《景观设计学》2014年第2期

作    者:尼尔•G•柯克伍德(Niall G. KIRKWOOD)、李迪华(Dihua LI)、西蒙•贝尔(Simon BELL)等
类    别:景观
出 版 社:高等教育出版社有限公司
出版时间:2014年4月

导言 目录 作品信息 书评

俞孔坚•论“丛林法则”与“戒权所”
——《景观设计学》2014年第2期“主编寄语”
On the "Jungle Principle" and "Power Rehabilitation Center"— Editorial of the No. 2 Issue for 2014, Landscape Architecture Frontiers
By Kongjian Yu



     近日,我与城市规划界的几位朋友在绍兴讨论有关水城规划的问题,参与者包括盖里•汉克、哈里•多德森、张杰、杨保军等。当谈到权力对城市建设的干预时,有人引用了中央领导人“把权力关进制度的笼子里”的说法,期望在新形势下,城市的规划建设能在更加理性、更加科学的轨道上运行。中国城市规划院的杨保军为我们转述了一个故事:因为老虎听到丛林中的动物对自己常有不满意见,于是便做了个笼子,把自己关了起来。大家得知后都欢天喜地。老虎心想:这群傻瓜,也不看笼子的钥匙在谁手里。这个故事虽然颇具调侃性,但却令人深思,这便是“丛林法则”和关于丛林法则的干预。

     当我们将丛林看作一个生态系统的概念时,有几个关键点值得我们去探索,包括特权和食物链、个体利益和种群繁荣、竞争与互利、种群的多样性与和谐共生、自组织与可持续性等。根据达尔文的理论,千百万年以来的物竞天择,形成了丰富多彩的丛林世界。由于竞争,每个物种都进化出了各自的能力以获得生存和繁衍的机会。多样化的生存方式,使这个世界充满竞争却和谐共荣,并不断积累着负熵,促使整个系统走向进化。这一进化过程的背后有一只无形的手,那就是物竞天择法则。如果一个外来物种(包括人)突然入侵,借助没有任何制约的特权“践踏”丛林规则,将导致繁荣和谐的丛林面临毁灭。生态学方面的研究早已证明了这一点——人以特权者的身份介入,使世界丛林岌岌可危。然而,把老虎关起来,甚至将其赶尽杀绝,这本身就是对丛林多样性、和谐竞争与共荣世界的破坏。

     这种自然生态系统的“丛林法则”及其干预规律,早已被广泛应用于对社会系统的认知之中。引申至学科和行业的发展中再恰当不过。原本学科和行业的发展有其自身的“丛林法则”,个体为追求自身的最大利益和最佳发展而发挥各自的能力,最终将惠及整个学界和行业的繁荣与发展。学术和专业的能力及贡献则以创新和质量为准绳。在一个健康的社会生态系统中,同行即利益共同体,也就是丛林中的种群和群落,为了群体的利益,对每个个体的贡献设定公认的衡量标准,从而形成公平、公正的价值体系和行业文化。然而,过去几十年以来,不论是出于正当(如让发展成果更多、更公平地惠及全体人民)或不正当(如谋求部门或个人私利)目的,有形的权力之手一直在试图代替无形之手,操控设计学科和行业的发展。于是“权力寻租”泛滥各个角落,个体的创新得不到尊重和认可;相反,对“丛林法则”之外的特权的追求,却成为许多个体的努力方向。与各个行政级别对应的“长”们被等同于行业权威,于是,为追求“长”而奋斗,唯“长”是从,便成为行业内个体们忙碌的归宿,哪管学术立场和对真理的坚持?学会和行业协会被等同于部、局之类的政府机关,并归属于某某部委管辖,“长”们也便成为退休干部的第二职业,哪有学术尊严和地位?学会、行业协会的会费都变成供那些“长”们出国“考察”的经费,哪有能力为广大会员的共同进步而服务?行业的奖项被贴上了(政府)权力的标签,于是,买通奖项管理人员便成为行业内心照不宣的“潜规则”,哪管学术追求和业务创新?就连一个从业者的资质——公民的基本权利,也要从掌权者手中求得。历经千苦万难,或有幸最终获得,便感激涕零,三呼“谢主隆恩”,或不愿卑躬屈膝极尽苟且之能事,有些行业佼佼者,也最终落得无照经营之窘境。敢怒而不敢言者,何止千万!

