《景观设计学》2014年第3期

作    者:江亿(Yi JIANG)、常志刚(Zhigang CHANG)等
类    别:景观
出 版 社:高等教育出版社有限公司
出版时间:2014年6月

导言 目录 作品信息 书评

俞孔坚•向农民学习
——《景观设计学》2014年第3期“主编寄语”
Learning from Peasants — Editorial of the No. 3 Issue for 2014, Landscape Architecture Frontiers
By Kongjian Yu



     如何使城市里的公园和绿地无需花费高昂的投入去营建,无需耗费大量的水源去浇灌,无需消耗大量的能源和劳力去维护,而同时又使之不至于荒芜,仍然能为城市和居民提供服务?出路只有一条:向农民学习。
     我这里所说的农民不是在北美大平原上驾驶着现代化机械进行作业的产业化农民,而是靠传统的农耕生产为生的自然经济下的小农。我曾经批判过“农意识”,包括攀比意识、杂草意识和庆宴意识,但这并不妨碍我们向农民学习其土地的伦理、造田的技术与艺术。它们对于营造今天的城市景观,具有极其珍贵的启示意义。
     在土地伦理和价值观层面上,以自给自足为基本特征的小农经济的优点(在其他意义上是局限)在于,农民从土地上所索取的只需满足自己和全家的生活所需即可,这决定了他们对自然的干预是有界限的,即最少的干预。让土地丰产并珍惜来之不易的收获,使“勤俭节约”成为评价其行为的核心标准之一。小农与土地的关系,天生就是以可持续为核心的,因为传宗接代为自然经济下的人伦第一要义:继承祖上所传的田亩,将遗产不减一分一毫或更多地传给后代,让后代拥有更好的生活,而这正是当代可持续理论的精髓。工具和技术的局限,决定了农民以宜人的空间尺度进行土地改造和管理。以个体和家庭为单位的生产组织过程以及春种秋收的节律适应,决定了邻里合作、亲友合作的重要性,因此社区便得以形成。而所有这些——最少干预、勤俭节约、可持续、宜人尺度、社区感——不正是当代城市景观所应有的特质和功能吗?
     当然,若想将这些农民及其农耕生产过程中所体现的优秀特质转译为当代景观营造和管理的具体实践方式,尚需更加深入的、细致的分析。我把这些技术归结为以下几个方面。
     填挖方技术。对于农民来说,填方和挖方是同时进行且不可分离的。但在今天的工程规范中,填和挖是分开的,挖一方土和填一方土的工程量需要分开计算。回顾现代的城市景观营造,我们看到多少为了挖湖而运出土方,或为了堆山而运入土方的浪费工程和造作地形。如果我们懂得像农民那样去填挖方、去造地形,我们的景观便能更具能效。
     灌溉技术。当代的许多城市绿地已经离不开喷灌技术和排涝管道。向农民学习,就是要让我们的城市景观不再需要这样的“现代”灌溉系统。如果能够懂得如何利用自然的降雨来滋润土地和植被,便可以营造出高能效的景观。无论是在天津桥园还是哈尔滨群力湿地公园的实验性设计中,雨水都是天然的灌溉水源,因而,公园的管理成本仅为一般城市公园的三分之一。
     施肥技术。城市里的绿地需要施肥吗?完整的营养链在当代城市生活中早已被切断,被农民当作宝贝的有机肥料,而今变成了一种城市灾害,对河流湖泊造成了污染。向农民学习,就是要缝合这个被切断的营养链,让施肥的过程也成为净化水体的过程。这样就可以节省化肥成本,污水净化的费用也可以减少。上海后滩公园将黄浦江的富营养“污水”作为湿地植物和梯田作物的肥料来源,不仅净化了河水,也免去了人工施肥,一举而多得。消费型公园便可由此转变成生产型的高能效景观。
     播种与收获。不为收获而播种的农民,一定会被看作是不务正业的农民。让土地丰产,天经地义。向农民学习,让城市绿地回归生产,则可以使我们的景观变得更加有意义且更加高能效。当然,景观的“收获”不再局限于食物生产的意义,还包括更综合的生态系统服务的含义。
     所以,要实现城市中公园、绿地的高能效,我们有必要向农民学习,回归土地的伦理,回归造田、灌溉、施肥、播种和收获的基本技术。这既是回归,也是创新。



How can we construct urban parks and green spaces without costly investment? To irrigate without consuming large quantities of water? To maintain without large inputs of energy and labor? To maintain their functions to cities and urban residents, rather than becoming wastelands? The only way is to learn from peasants. 

