基金会在2011年案例研究调查计划中发表的39个景观绩效案例研究对4种假设进行了检验。

关键词 ……
景观表现;可持续性;冲突;让步;景观设计基金会;高绩效景观

Abstract ...
The purpose of this study is two-fold: 1) to introduce background of landscape performance and the Cast Study Investigation program of Landscape Architecture Foundation; and 2) to explore whether landscape’s environmental, economic and social benefits are conflicting or converging for sustainability. Landscape performance, as defined by the Landscape Architecture Foundation, is “the measure of efficiency with which landscape solutions fulfill their intended purpose and contribute toward sustainability.” Landscape Architecture Foundation based on the concept of sustainability to establish the research framework for investigating landscape performance by quantifying environmental, economic and social benefits. The current common sustainable development concept often discusses the benefits in the three environmental, economic and social aspects whereas their interrelationship is hardly addressed. Considering the large body of literature supporting the fact that human activities have significant influences on the natural environment, it seems that certain benefits would impede other benefits, and therefore result in tradeoffs in landscape performance. Understanding the interrelationship between the environmental, economic and social benefits, allows designers to enhance the compatible relationships, mitigate the conflicting relationships and create high-performing landscapes in the future. In this study, we used the 39 landscape performance case studies published by the Landscape Architecture Foundation in its 2011 Case Study Investigation (CSI) program to test four hypotheses.

Key words ...
Sustainability; Conflict; Tradeoff; Landscape Architecture Foundation; High-Performing Landscape.

 

城市景观设计中的时间变化
Examples Showcasing Time Changes of Urban Landscape Architecture

作者:卡罗尔•R•约翰逊   Author: Carol R. JOHNSON

摘要 ……
在城市区域中进行设计的景观设计师都面临着一些与所有景观项目类似的挑战,但也有一些是城市场地中所特有的问题。本文介绍了三个案例—哈佛大学中一栋20世纪建筑的景观设计,以及两处城市滨河地区的景观设计。每一个案例的成功在很大程度上都归功于树木的生长。此外,对场地的公共功能和整体环境进行的设计将会对项目的最终效果产生重要影响。

关键词 ……
地理设计;种植;树木;土壤;城市景观设计;时间变化

Abstract ...
Landscape architects who work in urban areas face some challenges which are similar to all landscape projects, and some of them are unique to urban sites. The article describes the landscape of a 20th Century buildings at Harvard University, and two other urban sites along rivers. In each case, the growth of trees has contributed significantly to the success of the project. In addition, a layout responsive to public use and the overall environment has contributed greatly to the final result.

Key words ...
rees; Soil; Urban Landscape Architecture; Temporal Change

 

因时而变的植物景观
Plant Landscape Changing over Time

作者:董丽   Author: Li DONG

摘要 ……
2一日之中、一年之中、植物个体的生命周期中,以及植物群落的演替过程中,植物景观都将呈现出丰富的变化。这种变化不仅体现在植物自身,也体现在植物所构成的空间特征上。本文概述了植物景观的变化,提出了结合这些变化的种植设计手法,并指出了当今社会对于植物景观的错误认识。

关键词 ……
地理设计;植物;群落;变化;季节

Abstract ...
Within a day or a year, during the life cycle of individual plants and the evolving process of the whole plant community, temporal changes of plant landscape have been taking place. Such changes are reflected not only in the plants per se, but also the spatial characteristics formed by the plants. This interview concentrates on the changes of plant landscape, and introduces planting design guidelines according to these changes, addressing the wrong understanding of plant landscape.

Key words ...
Plant; Plant Community; Change; Season

 

氛围:景观设计中的质量、感知与时间概念
Atmosphere: Quality, Perception and the Concept of Time in Landscape Architecture

作者:斯蒂格•L•安德森   Author: Stig L. ANDERSSON

摘要 ……
什么是景观设计的质量?我们如何对氛围进行定义?时间又在城市设计中扮演着怎样的角色?斯蒂格•L•安德森在本文中对这些问题进行了回应。他强调了环境背景的重要性,以及景观设计中数量与质量的差别,并倡导通过新颖和充满惊喜的方式,建立一种能够创造新意义、新体验和新氛围,并吸引我们融入城市和自然的景观设计。

关键词 ……
氛围;质量;环境背景;融入

Abstract ...
What is quality in landscape architecture? How do we define atmosphere? And what is the role of time in relation to urban design? These are the questions addressed by Stig L. Andersson in this article. He stresses the importance of context and the difference between quantity and quality in landscape design, arguing for the importance of a landscape design that creates new meanings, new experiences and new contexts that force us to engage with city and nature in new and surprising ways.