     在中国,对市场的真正认识才刚刚开始,在与景观设计相关的行业和学界中,有多少人能够理解党和中央政府最近发布的一系列关于“发挥市场力量”的号召,我不得而知。但是,每位同行必须明白:一个不能遵守丛林法则和不懂得优胜劣汰规则的行业群体,一个不懂得优劣标准的行业群体,一个不能集成和发扬优秀个体的贡献的行业群体,一个不能自律和自组织的行业共同体,最终将无法立足于市场。而唯一的出路就是尽快觉醒,迎接新时代的机遇,建立起自己的丛林法则,即亚当•斯密的“无形之手”——市场。深吸着中央新政的新风,我斗胆在此宣称:景观设计行业的春天真正来临了!

     但我们不能期望春天能够来得那么容易,因为权力如同毒品,太具诱惑力。那些上了“权瘾”的君子们,绝不会自动放弃权力;那些向往以权力代替“丛林生存技能”的后来者们,也绝不会远离“权毒”的诱惑。因为不同于需要经过艰苦卓绝的奋斗而获得的能力,这种丛林之外的特权可以通过“非常手段”轻松获得。因此,当务之急是在“把权力关进制度的笼子里”之前或同时,开设一系列“戒权所”——如同我在云南看到的“戒毒所”。否则,如果“钥匙”还掌握在他们手上,谁敢担保哪天他不会把自己放出来?




I recently had a discussion with a few urban planning friends about watertown planning issues in Shaoxing. The participants included Gary Hank, Harry Dodson, Jie Zhang, and Baojun Yang. At some point, the conversation shifted towards political interventions in urban construction, and someone made a reference to what the central leaders have called "put the power in the cage of regulations", hoping that urban design and construction would become more rational and scientific under the new circumstances. Baojun Yang from the China Academy of Urban Planning inspired us with a story: "In a forest, a tiger makes a cage and locked himself up because the grievances from other animals are heard everywhere. The animals get extremely excited after that. The tiger smiles and says to himself, ‘Look at those fools! They do not even think about who has the key to the cage'." Yang's analogy sounds simple, but is actually quite thought-provoking. It leads to the idea of the "Jungle Principle" and what happens when it is intervened by the outside world. 

     If we consider the jungle as an ecosystem, there are several key points worth exploring: privileges and the food chain, individual interests and population prosperity, competition and mutual benefits, diversity and symbiosis, and self-organization and sustainability. Following Darwin, natural selection and competition over millions of years have made the jungle a diverse and colorful world. As natural selection acts by competition, each species evolves and develops their abilities in order to survive and prosper, allowing species to live harmoniously and drive the system forward. The invisible hand of evolution is natural selection. If an alien species (including human beings) invades the jungle setting and "tramples on" the "Jungle Principle" with privileges, the prosperity and balance of the jungle would fall apart. Research on ecology has already proved this — man's privileged intrusion has jeopardized the prosperity and balance of the world. Thus, locking up the tigers, or even killing them will actually ruin the diversity, the balanced completion and the common prosperity of the jungle. 

     The "Jungle Principle" and its intervention rule have long been widely applied to the study of social systems. This principle can also be applied to the development of different disciplines and industries, and each discipline and industry has its own "Jungle Principle". Individuals tend to do their best for their own interests and development, which will ultimately benefit the prosperity and development of the entire industry and academia. The academic capacity and professional contribution are measured by innovation and quality. In a healthy social-ecological system, a peer group is the community of common interests, just as the species and communities in the jungle. For the benefits of the community, we need to set up publicly agreed criteria to form a fair and impartial value system and industry culture. However, over the past few decades, whether it was for legitimate reasons (like sharing and benefiting the development outcomes with the public in a more impartially way) or improper reasons (to benefit departmental or individual interests), political powers have tried to replace the invisible hands to control the discipline and industry development. As a result of political involvement in design disciplines, "Power Rent Seeking" is everywhere and independent innovation has not received respect and recognition. On the contrary, people always go after privilege rather than complying with "Jungle Principle". In a professional industry, people with big administrative titles become the authority of the industry. Nobody fights hard for the academic position and nobody cares about the truth anymore. Academic societies and industry associations are like municipal agencies and are supervised by certain municipal bureaus. "A position with a big title" has become a secondary career for retired cadre, while academic respect and recognition have been left behind. The funding of these associations has become the field trip fee for the leadership to "study and learn" abroad. How can there be any funding left to make progress for the majority members? Awards and prizes have been labeled with (governmental) power. You have to buy the awards through bribing the management, which has become a hidden rule that everyone knows. Who still works for their academic pursuits and business innovation? Even work eligibility — a basic right of citizens — has to be obtained through the hands of those in power. Those that are lucky enough to get legal recognition feel so grateful cannot thank the leadership enough. Those who do their jobs well but do not play the game, only end up practicing without an issued license. It does not matter if they are at the top of their field. Millions of people swallow their anger, but dare not to say a word! 