     I am not interested in industrial farmers operating modern combine harvesters and seeders on the great plains of North America, but peasants living within traditional farming methods and economies. I once criticized the "small-peasants consciousness", including the ideas of comparison, wild weeds and feast, but I now believe we can learn from this land ethic, as well as the techniques and art of field making, which are precious references for constructing urban landscape today. 

     In terms of land ethics and sense of values, the merit of small-scale peasant characterized by self-sufficiency (which might be limits in other perspectives) is a reciprocal relationship with the land where demand does not exceed need, which means peasants’ intervention with nature is limited — the minimum intervention. They aim for a good harvest and cherish hard-earned yields. Nature is only altered where needed, and thus being "diligent and thrifty" is one of the core criteria to evaluate their activities. The relationship between peasants and their lands is intrinsically sustainable. The most important economy is the legacy of carrying forward the family name. At the core of modern sustainability is the idea that we will offer future generations better lives. The constraints of tools and technologies determine the suitable scale and arrangement of land transformation and management, while the production process and season rhythm adaptation (sowing in spring and harvesting in autumn) determine the cooperation among neighbors, family members and friends, enabling communities to be formed. All of these — minimum intervention, industriousness and thrift, sustainability, suitable scales, and a sense of community — are characteristics and functions that should be found in the modern urban landscape. 

Of course, in-depth and careful analysis is needed to translate these good characteristics, reflected in traditional agricultural production process, into the specific practice of landscape creation and management. These techniques can be summarized as follows. 

     Cut and fill. For peasants, cut and fill are simultaneous and inseparable. However, in modern construction, cut and fill are evaluated as two separate concepts and calculated separately. A review of modern urban landscapes would show many examples of waste generated to create constructed terrains, such as the digging out of lakes and transportation of new earth to create hills. Following the peasant model of equal cut and fill, our landscapes would be more energy efficient and easily constructed.

     Irrigation. Many vegetated areas in cities could not thrive without sprinkling irrigation and drainage pipelines. To learn from peasants is to construct urban landscapes without such "modern" irrigation systems. Energy-efficient landscapes can be constructed if we know how to use natural rainfalls to irrigate land. For example, in the designs of Qiaoyuan Park in Tianjin and Qunli Wetland Park in Harbin, rains are the primary irrigation source. Because of this strategy, their maintenance costs are less than one third that of other urban parks. 

     Fertilization. Do we really need to fertilize urban green spaces? The tropic chain in modern cities has long been severed, and organic fertilizers, once cherished by peasants, have become urban disasters, polluting our rivers and lakes. To learn from peasants is to re-stitch the trophic chain and turn fertilization into water purification. The cost put towards buying fertilizers would be saved and the cost of purifying wastewater reduced. In the Houtan Park in Shanghai, the eutrophicated "wastewater" from the Huangpu River is used as fertilizer for wetland plants and crops on terraced fields, purifying river water while removing the need of artificial fertilization. The consumptive park has become productive energy-efficient landscape. 

     Sowing and Harvesting. Peasants sowing not for harvest will be seen as worthless peasants. It is perfectly justified to have fertile lands. To learn from peasants is to restore the productive function of urban green areas and make our landscapes more energy-efficient and meaningful. Of course, the "harvest" of landscape is no longer limited to food production, but also comprehensive ecosystem services. 

     Therefore, to increase the energy-efficiency of parks and green space in cities, we must learn from peasants, look to a traditional land ethic and bring back such fundamental techniques of field making, irrigation, fertilization, sowing and harvesting. It is both return and innovation. 