Key words ...
Atmosphere; Quality; Context; Engagement

 

荏苒之美
The Layers of Time

作者:大卫•莱瑟巴罗   Author: David LEATHERBARROW

摘要 ……
本文呈述的主要观点包括:时间决定了建筑形态的主要顺序,以及景观、街道、建筑、房间和各个细部的实际情况和意义。对于一个经过设计并得以施工建造的场所来说,时间并不是一种或然属性,而是对场地的基本结构和意义至关重要的因素。时间在建筑的不同空间中不断流动和静止,本文在此对时间的三个维度——世界时间、项目时间和体验时间——进行了讨论。通过考虑建筑或景观的材料、空间顺序和位置,对建筑的过去、现在和未来之间的相互联系进行了探讨。所有这一切又包含两部分的含义:我们的生活都被记录在我们所生活的空间中,而真正记录着一切的却是时间。

关键词 ……
运动;质量;预测;记忆;投射

Abstract ...
The basic thesis of this paper is that temporality gives access to the primary order of architectural topography and thus to the reality and meaning of landscapes, streets, buildings, rooms, and their details. Time is not a contingent attribute of the places intended in design and realized through construction but a key to their essential structure and significance. Three dimensions of temporality are discussed: the time of the world, of the project, and of the experience, as it moves through and comes to rest in a work’s several spatial situations. The interconnections between prior, present, and future appearances are discussed, in consideration of a building or landscape’s materials, spatial order, and location. All of this is set out in a two-part argument: that the stories of our lives are recorded in the spaces of our lives, and that this recording is essentially temporal.

Key words ...
Movement; Qualification; Anticipation; Recollection; Projection

 

春秋冬夏—北京百子甲壹宋庄工作室的景与观
Spring and Autumn, Winter and Summer—Scenery and Impression from Atelier 100s+1 Songzhuang Office in Beijing

作者:彭乐乐   Author: Lele PENG

摘要……
文章介绍了北京百子甲壹宋庄工作室的设计。作者通过对四季的不同感知、昼夜光线、温度变化的描述,展现出工作室设计的景与观,强调了对景观具象设计之外的意象认知。

关键词……
春秋;冬夏;昼夜;景与观

Abstract ...
This article introduces the design of Atelier 100s+1 Songzhuang Office in Beijing. Through describing experiences and perceptions of four seasons, day and night, and the temperature changes, the author delineates the scenery and impression of the buildings, emphasizing that the imagery cognition is more important than the detail design in landscape architecture.

Key words ...
Spring and Autumn; Winter and Summer; Day and Night; Scenery and Impression

 

林中澄明——德国因戈尔施塔特冲积平原森林中的临时装置
Lichtung — An Ephemeral Installation in the Floodplain Forest of Ingolstadt, Germany

作者:OFICINAA设计事务所   Author: by OFICINAA

摘要……
“林中澄明”这一装置位于德国因戈尔施塔特市的冲积林地中,沿当地一条400m长的狭窄小径而布设。它旨在使多瑙河能被居民们触摸和感知。“Lichtung”一词在德语中意为“林间空地”——由“licht”(德语中意为“光”)演变而来——是指一种不加掩饰的、自我反思的空间。

关键词……
氛围;冲积;林中空地;微气候

Abstract ...
Lichtung is an installation built along a narrow pathway of 400 m in the alluvial forest of Ingolstadt, Germany. It aims to immerse residents into the haptic qualities of the Danube River. Lichtung is the German word for “clearing”, and derives from light (licht); it is a space of disclosure, appearance, and reverberation.

Key words ...
Ephemeral Installation; Atmosphere; Alluvial; Clearing; Micro-climates

 

多伦多市高架公路桥下公园
Underpass Park, Toronto

作者:PFS   Author: PFS

摘要……
发生在20世纪中期的大规模城市公路建设运动,导致北美许多城市目前到处充斥着高架公路,这些公路将街区隔断,并且留下了未被利用的、废弃的、往往具有危险性的场所。多伦多高架公路桥下公园通过提出建造一个变革性的公园空间对这些城市街区进行了修复,这将有助于重新连接一个不断发展的社区,同时创造出一个具有高利用度、高参与性和高关注度的空间。

关键词……
多伦多;重新连接;变革;非传统

Abstract ...
As a result of aggressive urban highway building that took place during the mid 20th century, North American cities are littered with elevated roadways that have severed neighborhoods and left behind unused, derelict and often dangerous places. Underpass Park in Toronto fights back by delivering a transformative park space that helps reconnect an evolving community while providing a highly useable, engaging and eye catching space in the process.

