On the ＂Jungle Principle＂ and ＂Power Rehabilitation Center＂— Editorial of the No. 2 Issue for 2014, Landscape Architecture Frontiers
By Kongjian Yu
I recently had a discussion with a few urban planning friends about watertown planning issues in Shaoxing. The participants included Gary Hank, Harry Dodson, Jie Zhang, and Baojun Yang. At some point, the conversation shifted towards political interventions in urban construction, and someone made a reference to what the central leaders have called ＂put the power in the cage of regulations＂, hoping that urban design and construction would become more rational and scientific under the new circumstances. Baojun Yang from the China Academy of Urban Planning inspired us with a story: ＂In a forest, a tiger makes a cage and locked himself up because the grievances from other animals are heard everywhere. The animals get extremely excited after that. The tiger smiles and says to himself, ‘Look at those fools! They do not even think about who has the key to the cage'.＂ Yang's analogy sounds simple, but is actually quite thought-provoking. It leads to the idea of the ＂Jungle Principle＂ and what happens when it is intervened by the outside world.
If we consider the jungle as an ecosystem, there are several key points worth exploring: privileges and the food chain, individual interests and population prosperity, competition and mutual benefits, diversity and symbiosis, and self-organization and sustainability. Following Darwin, natural selection and competition over millions of years have made the jungle a diverse and colorful world. As natural selection acts by competition, each species evolves and develops their abilities in order to survive and prosper, allowing species to live harmoniously and drive the system forward. The invisible hand of evolution is natural selection. If an alien species (including human beings) invades the jungle setting and ＂tramples on＂ the ＂Jungle Principle＂ with privileges, the prosperity and balance of the jungle would fall apart. Research on ecology has already proved this — man's privileged intrusion has jeopardized the prosperity and balance of the world. Thus, locking up the tigers, or even killing them will actually ruin the diversity, the balanced completion and the common prosperity of the jungle.
The ＂Jungle Principle＂ and its intervention rule have long been widely applied to the study of social systems. This principle can also be applied to the development of different disciplines and industries, and each discipline and industry has its own ＂Jungle Principle＂. Individuals tend to do their best for their own interests and development, which will ultimately benefit the prosperity and development of the entire industry and academia. The academic capacity and professional contribution are measured by innovation and quality. In a healthy social-ecological system, a peer group is the community of common interests, just as the species and communities in the jungle. For the benefits of the community, we need to set up publicly agreed criteria to form a fair and impartial value system and industry culture. However, over the past few decades, whether it was for legitimate reasons (like sharing and benefiting the development outcomes with the public in a more impartially way) or improper reasons (to benefit departmental or individual interests), political powers have tried to replace the invisible hands to control the discipline and industry development. As a result of political involvement in design disciplines, ＂Power Rent Seeking＂ is everywhere and independent innovation has not received respect and recognition. On the contrary, people always go after privilege rather than complying with ＂Jungle Principle＂. In a professional industry, people with big administrative titles become the authority of the industry. Nobody fights hard for the academic position and nobody cares about the truth anymore. Academic societies and industry associations are like municipal agencies and are supervised by certain municipal bureaus. ＂A position with a big title＂ has become a secondary career for retired cadre, while academic respect and recognition have been left behind. The funding of these associations has become the field trip fee for the leadership to ＂study and learn＂ abroad. How can there be any funding left to make progress for the majority members? Awards and prizes have been labeled with (governmental) power. You have to buy the awards through bribing the management, which has become a hidden rule that everyone knows. Who still works for their academic pursuits and business innovation? Even work eligibility — a basic right of citizens — has to be obtained through the hands of those in power. Those that are lucky enough to get legal recognition feel so grateful cannot thank the leadership enough. Those who do their jobs well but do not play the game, only end up practicing without an issued license. It does not matter if they are at the top of their field. Millions of people swallow their anger, but dare not to say a word!
In China, a real understanding of the economic market has only just begun. I have no idea how many people in landscape architecture and related fields really understand the call of ＂let market forces play＂. However, my colleagues, you must understand here: an industry community that cannot comply with the jungle principal, or does not understand natural selection through the lens of competition, or cannot tell if a standard is good or bad, or does not gather together with their own best contributions, or is not self-organized, will not survive the market forces. The only way out is open your eyes as soon as possible, embrace the opportunities and challenges that the new era brings, and establish our own ＂Jungle Principle＂, which is the ＂Invisible Hand＂ of Adam Smith — the market. Breath in the new air that new central policies have brought, I dare to announce here: the spring of Landscape Architecture industry is coming!