主编寄语(俞孔坚)

论文
中国后化石燃料时代的城市发展议程:关于辖区尺度的生态—高效城市与绿色基础设施的新理念(史蒂芬•莱曼、解洪兴)

观点与评论
中国特色的建筑节能之路(江亿)
从能效城市到能效者—5A规划途径(佩特拉•斯坦宁格)
生态低碳城市规划方法(马克•休伊特)
当低碳与生态技术遇见景观建造(刘水)
最佳实践:中国南方地区首个被动式住宅(彼特•鲁格)
为生活而设计(常志刚)

原创实践
生态景观技术与艺术探索——广东省东莞市万科建研中心生态园区(张唐景观)
纽约绿色循环堆肥中心(PRESENT建筑设计事务所)
荷兰海牙A4能源森林景观(DE URBANISTEN城市研究和设计工作室)
香港零碳天地(吕元祥建筑师事务所)
土耳其安卡拉市奥斯迪姆生态园技术开发区(ONZ建筑设计事务所)
法国电力集团档案中心(LAN建筑设计事务所)
河北省固安规划展览馆景观设计(维思平建筑)

探索与过程
重叠城市:再定义后化石时代的能源景观(陈忱)
社会架构与空间序列——曼谷班库瓦社区(克里斯托夫•吕德尔)

 

Editorial (by Kongjian YU)

Papers
A Post-fossil-fuel Urban Development Agenda for China: New Concepts of Eco-efficient City and Green Infrastructure at Precinct-Scale (by Steffen LEHMANN, Tonny XIE)

Views and Criticisms
The Road to Energy-smart Buildings with Chinese Characteristics (by Yi JIANG)
From Energy-efficient Cities to Energy-efficient People — The Five A’s Planning Approach (by Petra STIENINGER)
Eco-low Carbon Urban Planning Methodology (by Mark HEWLETT)
Low-carbon and Ecological Techniques in Landscape Construction (by Shui LIU)
Best Practice: The First Residential Passive House in Southern China (by Peter RUGE)
Design for Life (by Zhigang CHANG)

Original Practices
Art and Eco-technology — Eco-campus of Vanke Architecture Research Center in Dongguan, Guangdong (by Z+T STUDIO)
Green Loop, New York (by PRESENT Architecture)
A4 Energy Landscape in The Hague, the Netherlands (by DE URBANISTEN)
ZCB Zero Carbon Building, Hong Kong (by Ronald Lu & Partners)
Ostim Eco-park Technology Development Region in Ankara, Turkey (by ONZ Architects)
EDF Archives Center, France (by LAN Architecture)
Landscape Design of the Gu’an Planning Exhibition Hall, Hebei (by WSP ARCHITECTS)

Experiments and Processes
The Overlapped City: Redefining Energy Landscapes in the Post-fossil Era (by Chen CHEN)
Social Fabric and Spatial Permutation — Ban Krua, Bangkok (by Christoph LUEDER)

【中文刊名】《景观设计学》——能效景观
【英文刊名】Landscape Architecture Frontiers • Energy Efficient Landscapes
【作者】江亿(Yi JIANG)、常志刚(Zhigang CHANG)等
【出版社】高等教育出版社有限公司
【页码】160页彩色印刷
【刊号】ISSN 2095-5405
【出版日期】2014年6月
【定价】48.00元

中国后化石燃料时代的城市发展议程:关于辖区尺度的生态-高效城市与绿色基础设施的新理念
A Post-fossil-fuel Urban Development Agenda for China:New Concepts of Eco-efficient City and Green Infrastructure at Precinct-Scale

作者:史蒂芬•莱曼、解洪兴   Author: Steffen LEHMANN, Tonny XIE

摘要 ……
亚太地区最密集的城市化进程—其以不断流动和增长的城市人口为特点—正在中国上演,这使得这个国家成为了一个有关高能效城市未来发展研究的有趣案例。本文讨论了亚太地区的城市可持续发展,并将寻找未来城市化—尤其是中国的城市化—的替代资源和模式作为重点。
中国城市化进程预计将从2013年的53.7%上升到2030年的70%。本文为亚太地区的政策制定者指出了变革的必要性,以确定推动城市未来发展的新的方式,并鉴于中国目前的生态城市发展现状,制定出向“生态-高效城市”模式的转变策略。城市转型需要来自中央政府的策略导向与相关政策,以及在地方尺度中实施的试点项目与行动举措。其目的在于在辖区尺度,整合绿色基础设施的新理念,从而建立生产性景观和高效城市。因此,对于大尺度的规划和场地尺度设计来说,如何将能源效率融入到转变的设计实践都是非常重要的。
亚太地区快速的城市化进程很可能会继续持续至少20年。然而,该地区的城市迫切需要一项能够依据绿色都市主义的原则,将这些城市转变为可持续的生态城市的后化石燃料的城市发展议程。