     In China, a real understanding of the economic market has only just begun. I have no idea how many people in landscape architecture and related fields really understand the call of "let market forces play". However, my colleagues, you must understand here: an industry community that cannot comply with the jungle principal, or does not understand natural selection through the lens of competition, or cannot tell if a standard is good or bad, or does not gather together with their own best contributions, or is not self-organized, will not survive the market forces. The only way out is open your eyes as soon as possible, embrace the opportunities and challenges that the new era brings, and establish our own "Jungle Principle", which is the "Invisible Hand" of Adam Smith — the market. Breath in the new air that new central policies have brought, I dare to announce here: the spring of Landscape Architecture industry is coming! 

     We cannot expect spring to come easily; power is too tempting, just like drugs. Those who are hooked on "power addiction" will not just surrender; those latecomers who turn to power instead of "jungle survival skills" will not stay away from the temptation. Unlike the ability that can be gained through hard efforts, the privilege can be easily accessed through "unusual ways". Therefore, it is time to open a series of "power rehabilitation center", just like the "drug rehabilitation center" I saw in Yunnan, before or while they "put the power in the cage". Otherwise, the key is still in their hands, who can guarantee that they will not let themselves out some day? 

主编寄语(俞孔坚)

论文
未来景观设计实践的维度(尼尔•G•柯克伍德)

观点与评论
“市场的力量”沙龙纪实(《景观设计学》编辑部)
景观设计行业水平的提升有赖于市场化改革的推进(李迪华)
市场的力量:景观和经济(西蒙•贝尔)
理性教育:香港大学园境建筑学部基础课程之香港生态足迹的背景分析(张谦、彭文辉)

原创实践
回归汕头—广东省汕头市海湾新区东海岸新城城市设计(范端阳、胡艳敏)
江苏省水月周庄旅游地产综合体项目(深圳市阿特森泛华环境艺术设计有限公司)
云南省大理苍海一墅国际养生度假小镇(维思平建筑设计)
重庆棕榈岛(HASSELL)
慢下来:贵州省六盘水明湖湿地公园(俞孔坚)
多伦多雪邦公园(PFS)

探索与过程
五大湖:环境与经济(SOM城市设计实践团队)
游牧民、技术专家:21世纪的草原寓言(王筱玮)

 

Editorial (by Kongjian YU)

Papers
Dimensions of Future Landscape Architectural Practices (by Niall G. KIRKWOOD)

Views and Criticisms
Report on “The Power of the Market” Forum (by Landscape Architecture Frontiers)
The Future of Landscape Architecture Industry Depends on the Future of Market Reform (by Dihua LI)
The Power of the Market: Landscape and Economics (by Simon BELL)
Teaching Rationale: Contextualizing the Ecological Footprint in Hong Kong at Division of Landscape Architecture, the University of Hong Kong (by Qian ZHANG, Matthew PRYOR)

Original Practices
Return to Shantou — Urban Design of the New East Coastal Area of Shantou, Guangdong (by Duanyang FAN, Yanmin HU)
Moon River Tourism Real Estate Complex Project, Jiangsu (by Shenzhen Art-spring Landscape Design Co., Ltd.)
Dali Stone Mountain Resort, Yunnan (by WSP ARCHITECTS)
Palm Island, Chongqing (by HASSELL)
Slow Down: Minghu Wetland Park in Liupanshui, Guizhou (by Kongjian YU)
Sherbourne Common, Toronto (by PFS)