We cannot expect spring to come easily; power is too tempting, just like drugs. Those who are hooked on ＂power addiction＂ will not just surrender; those latecomers who turn to power instead of ＂jungle survival skills＂ will not stay away from the temptation. Unlike the ability that can be gained through hard efforts, the privilege can be easily accessed through ＂unusual ways＂. Therefore, it is time to open a series of ＂power rehabilitation center＂, just like the ＂drug rehabilitation center＂ I saw in Yunnan, before or while they ＂put the power in the cage＂. Otherwise, the key is still in their hands, who can guarantee that they will not let themselves out some day?
Editorial (by Kongjian YU)
Dimensions of Future Landscape Architectural Practices (by Niall G. KIRKWOOD)
Views and Criticisms
Report on “The Power of the Market” Forum (by Landscape Architecture Frontiers)
The Future of Landscape Architecture Industry Depends on the Future of Market Reform (by Dihua LI)
The Power of the Market: Landscape and Economics (by Simon BELL)
Teaching Rationale: Contextualizing the Ecological Footprint in Hong Kong at Division of Landscape Architecture, the University of Hong Kong (by Qian ZHANG, Matthew PRYOR)
Return to Shantou — Urban Design of the New East Coastal Area of Shantou, Guangdong (by Duanyang FAN, Yanmin HU)
Moon River Tourism Real Estate Complex Project, Jiangsu (by Shenzhen Art-spring Landscape Design Co., Ltd.)
Dali Stone Mountain Resort, Yunnan (by WSP ARCHITECTS)
Palm Island, Chongqing (by HASSELL)
Slow Down: Minghu Wetland Park in Liupanshui, Guizhou (by Kongjian YU)
Sherbourne Common, Toronto (by PFS)
Experiments and Processes
Great Lakes: The Environment and the Economy (by SOM City Design Practice)
The Nomad, the Technologist: A 21st Century Steppe Fable (by Xiaowei WANG)
【英文刊名】Landscape Architecture Frontiers • The Power of the Market
【作者】尼尔•G•柯克伍德（Niall G. KIRKWOOD）、李迪华（Dihua LI）、西蒙•贝尔（Simon BELL）等
Dimensions of Future Landscape Architectural Practices
作者：尼尔•G•柯克伍德 Author: Niall G. KIRKWOOD
Landscape architectural design practice is explored through the relationship between current landscape construction approaches and the evolving contemporary environment. Techne acknowledges workability and the durable ecological, economic, cultural and environmental dimensions within the implementation of built landscape work over time and can offer an alternative landscape focus to the current design concerns of indeterminacy, openness and flux currently advanced by academics and practitioners. This paper represents landscape design practices based on the ideas of time and techne in the making of landscape architecture developed by the author within the past several years. Opportunities and challenges are outlined and discussed through practicum work of the Center for Technology and Environment (CTE) at Graduate School of Design of Harvard University founded and led by the author. In particular the potential of new site technologies, an emerging range of landscape materials and the nature of regeneration engineering are delineated through site design case studies located globally in Europe, Africa and the Middle East.
Key words ...
Landscape Architecture; Site Construction; Techne; Innovative Landscape Technologies; Engineering Remediation
Report on “The Power of the Market” Forum
作者：《景观设计学》编辑部 Author: Landscape Architecture Frontiers
On January 10, 2014, a forum titled “The Power of the Market: Impact of the Marketization Statement upon the Design Industry and Educational Development” was held. The conference was organized by Landscape Architecture Frontiers and hosted by the College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture of Peking University. The conference attracted experts from governmental agencies, design firms, and universities to discuss how market reform and a more open market will affect the design industry, and how professional designers and universities can cooperate to advance the discipline.
Key words ...
Landscape Architecture; Design; Industry Development; Education; Marketization
The Future of Landscape Architecture Industry Depends on the Future of Market Reform
作者：李迪华 Author: Dihua LI
Through an analysis of the dilemmas facing landscape architecture industry in China, this paper proposes that the core criteria for evaluating the industrial level of landscape architecture is the optimal allocation of lands and other social public resources. Marketization reform will result in both enterprises and individual practitioners promoting a benign development of the industry. Already, increased industry standards have placed higher requirements on educational quality. Finally, with the help of market forces, positive interaction between landscape architecture industry and professional education can be achieved.