关键词 ……
城市化;后化石燃料城市;中国;生态-高效城市;空气污染;城市可持续发展

Abstract ...
The most intensive urbanization process in the Asia-Pacific — characterized by a mobile and growing urban population — is currently happening in China, which makes this country an interesting case study for the future of energy-efficient cities. This article discusses sustainable urban development in the Asia-Pacific region and focuses on the need to find alternative resources and models for future urbanization, particularly in the case of China.
Urbanization in China is predicted to rise from 53.7 per cent in 2013 to 70 per cent in 2030. The article outlines the necessity for policy makers in the Asia-Pacific region to identify new ways to fuel future urban growth and highlights the complexities of making the paradigm shift towards ”eco-efficient cities” by considering what is being done with eco-city development in China. Urban transformation requires both strategic guidance and policies from the central government and pilot projects and actions implemented within municipalities. The aim is to build productive landscapes and highly-efficient cities that integrate new concepts of green infrastructure at precinct-scale. Therefore, how energy efficiency is integrated into transformed design practice is important for both large-scale planning and site-scale design.
Rapid urbanization in the Asia-Pacific is likely to continue for at least another two decades. However, the region’s cities urgently need a post-fossil-fuel urban development agenda, one that implements the principles of green urbanism to transform them into sustainable eco-cities.

Key words ...
Urbanization; Post-fossil-fuel Urban; China; Eco-efficient City; Air Pollution; Sustainable Urban Development

 

中国特色的建筑节能之路
The Road to Energy-smart Buildings with Chinese Characteristics

作者:江亿   Author: Yi JIANG

摘要 ……
近年来持续高速的城市化进程和大量的基础设施建设导致我国的能源消耗量不断增加。本文中,作者首先介绍了我国能源消耗的总体情况以及建筑节能方面存在的误区;随后提出了建筑节能的具体措施;最后指出只有营造与自然和谐的室内环境,才能实现具有中国特色的、可持续性的建筑节能发展道路。
关键词 ……
建筑节能;能效观念;使用方式;节能途径

Abstract ...
Speedy urbanization and massive infrastructure construction in recent years has lead to increasing energy consumption in China. In this text, the interviewee introduces the general state of energy consumption in China and misunderstandings about energy-smart buildings. Then specific proposals for energy conservation in architecture have been proposed. At last, the interviewee concludes that only the interior environments in harmony with nature can support sustainable development of energy-smart buildings with Chinese characteristics.

Key words ...
Building Energy Conservation; Energy Efficiency Concept; Operation Methods; Energy-saving Approaches

 

从能效城市到能效者——5A规划途径
From Energy-efficient Cities to Energy-efficient People — The Five A’s Planning Approach

作者:佩特拉•斯坦宁格   Author: Petra STIENINGER

摘要 ……
近年来,能源消耗不断增长。反思我们的生活、工作和出行,我们往往倾向于选择不可持续的、高能耗的方式,尽管知道这些方式并非最便宜、最快捷或最便利的方式。即便我们知道这样的生活方式会破坏我们的环境、威胁我们的健康,并且具有导致重要资源濒临枯竭的风险,那么是什么原因使得我们依旧会选择浪费而非节约能源?有5个主要的因素影响了我们对于生活、移动以及工作方式的决定,它们是关于选择与技术的可用性、可负担性、可达性、吸引力,以及意识。这5个根本原因是一种崭新的规划途径的基础。这一规划途径不仅旨在形成能效居住模式,而且在于形成能效的生活环境,通过改变人们的行为而达成能效的生活方式,即5A途径。

关键词 ……
能效;环境行为;可持续性;公共交通;可持续城市规划

Abstract ...
Energy consumption has been increasing for years. Looking at the way we live, work, and move; we tend to choose the unsustainable and energy-intensive way despite knowing that it is not necessarily the cheapest, fastest, or more convenient way. What makes us waste energy versus conserve energy while knowing that with this lifestyle we destroy our environment, we threaten our health, and we risk running out of vital resources? There are five main factors that influence our decisions on how we live, move, and work. It is all about availability, affordability, accessibility, attractiveness, and awareness of options and technologies. These five root causes are the basis for a new planning approach that aims towards not only energy-efficient settlement patterns but also energy-efficient living environments that result in the change of people’s behavior towards energy efficient lifestyles — the Five A’s Approach.