Experiments and Processes
Great Lakes: The Environment and the Economy (by SOM City Design Practice)
The Nomad, the Technologist: A 21st Century Steppe Fable (by Xiaowei WANG)

【中文刊名】《景观设计学》——市场的力量
【英文刊名】Landscape Architecture Frontiers • The Power of the Market
【作者】尼尔•G•柯克伍德(Niall G. KIRKWOOD)、李迪华(Dihua LI)、西蒙•贝尔(Simon BELL)等
【出版社】高等教育出版社有限公司
【页码】176页彩色印刷
【刊号】ISSN 2095-5405
【出版日期】2014年4月
【定价】48.00元

未来景观设计实践的维度
Dimensions of Future Landscape Architectural Practices

作者:尼尔•G•柯克伍德   Author: Niall G. KIRKWOOD

摘要 ……
当前的景观建造手段和不断变化的当代环境这二者之间的关系可以用于探究景观设计的实践活动。技艺必须具备可操作性,在建成景观作品的实施过程中,生态、经济、文化和环境的维度会随时间而演变,为学术界和执业者所推动的有关当前设计的不确定性、开放性和流动性等问题提供一个不同寻常的景观焦点。本文基于作者过去数年在景观设计创造过程中所积累的时间和技术方面的心得,对景观设计实践进行了阐述。本文指出了景观设计中的机遇与挑战,并通过由作者创立的哈佛大学设计学院技术与环境研究中心的实践项目对这些机遇和挑战进行了探讨。尤其在新场地技术的潜能方面,本文通过位于欧洲、非洲和中东地区的场地设计案例研究,对景观材料方面的新兴领域和再生工程的本质进行了阐述。

关键词 ……
景观设计学;场地建造;技艺;创新景观技术;工程修复

Abstract ...
Landscape architectural design practice is explored through the relationship between current landscape construction approaches and the evolving contemporary environment. Techne acknowledges workability and the durable ecological, economic, cultural and environmental dimensions within the implementation of built landscape work over time and can offer an alternative landscape focus to the current design concerns of indeterminacy, openness and flux currently advanced by academics and practitioners. This paper represents landscape design practices based on the ideas of time and techne in the making of landscape architecture developed by the author within the past several years. Opportunities and challenges are outlined and discussed through practicum work of the Center for Technology and Environment (CTE) at Graduate School of Design of Harvard University founded and led by the author. In particular the potential of new site technologies, an emerging range of landscape materials and the nature of regeneration engineering are delineated through site design case studies located globally in Europe, Africa and the Middle East.

Key words ...
Landscape Architecture; Site Construction; Techne; Innovative Landscape Technologies; Engineering Remediation

 

“市场的力量”沙龙纪实
Report on “The Power of the Market” Forum

作者:《景观设计学》编辑部   Author: Landscape Architecture Frontiers

摘要 ……
2014年1月10日,“市场的力量—十八届三中全会关于‘市场化’对设计行业与教育发展的影响”主题沙龙举办。本次沙龙由北京大学建筑与景观设计学院主办,《景观设计学》杂志承办。沙龙旨在探讨未来“市场化”趋势对景观设计的行业与教育发展的影响,发掘行业与教育未来的理性发展目标和方向。来自政府机构、设计企业、高校的专家围绕市场化背景下的国家需求、设计行业和教育如何回应市场化的需求、企业与高校如何建立合作等几大重要议题展开了讨论。
关键词 ……
景观;设计;行业发展;教育;市场化

Abstract ...
On January 10, 2014, a forum titled “The Power of the Market: Impact of the Marketization Statement upon the Design Industry and Educational Development” was held. The conference was organized by Landscape Architecture Frontiers and hosted by the College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture of Peking University. The conference attracted experts from governmental agencies, design firms, and universities to discuss how market reform and a more open market will affect the design industry, and how professional designers and universities can cooperate to advance the discipline.