Key words ...
Market Economy; Landscape Architecture; Professionalism; Professional Spirit
The Power of the Market:Landscape and Economics
作者：西蒙•贝尔 Author: Simon BELL
It is indisputable that one of the biggest drivers of landscape change today is economics as a mediator of supply and demand. In order to satisfy demand for houses, goods and services, which are susceptible to economic cycles, social imbalances and the vagaries of fashion, land is needed, resources are needed and people are also needed, often in different places from where they live. Thus the market has great power. This is perhaps more balanced and regulated in advanced and mature capitalist economies and less so in developing post-socialist or post-planned economic conditions. It is also perhaps axiomatic that landscape architects consider any attempt to value such intangible things as aesthetics or beauty in monetary terms as undesirable. However, the market and economics has always played a role in Western countries, perhaps it is just not fully recognized; landscapes may have values but these are not always monetarized. When the assumption is that economics expressed through the market means land use change from natural to developed conditions, for example, and thus always a negative direction, this misses the point that good landscape and good landscape design can affect and be affected by the market.
Key words ...
Market Economy; Landscape Dynamics; Non-market Benefits; Property Values
Teaching Rationale:Contextualizing the Ecological Footprint in Hong Kong at Division of Landscape Architecture, the University of Hong Kong
作者：张谦、彭文辉 Author: Qian ZHANG, Matthew PRYOR
The compacted and concentrated city area and its built environment draw upon an ever widening hinterland for its life support. These resources continuously pulse in and out of the city’s physical boundary through constructed infrastructures. In this sense, the reach of the city is far beyond its physical location, moreover, the denser the city, the starker the contrast is between its built form and the geographical extent of its depending territory. “Contextualizing the Ecological Footprint in Hong Kong” is an educational research project in which first-year undergraduates of the built environment at the University of Hong Kong (ARCH1028 Sustainability and the Built Environment) were encouraged to define and explore issues of sustainability within dense urban settings, and to speculate on the concept of sustainable issues. This paper presents the teaching approach, student research and contextual analysis of five decisive factors that the city relies upon for its life support (energy, food, people, water and waste), across eight different urban neighborhoods (Admiralty, Ap Lei Chau, Hung Hom, Kowloon Bay, Mong Kok, Sha Tin, Tin Shui Wai and Yau Tong) in Hong Kong. “Contextualizing the Ecological Footprint in Hong Kong” also enrolled 2013 Bi-City Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture (Hong Kong).
Key words ...
Ecological Footprint; Sustainable Development; Teaching Sustainability; Urban Context
Return to Shantou —Urban Design of the New East Coastal Area of Shantou, Guangdong
作者：范端阳、胡艳敏 Author: Duanyang FAN, Yanmin HU
KuiperCompagnons and Paul Andreu Architecte submitted their proposal for the International Planning Competition of the New East Coastal Area in Shantou in 2013, and were awarded the shared first Prize. The proposal, Return to Shantou, outlines the site as an important function and service center to the future urban development of Shantou, and a driver for new urban growth, highlighting its potential to show distinctive characteristics of Shantou and become a catalyst for transforming the city from an inner bay city to one oriented to the coast.
Key words ...
Urban Design; Planning; International Competition; New Coastal Area
Moon River Tourism Real Estate Complex Project, Jiangsu
作者：深圳市阿特森泛华环境艺术设计有限公司 Author: Shenzhen Art-spring Landscape Design Co., Ltd.
Moon River is a tourism real estate complex project entrusted by Oversea China Town (OCT) Group in Zhouzhuang. The project uses modern design approaches and southern Chinese culture to show the unique waterscape of Zhouzhuang, “the first water village in China”. The incorporation of cultural inheritance shows a high commitment to social, cultural, and ecological values.
Key words ...