Key words ...
Energy Efficiency; Environmental Behavior; Sustainability; Public Transit; Sustainable Urban Planning

 

低碳生态城市规划方法
Eco-low Carbon Urban Planning Methodology

作者:马克•休伊特   Author: Mark HEWLETT

摘要 ……
随着对于新型城镇化的不断认识,我们迫切需要一种新的城市规划方法。这种新的规划方法需要将低碳生态视为首要和核心目标,并强调(技术、流程、概念上的)整合,理解地方文脉,在与自然和谐的宜人尺度上进行发展,营造场所感,并通过绿色信贷倡议推动经济的低碳生态发展。在这一背景下编制的《低碳生态城市规划方法》是一种具有策略性和统领性的导则,其核心在于提供一种清晰的框架,一种实用的、步骤性的城市规划方法。

关键词 ……
低碳生态;城市规划;导则;新型城镇化;中国

Abstract ...
There is an increasing realization that the new type of urbanization requires a new type of urban planning. The new type of urban planning puts eco-low carbon objectives front and center, with strong emphasis on integration (technical, process and conceptual), understanding local context, human scale development in harmony with nature, strong place making, and partnering to finance eco-low carbon development through green credit initiatives. In this context, the Eco-low Carbon Urban Planning Methodology is necessarily quite strategic and high-level. The core emphasis is on providing a clear framework and a practical, step by step approach.

Key words ...
Eco-low Carbon; Urban Planning; Methodology; New Urbanization; China

 

当低碳与生态技术遇见景观建造
Low-carbon and Ecological Techniques in Landscape Construction

作者:刘水   Author: Shui LIU

摘要 ……
本次访谈围绕如何使低碳和生态技术渗透到景观建造中的诸多具体问题,与中国生态修复和生态景观建造的领军企业——铁汉生态进行了讨论,旨在为景观设计师提供可供借鉴的指导方针与切实的实践措施。

关键词 ……
低碳;生态技术;能效;景观建造

Abstract ...
Shenzhen Techand is a leading ecological restoration and landscape construction company in China. We discuss low-carbon and ecological techniques for landscape construction in order to begin establishing a referential guide and practical measures for landscape architects.
 
Key words ...
Low-carbon; Ecological Technique; Energy Efficient; Landscape Construction

 

最佳实践:中国南方地区首个被动式住宅
Best Practice: The First Residential Passive House in Southern China

作者:彼特•鲁格   Author: Peter RUGE

摘要……
德国彼特•鲁格建筑设计事务所专注于可持续的建筑和城市设计,在这一领域拥有20多年的丰富经验。2013年,事务所完成了位于中国南方地区的首个被动式住宅——“布鲁克”。该项目位于浙江长兴太湖附近,在与朗诗欧洲技术有限公司的建筑师和工程师团队以及来自德国被动式房屋研究所的沃尔夫冈•菲斯特博士和工程师的合作之下,通过应用能够改善建筑在运行过程中的性能的技术,设立了可持续发展的新标准,并成为了一个重要的里程碑式建筑。与中国传统住宅建筑相比,“布鲁克”能够节省95%以上的能耗,成为拥有温暖、潮湿气候特点的中国南方地区被动式住宅的先行者。将被动式房屋标准引入中国住宅建筑市场,是可持续设计中的一项成功实践,不仅能够为人类的未来减少能源消耗,并且将对环境条件起到积极的改善作用。

关键词……
被动式房屋;中国南方;住宅建筑;开创性建设;可持续设计方法;生态开发

Abstract ...
With over 20 years of experience in the field, Peter Ruge Architekten (Germany) focuses on sustainable architectural and urban design. In 2013, the firm completed their first Residential Passive House, BRUCK, in Southern China. The project is located in Changxing, Zhejiang Province, near Taihu Lake. Together with the architects and engineers from Landsea Europe, and in cooperation with Doctor Wolfgang Feist and engineers from the German Passivhaus Institute (PHI), it establishes new standards of sustainability through techniques that seek to improve the building’s operation over time and has achieved an important architectural milestone. With over 95 percent energy reduction over a conventional Chinese residential building, this is the first house of its kind to be realized in China's damp, warm, southern climate. The introduction of the Passive House standards to the Chinese housing market is an example of successful implementation of sustainable design that will considerably reduce energy consumption and improve environmental conditions in the future.