Key words ...
Toronto; Reconnection; Transformation; Unconventional

 

24节气园——日本丰洲公园城市社区景观设计
24 Solar Term Gardens — The Landscape Design of the Park City Toyosu Community, Japan

作者:Earthscape景观设计事务所   Author: Earthscape

摘要……
24节气反映着一年中季节的变化,每个节气都是东方农历中的一个节点,有着相应的天文事件或重要的自然现象。本项目依据24节气设计了24个独立的、各具特色的花园。

关键词……
24节气;季节;农历;花园

Abstract ...
24 solar terms display the seasonal changes throughout a year. The solar cycle is composed of 24 points on the traditional East Asian lunar calendar, which correspond to particular astronomical events or signifying natural phenomenon.  In this project, we created 24 private gardens according to the 24 solar terms.

Key words ...
24 Solar Terms; Season; Lunar Calendar; Garden

 

一个湖泊的重生——大同文瀛湖景观设计
The Rebirth of a Lake — Landscape Design of Wenying Lake in Datong

作者:AECOM   Author: AECOM

摘要……
2008年,AECOM以实现湖泊的重生为目标,开始了文瀛湖周边地区的景观设计工作。通过一系列注重生态价值的设计手法,一个以生态自然为主轴、历史文化为核心的“城市绿肺”和水岸休闲空间得以重现。大型湖泊景观重现在黄土高原,生态鸟岛回归喧嚣都市。市民们在此享受着大自然、文化和艺术所带来的高品质生活,为文瀛湖的重生写下了最好的注脚。

关键词……
文瀛湖;城市绿肺;生态修复;重生
Abstract ...
In 2008, AECOM began the landscape design for the area surrounding Wenying Lake with the goal of revitalizing the lake. An “Urban Green Lung” and waterfront recreational space that focused on nature, history, and culture were recreated through a series of eco-focused design approaches. As a result, a large lake landscape has reappeared on the Loess Plateau and an eco-bird island has returned to the tumultuous city. Residents have benefited from the high-quality life brought about by nature, culture, and art, making the best footnote for the rebirth of Wenying Lake.

Key words ...
Wenying Lake; Urban Green Lung; Ecological Restoration; Rebirth

 

自然的水系与文化的传承——美国印第安纳州拉法叶市沃巴士河道未来30年规划
Natural Water as Cultural Water — A Thirty Year Plan for Wabash River Corridor in Lafayette, Indiana, USA

作者:徐之成   Author: Zhicheng XU

摘要……
本项目旨在寻找到印第安纳州拉法叶市沃巴士河流域的文化和自然之间的平衡点,季节性的洪水、无人管理的荒地和铁道的阻隔致使项目所在区域无法被周边的居民充分使用。该项目的设计方案运用了文化再现和雨洪管理技术,旨在复原生态和社会活力。通过自发性利用和动态组织,场地能够转变为一种具有文化特色的、可带来活跃的滨水体验的可持续基础设施。

关键词……
洪水;转变;景观基础设施;时间;自然;文化

Abstract ...
The project seeks to find the balancing point between culture and nature along the Wabash River in Lafayette, Indiana, which is currently underappreciated because of flooding, vacancy and disconnection. The design solutionis an embodiment of cultural representation and technology of stormwater management in order to achieve ecological and social resilience. With potential for spontaneous use and dynamic programming, the site can transform into asustainableinfrastructure with a cultural identity that provides active waterfront experience.

Key words ...
Flooding; Transformation; Landscape Infrastructure; Time; Nature; Culture

 

时空雕塑
Timescape

作者:贝尔纳多•迪亚斯、谷井千晶、钟秋莹   Author: Bernardo DIAS, Chiaki YATSUI, Qiuying ZHONG

摘要……
时空雕塑通过对建筑衰退的过程和潜能的自然探索来对几何雕塑进行变形。项目利用计算机技术对互锁砖的几何结构进行了研究,并生成3D模型,其结构采用当地材料——泥土、软木、沙子和水泥——构筑而成。这些材料以不同比例进行混合,并可在高压水流的冲击下进行分解。材料的形态学构造可以使雕塑的部分结构以坚固的混凝土为基础,起到结构支撑作用,而其他部分则相对脆弱、多孔且具有纹理。这一做法能够使建筑具有更多样的景观外貌,创造出一系列有趣且具不确定性的非正式空间。

关键词……
建筑衰退;互锁砖;当地材料;形态学塑造

Abstract ...
Timescape is a project that morphs geometric sculptures with nature to explore the idea of the picturesque and the potential of architectural decay. The virtual side of the project explores the geometry of interlocking bricks, generated from 3D pieces cast from local materials, such as earth, cork, sand, and cement, that will decomposed from exposure to high pressures of water mixed at different ratios. The shifting morphological shape means that some parts will maintain a concrete structural base, while others are more fragile, porous, and textural. During the process of exposure, the architecture is sacrificed to wider landscape, creating a series of informal spaces that are both intriguing and uncertain.