Key words ...
Landscape Architecture; Design; Industry Development; Education; Marketization

 

景观设计行业水平的提升有赖于市场化改革的推进
The Future of Landscape Architecture Industry Depends on the Future of Market Reform

作者:李迪华   Author: Dihua LI

摘要 ……
本文从分析中国景观设计行业面临的困境入手,提出评判景观设计行业水平的核心标准是土地等社会公共资源的优化配置程度。市场化改革将促使企业与个人从业者共同推进行业的良性发展;行业水平的提高将对教育质量提出更高的要求。最后,作者指出只有借助市场的力量,景观设计学科和学科教育才会实现良性互动。
关键词 ……
市场经济;景观设计学;行业水平;职业精神

Abstract ...
Through an analysis of the dilemmas facing landscape architecture industry in China, this paper proposes that the core criteria for evaluating the industrial level of landscape architecture is the optimal allocation of lands and other social public resources. Marketization reform will result in both enterprises and individual practitioners promoting a benign development of the industry. Already, increased industry standards have placed higher requirements on educational quality. Finally, with the help of market forces, positive interaction between landscape architecture industry and professional education can be achieved.

Key words ...
Market Economy; Landscape Architecture; Professionalism; Professional Spirit

 

市场的力量:景观和经济
The Power of the Market:Landscape and Economics

作者:西蒙•贝尔   Author: Simon BELL

摘要 ……
经济,作为供求的中介,无疑是当今致使景观发生改变的最大动因之一。为了满足住房、商品和服务等需求——这些需求易受经济周期、社会失衡和时尚变换的影响——需要土地,需要资源,还需要人力,这些人经常离开生活所在地,前往他处工作。这就体现出了市场所具有的巨大力量。这种情况在先进成熟的资本主义经济中可能会更为平衡和规范,而在发展中的后社会主义或后计划经济条件下平衡性和规范性则相对较差,景观设计师不认同任何以货币形式来衡量审美或美感等无形事物的价值的行为,这也许是不言自明的。但在西方国家,市场和经济一直扮演着重要角色,只是人们可能尚未充分认识到这一点;景观可能具有价值,但是不一定能以货币的形式量化。通过市场来表现经济意味着——例如——土地利用类型从自然用地转为开发用地,这通常会产生负面效应,那么,这就忽略了一个要点:好的景观和好的景观设计会受到市场影响,也会反作用于市场。

关键词 ……
市场经济;景观动态;非市场效益;产值

Abstract ...
It is indisputable that one of the biggest drivers of landscape change today is economics as a mediator of supply and demand. In order to satisfy demand for houses, goods and services, which are susceptible to economic cycles, social imbalances and the vagaries of fashion, land is needed, resources are needed and people are also needed, often in different places from where they live. Thus the market has great power. This is perhaps more balanced and regulated in advanced and mature capitalist economies and less so in developing post-socialist or post-planned economic conditions. It is also perhaps axiomatic that landscape architects consider any attempt to value such intangible things as aesthetics or beauty in monetary terms as undesirable. However, the market and economics has always played a role in Western countries, perhaps it is just not fully recognized; landscapes may have values but these are not always monetarized. When the assumption is that economics expressed through the market means land use change from natural to developed conditions, for example, and thus always a negative direction, this misses the point that good landscape and good landscape design can affect and be affected by the market.

Key words ...
Market Economy; Landscape Dynamics; Non-market Benefits; Property Values

 

理性教育:香港大学园境建筑学部基础课程之香港生态足迹的背景分析
Teaching Rationale:Contextualizing the Ecological Footprint in Hong Kong at Division of Landscape Architecture, the University of Hong Kong

作者:张谦、彭文辉   Author: Qian ZHANG, Matthew PRYOR

摘要 ……
城市的高度密集化发展需要从其腹地汲取资源来维持自身的日常运转,这些资源通过基础设施不断地出入城市的边界。从这个意义上来讲,城市的生态足迹已远远超出其物理边界,而且城市越密集,其生态足迹与城市地域范围之间的对比就越明显。“香港生态足迹的背景分析”源于香港大学园境建筑学部开设的一门基础核心课程——ARCH1028可持续发展和建筑环境,该课程鼓励建筑环境专业的本科生对密集城市背景下的城市可持续性问题进行定义、探讨和思考。本文陈述了该课程的教学、学生研究和背景分析等方法,选择了5个城市赖以生存的决定性因素(能源、食物、人口、水和废弃物),对8个具有代表性的香港城市社区(金钟、鸭脷洲、红磡、九龙湾、旺角、沙田、天水围及油塘)进行了调查,并展示了所取得的部分成果。“香港生态足迹的背景分析”项目还入选了2013年深圳•香港城市\建筑双城双年展。