Key words ...
Passive House; Southern China; Residential Building; Pioneering Construction; Sustainable Design Methods; Ecological Development

 

为生活而设计
Design for Life

作者:常志刚   Author: Zhigang CHANG

摘要……
照明设计不仅仅在于提供光源,对空间表现、行为塑造都可以提供有价值的见解。本文概述了中国景观照明的发展现状以及所存在的问题,并指出景观照明的节能可通过产品节能、行为节能以及系统节能三种途径来实现,但同时指出,中国景观节能水平的提高关键在于设计师理念的转变。

关键词……
景观照明;公共艺术;节能;照明品质

Abstract ...
Lighting design not only provides a light source, but also valuable insight into space, performance, and behavior. This interview concentrates the present state of landscape lighting design in China, and introduces energy conservation in landscape lighting includes installing products that are energy saving, changing behavior to reduce use, and implementing energy saving systems. But in order to improve the level of energy saving in China, the key is changing designers’ minds.

Key words ...
Landscape Lighting; Public Art; Energy Saving; Lighting Quality

 

生态景观技术与艺术探索—广东省东莞市万科建研中心生态园区
Art and Eco-technology —Eco-campus of Vanke Architecture Research Center in Dongguan, Guangdong

作者:张唐景观   Author: Z+T STUDIO

摘要……
万科建研中心生态园区项目旨在探索如何在景观设计中将艺术与生态结合起来,使生态景观成为可供欣赏、教育和参与的场所。我们希望探索出一套适宜于中国当前的技术与经济状况的低能耗生态景观设计手段,包括三个方面的核心内容:预制混凝土模块的研发与应用;景观生态水循环处理系统的展示;景观生态材料与设计手法的实验与应用。

关键词……
预制混凝土;雨洪管理;低成本;生态景观

Abstract ...
The Vanke Architecture Research Center explores the relationship of art and ecology in landscape design, particularly the aesthetic, educational and participatory dimensions of eco-landscape. The center serves as an observational platform for the study of landscape methodologies that are compatible with current Chinese technology and economics. The project includes three core dimensions: the development and application of precast concrete modules, stormwater management demonstration systems, and experiment and application of environmentally friendly materials and design methods.

Key words ...
Precast concrete; Stormwater Management; Low-cost; Eco-landscape

 

纽约绿色循环堆肥中心
Green Loop, New York

作者:PRESENT建筑设计事务所   Author: PRESENT Architecture

摘要……
纽约市绿色循环堆肥中心是一项由10个滨水堆肥站组成的堆肥网络计划。每一个堆肥站都将配备位于路面的堆肥设施并在顶层设置一个高架公园,以为教育设施、街区花园和冬季越野滑雪等活动提供充足的空间。纽约市人均公共空间面积低于美国其他的主要城市。而绿色循环堆肥网络计划将缓解有机垃圾处理和缺乏绿色公共空间这两个主要的城市问题。

关键词……
堆肥公园;垃圾处理;清洁能源战略

Abstract ...
The Green Loop is a proposal for a network of ten waterfront composting hubs in New York City. Each proposed Green Loop hub would consist of a composting facility at street level and an elevated public park on top, large enough to accommodate a range of activities from educational programs, neighbourhood gardens, and cross-country skiing in the winter. New York City has less open space per person than almost every other major city in the US. The Green Loop network alleviates two major urban problems: organic waste management and lack of green public space.

Key words ...
Composting Park; Waste Disposal; Clean Energy Strategy

 

荷兰海牙A4能源森林景观
A4 Energy Landscape in The Hague, the Netherlands

作者:DE URBANISTEN城市研究和设计工作室   Author: DE URBANISTEN

摘要……
在荷兰海牙,一座可持续能源森林将沿A4高速公路应运而生。它由一座新的城市生态森林、一排风力涡轮机、一座藻类农场和生物发电厂,以及一套利用废热的管道网络(此管道网络同时用作横跨公路的自行车系统)组成。这一项目为这条高速公路沿线未来的商业发展提供了肥沃的土地,并使之具有快速获得投资收益的潜能。

关键词……
能源景观;新陈代谢;高速公路景观;可持续性

Abstract ...
A landscape for sustainable energy production along the A4 highway in The Hague, the Netherlands is proposed. It consists of a new urban biomass forest, lines of wind turbines, an algae farm and biomass plant, a network of pipes to reuse waste heat and that provides an excellent bicycle structure to cross the highway. It provides fertile ground for future business development along this main infrastructure and is a no-regret investment because of immediate revenue possibilities.