Key words ...
Architectural Decay; Interlocking Bricks; Local Materials; Morphological Shape

 

高海岸:走向雪的海拔经济
The High Coast:  Toward an Altitudinal Economy of Snow

作者:亚历山大•阿罗约Author:Alexander ARROYO

摘要……
作为地质圈和气象圈之间最直接的交接面,高海拔山区的“高海岸”拥有巨大、分散的,但却并未得到广泛认知的淡水“海洋”—积雪。在美国西部地区,80%以上的水源来自落基山脉、内华达山脉及其他山脉的融雪。因此,雪在很大程度上影响了区域性城市化过程中“地质技术”系统的形态。该系统中的基础设施性组成部分,包括从雪篱到森林格局的方方面面,反映出了特定的海拔和地形范围内当地经济和生态的情况。对这些组成部分的多样化整合需要一种跨越多个时空尺度的、既分散又系统化的积雪区域管理。在帕特里克•格迪斯、刘易斯•芒福德、本顿•迈克凯耶的研究的基础上,本研究通过重新审视“雪”并将其视为理论和物质的“地质技术”实践平台,进而为加利福尼亚州、内华达州和犹他州的一系列场地展开了一幅热动力环境的推测性图景,就高海岸“积雪急剧消融”的可能性与应用进行了探索。

关键词……
雪;岩土工程学;热力学;总体经济;远端城市化

Abstract ...
As avant-garde interface between geologic and meteorologic media, high-altitude montane and alpine zones constitute a "High Coast" delimiting a massive, diffuse, yet largely unrecognized freshwater "ocean": the snowpack. In the western United States, up to 80% of water resources draw from the snowpack of the Rockies, Sierra Nevadas, and other ranges; accordingly, snow has critically shaped geotechnical systems of regional urbanization, both up- and down-slope. The infrastructural components of such systems express the vernacular geographies of economy and ecology unique to each altitudinal and orographic (mountain) range, from snow-fences to forestry patterns. The highly varied coupling of components evidences decentralized yet systematic territorial management of snow across multiple spatio-temporal scales. Reimaging snow as theoretical and material ground for geotechnical praxis (following Patrick Geddes, Lewis Mumford, and Benton MacKaye), this project proposes a speculative thermodynamic narrative for a set of sites in California, Nevada, and Utah, exploring the potentials and implications of a "Big Melt" for the High Coast.

Key words ...
Snow; Geotechnics; Thermodynamics; General Economy; Remote Urbanization

 

阿尔卑斯山转型过程——瑞士山区作为一种运行中的城市生态系统
Alps as Process — Engaging Montane Switzerland as an Operating Urban Ecology

作者:达亚•柏高•斯图兹•司提帕查尔   Author: Daia Paco Stutz STEPPACHER

摘要……
本项目从最初对瑞士的地下城市化和超大型基础设施的研究项目,演变为一个关注阿尔卑斯地区的毕业设计项目:从气候条件的显著变化、大量基础设施集约化,到集中的房地产热潮以及随之产生的废弃和衰退现象,一系列动态力量目前正在影响欧洲阿尔卑斯地区,并彻底改变其地理和区域关系。这些城市转型作为新兴但却不可避免的现象,对那些静态、孤立地将阿尔卑斯地区概括为风景如画及以自然景观为主的主流观点,以及观点背后的一系列保护和保存工作提出了质疑。本文通过对世界上最大最深的隧道——瑞士阿尔卑斯铁路隧道(又称阿尔卑斯枢纽计划)的研究,提出了对阿尔卑斯山脉认知的反思,该地区不仅是处于转型期间被全面城市化和受到人工干预的区域,而其本身也是一个运行中的城市生态系统:在该系统中,城市化、去城市化、增长和萎缩过程成为一种系统、灵活的设计方式的程序化向量。

关键词……
阿尔卑斯山;基础设施;阿尔卑斯铁路隧道;城市生态

Abstract ...
What started as a research project on underground urbanization and mega-infrastructures in Switzerland became a thesis project on the Alps as a whole: from significant changes in climate conditions, heavy infrastructural intensification, to concentrated real-estate boom together with simultaneous abandonment and decline, a whole series of dynamic forces are currently pressing on the European Alps while thoroughly changing its geography and territorial relationships. As new yet indispensable phenomena, these urban transformations heavily question the predominant static and isolated view of the picturesque and natural alpine landscapes as well as the conservation and preservation efforts behind them. Through the lens of the new Transalpine Rail Tunnel in Switzerland (AlpTransit), the largest and deepest tunnel on earth, the paper outlines a radical rethinking of the Alps not only as an thoroughly urbanized and artificial territory in transition, but as an operating urban ecology itself where processes of urbanization, de-urbanization, growth and shrinkage become the programmatic vectors of a systemic and flexible design approach.


Key words ...
Alps; Infrastructure; Alps Transalpine Rail Tunnel; Urban Ecology