关键词 ……
生态足迹;可持续发展;可持续教育;城市环境

Abstract ...
The compacted and concentrated city area and its built environment draw upon an ever widening hinterland for its life support. These resources continuously pulse in and out of the city’s physical boundary through constructed infrastructures. In this sense, the reach of the city is far beyond its physical location, moreover, the denser the city, the starker the contrast is between its built form and the geographical extent of its depending territory. “Contextualizing the Ecological Footprint in Hong Kong” is an educational research project in which first-year undergraduates of the built environment at the University of Hong Kong (ARCH1028 Sustainability and the Built Environment) were encouraged to define and explore issues of sustainability within dense urban settings, and to speculate on the concept of sustainable issues. This paper presents the teaching approach, student research and contextual analysis of five decisive factors that the city relies upon for its life support (energy, food, people, water and waste), across eight different urban neighborhoods (Admiralty, Ap Lei Chau, Hung Hom, Kowloon Bay, Mong Kok, Sha Tin, Tin Shui Wai and Yau Tong) in Hong Kong. “Contextualizing the Ecological Footprint in Hong Kong” also enrolled 2013 Bi-City Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture (Hong Kong).

Key words ...
Ecological Footprint; Sustainable Development; Teaching Sustainability; Urban Context

 

回归汕头—广东省汕头市海湾新区东海岸新城城市设计
Return to Shantou —Urban Design of the New East Coastal Area of Shantou, Guangdong

作者:范端阳、胡艳敏   Author: Duanyang FAN, Yanmin HU

摘要……
2013年,荷兰高柏伙伴设计事务所与法国保罗•安德鲁建筑设计事务所联合为汕头东海岸滨海新城国际竞赛提出了规划理念,设计最终获得该国际竞赛的并列一等奖。设计方案主题为“回归汕头”,设计场地——汕头海湾新区东海岸新城作为汕头市未来城市发展的重要功能区,是新一轮城市发展的动力引擎,也是展现汕头特色景观风貌的重要区域,其规划建设将促进汕头的城市形态从内海湾城市向滨海城市转变。

关键词……
城市设计;规划;国际竞赛;滨海新城

Abstract ...
KuiperCompagnons and Paul Andreu Architecte submitted their proposal for the International Planning Competition of the New East Coastal Area in Shantou in 2013, and were awarded the shared first Prize. The proposal, Return to Shantou, outlines the site as an important function and service center to the future urban development of Shantou, and a driver for new urban growth, highlighting its potential to show distinctive characteristics of Shantou and become a catalyst for transforming the city from an inner bay city to one oriented to the coast.

Key words ...
Urban Design; Planning; International Competition; New Coastal Area

 

江苏省水月周庄:旅游地产综合体项目
Moon River Tourism Real Estate Complex Project, Jiangsu

作者:深圳市阿特森泛华环境艺术设计有限公司   Author: Shenzhen Art-spring Landscape Design Co., Ltd.

摘要……
水月周庄是华侨城旗下康盛地产在周庄的一项综合旅游地产项目,运用现代的设计手法,传承江南文化,演绎出“中国第一水乡”—周庄独特的水韵风光。该项目在文化传承和开发运营上均体现出较高的社会、文化和生态价值。

关键词……
旅游地产;综合体;多专业设计联合;社会价值;文化价值;生态价值

Abstract ...
Moon River is a tourism real estate complex project entrusted by Oversea China Town (OCT) Group in Zhouzhuang. The project uses modern design approaches and southern Chinese culture to show the unique waterscape of Zhouzhuang, “the first water village in China”. The incorporation of cultural inheritance shows a high commitment to social, cultural, and ecological values.