Key words ...
Energy Landscape; Metabolism; Highway Landscape; Sustainability

 

香港零碳天地
ZCB Zero Carbon Building, Hong Kong

作者:吕元祥建筑师事务所   Author: Ronald Lu & Partners

摘要 ……
“零碳天地”是由香港建造业议会与香港政府合作完成的香港首座零碳建筑。项目占地面积14 800m2,主体为一栋建筑面积达3 300m2的三层建筑。零碳天地已面向公众开放,它既是一个教育与研究中心,同时设有香港建造业议会的绿色办公室、环保家居展示、多功能室等,并拥有香港首个市区乡土林地和其他户外绿化/活动空间。

关键词 ……
零碳;环境;适应性设计;香港

Abstract ...
Construction Industry Council (CIC) of Hong Kong, in collaboration with the Government, has developed the first Zero Carbon Building (ZCB) in Hong Kong. The Site area is 14,800 m2 and there are 3,300 m2 in the three-storey building. Open to the public, ZCB is a visitor education and research center and houses a green office for CIC, a demonstration home for low carbon living, a multi-function room, the first urban native woodland of Hong Kong and other outdoor landscaped / event spaces.

Key words ...
Zero Carbon; Environment; Adaptive Design; Hong Kong

 

土耳其安卡拉市奥斯迪姆生态园技术开发区
Ostim Eco-park Technology Development Region in Ankara, Turkey

作者:ONZ建筑设计事务所   Author: ONZ Architects

摘要 ……
奥斯迪姆生态园位于土耳其安卡拉市的一个规划工业区,设计追求自然与发展之间的完美平衡,通过在台地形绿色屋顶、动态照明系统、雨水收集及循环利用等方面采取的可持续措施,实现了对资源和开敞、健康的绿色空间的高效利用。

关键词 ……
生态园;绿色屋顶;能源高效利用;可持续性;台地建筑;多功能

Abstract ...
Ostim Eco-park is an organized industrial region located in Ankara, Turkey. The design strikes the perfect balance between nature and development with prioritizing efficient use of resources and spacious, healthy green environments through sustainable approaches in terraced green roofs, lighting, and rain water collection and reuse.
 
Key words ...
Eco-park; Green Roof; Energy Efficient Use; Sustainability; Terraced Building; Multi-function

 

法国电力集团档案中心
EDF Archives Center, France

作者:LAN建筑设计事务所   Author: LAN Architecture

摘要 ……
新的法国电力集团档案中心承载着这家公司的工业记忆,将成为其在布赫-索德龙地区长期存在的标志。本项目为这一地区带来了积极的社会和环境影响。建筑完全融于景观之中,并且达到了当地环境质量标准,这也是法国电力集团档案中心建造策略中最基本的目标。

关键词 ……
档案中心;景观;能源;自给自足

Abstract ...
The new EDF Archives Center houses the company’s records and is a symbol of the long-term presence of EDF in the Meuse and Haute Marne regions. The project has brought a positive social and environmental impact onto the region, and fully integrates the landscape to meet local environmental quality standards; a fundamental goal of EDF’s building strategy.

Key words ...
Archives Center; Landscape; Energy; Autonomy

 

河北省固安规划展览馆景观设计
Landscape Design of the Gu’an Planning Exhibition Hall, Hebei

作者:维思平建筑   Author: WSP ARCHITECTS

摘要 ……
固安规划展览馆的建筑设计反映了固安的历史文化和城市肌理。固安素有“柳编之乡”的美誉,因此建筑材料通过模拟编织的纹理,喻意“编织未来城市之光”。景观设计充分尊重建筑师简约线条的设计理念及方法,通过铺装设计使建筑与周围环境“编织”在一起,体现出固安独特的历史文化特色。

关键词 ……
城市客厅;公共景观;文化;院落

Abstract ...
The design of Gu’an’s new Planning Exhibition Hall showcases the region’s historic culture and urban texture. As Gu’an is known as the town of wickerwork, the architecture imitates the traditional weaving texture, while the landscape continues the architectural lines. The paving design knits the architecture and environment together, highlighting the uniqueness of Gu’an’s historical culture.