Tourism Real Estate: Complex; Multiple Professional Design Collaboration; Social Value; Cultural Value; Ecological Value
Dali Stone Mountain Resort, Yunnan
作者：维思平建筑设计 Author: WSP ARCHITECTS
The Dali Stone Mountain Resort in Yunnan sits between the old city of Dali and the new city of Xiaguan, with the Cangshan Mountain on one side and the Erhai Lake on the other. The design team reshaped the landscape by improving the infrastructure and support facilities, preservation of the natural environment, and highlighting local cultural and architectural characteristics. A tourist destination was created by integrating residence, hotel and commerce facilities.
Key words ...
Tourism Real Estate; Natural Scenery; Planning; Cultural inheritance; Architectural Design
Palm Island, Chongqing
作者：HASSELL Author: HASSELL
The Palm Island is composed of five buildings that “floating” on the lake. The dynamic and fluid architecture lines, vivid material contrast, and concise color selection have created the fashion and high-end commercial landmark image. The Palm Island has provided comfortable dining environment, improved the quality of life in the region, and also contributed to energy consumption reduction.
Key words ...
Palm Island; Water; Commercial Space; Improvement of the Quality of Life; Reduction of Energy Consumption
Slow Down: Minghu Wetland Park in Liupanshui, Guizhou
作者：俞孔坚 Author: Kongjian YU
Through a series of regenerative design techniques, particularly measures to slow down the flow of stormwater, a channelized concrete river and a deteriorated peri-urban site have been transformed into a nationally celebrated wetland park that functions as a major part of the city-wide ecological infrastructure planned to provide multiple ecosystem services, including stormwater management, water cleansing, and recovery of native habitats, as well as a creation of a cherished public space for gathering and aesthetic enjoyment.
Key words ...
Municipal Commitment; Wetland; Restoration; Purification; Stormwater; Public Space
Sherbourne Common, Toronto
作者：PFS Author: PFS
Sherbourne Common is both major civic amenity and poetic stormwater treatment infrastructure, and a key component of the renaissance of Toronto’s waterfront. The park seamlessly interweaves stormwater management, landscape, architecture, program, and art and is the first Canadian park to integrate a UV purification facility for neighbourhood-wide stormwater treatment.
Key words ...
Transformative Urban Park; Hybridized Civic Infrastructure; Public Amenity; Catalytic Nodes; Seamless Integration
Great Lakes: The Environment and the Economy
作者：SOM城市设计实践团队 Author: SOM City Design Practice
The U.S.-Canadian Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River basin holds 20 percent of earth’s surface fresh water and sustains a megalopolis of 50 million people. For more than four years, the City Design Practice of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM) has pioneered a holistic, 100-year vision for the basin’s environmental restoration and economic renewal. The Great Lakes Century pioneers an ecosystem-scale planning perspective and suggests strategies for managing not just regional growth but global population growth and urbanization. SOM calls for a vision that balances humanity and nature for the good of both. SOM partner Philip Enquist leads the initiative that researched the vast region’s vulnerabilities and assets, defined visionary turnaround strategies and created powerful presentations to government, academic, environmental and public audiences. It created what was missing: a unifying and overarching bi-national perspective. Its innovative approach has been recognized by America’s highest urban design and landscape architecture awards.
Key words ...
Great Lakes; Environment; Economy; Bi-national; 100-year Vision
The Nomad, the Technologist: A 21st Century Steppe Fable
作者：王筱玮 Author: Xiaowei WANG
This project is a projective fable in video format that positions political fiction as a design project. As primitive accumulation, production and landscape ecology are the driver of markets and economic structure, the project unpacks the contrasting ecologies of Mongolia’s steppe to China’s agricultural land use, establishing the connections between market forces and landscape architecture. The Nomad, The Technologist began with field research in Mongolia’s Gobi Desert, examining sites of resource extraction across the Steppe — from the mines of Oyu Tolgoi and Erdenet to areas representative of Mongolia’s unique forms of transient urbanization in Ulaan Baatar. This project of design fiction moves through a series of proposed infrastructural elements that are agile and mutable depending on seasonal fluctuations of economic needs, using air fields, hangars and traditional landscape elements such as naleds (intentionally created ice shields) to envision an ecology of labor that is tied to an ecology of the Steppe. Seeing this proposal as factual narrative, the video ends in the far future of 2020 but using contemporary conditions and political situations of today — China’s battle against desertification and the Steppe as a mechanism to protect food security and a market economy based on agriculture.
Key words ...
Steppe; Markets; Political Economy