Key words ...
Tourism Real Estate: Complex; Multiple Professional Design Collaboration; Social Value; Cultural Value; Ecological Value

 

云南省大理苍海—墅国际养生度假小镇
Dali Stone Mountain Resort, Yunnan

作者:维思平建筑设计   Author: WSP ARCHITECTS

摘要……
云南省大理苍海一墅项目位于大理古城与下关新城之间,背靠苍山,面朝洱海。设计团队通过完善基础设施配套建设、保护场地原有的优美自然环境,以及在建筑设计中突显地域特色等方式,实现了“风景的再生”,打造出了一个集居住、酒店、商业、度假多种功能于一体的旅游地产项目。

关键词……
旅游地产;自然风景;规划;文化传承;建筑设计

Abstract ...
The Dali Stone Mountain Resort in Yunnan sits between the old city of Dali and the new city of Xiaguan, with the Cangshan Mountain on one side and the Erhai Lake on the other. The design team reshaped the landscape by improving the infrastructure and support facilities, preservation of the natural environment, and highlighting local cultural and architectural characteristics. A tourist destination was created by integrating residence, hotel and commerce facilities.

Key words ...
Tourism Real Estate; Natural Scenery; Planning; Cultural inheritance; Architectural Design

 

重庆棕榈岛
Palm Island, Chongqing

作者:HASSELL   Author: HASSELL

摘要……
棕榈岛项目由5栋“漂浮”在湖面之上的建筑体组成。动感流畅的建筑线条、鲜明的材质对比、简洁明快的色彩搭配,打造出时尚高端的商业地标建筑形象。该项目为游客提供了舒适的就餐环境,提升了该地区的生活品质,同时也在降低能耗方面交出了一份漂亮的答卷。

关键词……
棕榈岛;水元素;商业空间;提升生活品质;降低能耗

Abstract ...
The Palm Island is composed of five buildings that “floating” on the lake. The dynamic and fluid architecture lines, vivid material contrast, and concise color selection have created the fashion and high-end commercial landmark image. The Palm Island has provided comfortable dining environment, improved the quality of life in the region, and also contributed to energy consumption reduction.

Key words ...
Palm Island; Water; Commercial Space; Improvement of  the Quality of Life; Reduction of Energy Consumption

 

慢下来:贵州省六盘水明湖湿地公园
Slow Down: Minghu Wetland Park in Liupanshui, Guizhou

作者:俞孔坚   Author: Kongjian YU

摘要……
通过一系列再生设计技术,特别是减缓雨水径流的措施,一条渠化混凝土河流及一片环境恶化的城市边缘地区已经转变为一个闻名遐迩的湿地公园。作为全市生态基础建设的重要组成部分,该公园将提供多重生态系统服务,包括雨水管理、水体净化、原生栖息地恢复,并将创造一个供集会及审美享受的宝贵的公共空间。

关键词……
市政项目;湿地;修复;净化;雨洪;公共空间

Abstract ...
Through a series of regenerative design techniques, particularly measures to slow down the flow of stormwater, a channelized concrete river and a deteriorated peri-urban site have been transformed into a nationally celebrated wetland park that functions as a major part of the city-wide ecological infrastructure planned to provide multiple ecosystem services, including stormwater management, water cleansing, and recovery of native habitats, as well as a creation of a cherished public space for gathering and aesthetic enjoyment.

Key words ...
Municipal Commitment; Wetland; Restoration; Purification; Stormwater; Public Space

 

多伦多雪邦公园
Sherbourne Common, Toronto

作者:PFS   Author: PFS

摘要……
雪邦公园既是市民重要的公共活动区,也是充满诗意的雨水处理基础设施,同时还是多伦多湖滨复兴计划中重要的一部分。公园将雨水管理、景观、建筑、活动和艺术天衣无缝地融合起来,成为加拿大首个在社区雨水管理设施中应用紫外线净化设备的公园。

关键词……
转型式城市公园;混合式市政基础设施;公共设施;催化节点;无缝融合

Abstract ...
Sherbourne Common is both major civic amenity and poetic stormwater treatment infrastructure, and a key component of the renaissance of Toronto’s waterfront. The park seamlessly interweaves stormwater management, landscape, architecture, program, and art and is the first Canadian park to integrate a UV purification facility for neighbourhood-wide stormwater treatment.