Key words ...
City Living Room; Public Landscape; Culture; Courtyard

 

重叠城市:再定义后化石时代的能源景观
The Overlapped City: Redefining Energy Landscapes in the Post-fossil Era

作者:陈忱   Author: ChenCHEN

摘要 ……
纵观人类文明的发展历史,能源系统的改变向来伴随着人类聚居景观的根本性变革。在新能源时代,能源的生产与分配将会深刻地影响城市空间布局及其扩张蔓延的模式。可再生能源的低能量密度和灵活产能规模的特征,使如今几乎是纯粹能源消费者的城市面临着在其范围内同时整合能源生产的挑战与机遇。能源不仅应被理解为一个空间问题,同时也是一个生态问题。我们将面临一场重新定义人类聚居与所处自然环境互动关系的革命。新的空间范式应该超越对技术进步的一味依赖而延展到政治、社会和文化等更为广泛的层面。名为“重叠城市”的课题研究在三个尺度上展开,旨在探索后化石时代城市的形态及空间整合策略:重新定义城市边界与城市组群(宏观)、能源基础设施的规划框架(中观)和一套新的城市空间规划导则(微观)(图1)。

关键词 ……
可再生能源;本地能源生产;空间整合;以设计为指向的信息视觉化

Abstract ...
Throughout the history of human civilization, changes in energy systems have always led to fundamental transformations in the landscapes of human occupation. In the new era, the logic of energy production and distribution will start having a significant impact on the spatial organization of the urban growth. Given the low power-density and flexible scales of renewables, cities that so far have been solely energy consumers face both the challenge and the opportunity of accommodating energy production within their boundaries. Energy is not only a spatial project but would increasingly become an ecological project, revolutionizing deeply how we should redefine the interaction between inhabitation and environment in the future. New models should go beyond purely technical advances to embrace broader political, social and cultural dimensions. “The Overlapped City” explores the morphology and synergetic spatial strategies of resilient post-fossil cities across three scales: redefining urban boundaries and urban clusters, energy infrastructure framework and a new set of urban codes.

Key words ...
Renewable Energy; Local Energy Production; Spatial Synergy; Projective Representation

 

社会架构与空间序列——曼谷班库瓦社区
Social Fabric and Spatial Permutation — Ban Krua, Bangkok

作者:克里斯托夫•吕德尔   Author: Christoph LUEDER

摘要……
曼谷的班库瓦社区位于邻近国家体育场的塞桑运河沿岸。该社区因成功抵制政府计划修建横穿其中的高速公路,而在国际上引起反响。一系列学术研究将他们之前的成功或归功于社区凝聚力推动下的非暴力不合作策略,或追溯至社区与泰国军方和当局高级官员之间的渊源。但我们感兴趣的是维系这一非凡凝聚力的存在于社会架构之间的动态关系,以及由社区所催生并存在于其中的空间。建筑可以是自生自长的,并且通常会随时间发生变化。在城市尺度上,社区中狭窄的巷道网络是家庭空间的直接延伸——社区层面上的连通性以及由其所触发的城市层面上的隔离性二者间的动态变化,共同塑造着这一连续的空间序列。

关键词……
社会与空间结构;城市与本地关联性;非正规都市主义;共享空间;边缘化社区

Abstract ...
The community of Ban Krua has come to global attention through their successful resistance against a government proposal for a motorway that would have cut through their community on the banks of the Saen Saeb canal near Bangkok’s National Stadium. While academic studies attribute their erstwhile success either to the tactics of non-violent resistance sustained by community cohesion or to the communities’ longstanding ties with senior officials in the Thai military and bureaucracy, we were interested in the dynamic interrelationships between the social fabric that sustains this remarkable level of cohesion, and the spaces produced and inhabited by the community. Buildings are sometimes self-constructed and usually transformed over time; at the urban scale of the community the network of narrow alleyways is a direct extension of domestic space, subject to continuous permutation through dynamic processes of local connections triggering disconnection at urban level and vice versa.

Key words ...
Social and Spatial Structure; Urban and Local Connectivity; Informal Urbanism; Shared Space; Marginal Communities