Key words ...
Transformative Urban Park; Hybridized Civic Infrastructure; Public Amenity; Catalytic Nodes; Seamless Integration

 

五大湖:环境与经济
Great Lakes: The Environment and the Economy

作者:SOM城市设计实践团队   Author: SOM City Design Practice

摘要 ……
位于美国和加拿大之间的五大湖-圣劳伦斯流域拥有占地球上20%的地表淡水资源,哺育着拥有5 000万人口的特大都市群。在过去4年多的时间里,SOM城市设计实践团队为该流域的环境恢复和经济复苏勾勒了一幅未来百年的全景。“五大湖百年愿景”项目具有在生态系统尺度下展开规划的先锋视角,为区域甚至是全球的人口增长和城市化过程提出了战略性管理建议。SOM通过这一项目倡导人与自然和谐共赢的愿景;在SOM合伙人菲利普•恩奎斯特的提议与领导下,该项目对这片广阔地区的资源与脆弱性进行了研究,制定了富有远见的转型策略,并面向政府、学术界、环境保护组织以及公众进行了有力的展示。该项目创造了这一区域所亟须的、具有统一性与整体性的美-加双边合作视角。“五大湖百年愿景”的创新性策略已得到美国多个城市设计与景观最高奖项的认可。
关键词 ……
五大湖;环境;经济;两国;百年愿景

Abstract ...
The U.S.-Canadian Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River basin holds 20 percent of earth’s surface fresh water and sustains a megalopolis of 50 million people. For more than four years, the City Design Practice of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM) has pioneered a holistic, 100-year vision for the basin’s environmental restoration and economic renewal. The Great Lakes Century pioneers an ecosystem-scale planning perspective and suggests strategies for managing not just regional growth but global population growth and urbanization. SOM calls for a vision that balances humanity and nature for the good of both. SOM partner Philip Enquist leads the initiative that researched the vast region’s vulnerabilities and assets, defined visionary turnaround strategies and created powerful presentations to government, academic, environmental and public audiences. It created what was missing: a unifying and overarching bi-national perspective. Its innovative approach has been recognized by America’s highest urban design and landscape architecture awards.

Key words ...
Great Lakes; Environment; Economy; Bi-national; 100-year Vision

 

游牧民、技术专家:21世纪的草原寓言
The Nomad, the Technologist:  A 21st Century Steppe Fable

作者:王筱玮   Author: Xiaowei WANG

摘要 ……
本项目是一个以视频方式投射现实的寓言,一个以政治小说形式展开的设计项目。该项目将原始积累、生产以及景观生态学作为市场和经济结构的驱动力,通过展现与中国农业土地利用形式不同的蒙古草原生态过程,从而在市场的力量和景观设计学之间建立了联系。“游牧民、技术专家”项目起始于对蒙古戈壁沙漠进行的实地调研,考察了分布蒙古草原的资源开采场地—从奥尤陶勒盖和额尔登特矿区,到能够代表蒙古独特的“短暂城市化”的区域—乌兰巴托的游牧民季节性迁移。这一设计寓言项目提出了一系列能够应对经济需求的季节性波动、灵活可变的基础设施构建;利用飞机场、飞机库和传统景观元素,如冰盾(一种刻意形成的积冰)来构设一种与草原生态紧密联系的劳动力生态。设计方案以事实叙述作为表达方式,其视频虽以遥远的2020年为结束点,但其背景设定则是基于当代的环境条件和政治局势—中国为保障粮食安全以及基于农业的市场经济,展开了一场与荒漠化和草原进行的斗争。

关键词 ……
蒙古;市场;政治经济学

Abstract ...
This project is a projective fable in video format that positions political fiction as a design project. As primitive accumulation, production and landscape ecology are the driver of markets and economic structure, the project unpacks the contrasting ecologies of Mongolia’s steppe to China’s agricultural land use, establishing the connections between market forces and landscape architecture. The Nomad, The Technologist began with field research in Mongolia’s Gobi Desert, examining sites of resource extraction across the Steppe — from the mines of Oyu Tolgoi and Erdenet to areas representative of Mongolia’s unique forms of transient urbanization in Ulaan Baatar. This project of design fiction moves through a series of proposed infrastructural elements that are agile and mutable depending on seasonal fluctuations of economic needs, using air fields, hangars and traditional landscape elements such as naleds (intentionally created ice shields) to envision an ecology of labor that is tied to an ecology of the Steppe. Seeing this proposal as factual narrative, the video ends in the far future of 2020 but using contemporary conditions and political situations of today — China’s battle against desertification and the Steppe as a mechanism to protect food security and a market economy based on agriculture.

Key words ...
Steppe; Markets; Political Economy