《景观设计学》2014年第4期

作    者:李树华(Shuhua LI)、增田昇(Noboru MASUDA)等
类    别:景观
出 版 社:高等教育出版社有限公司
出版时间:2014年8月

导言 目录 作品信息 书评

俞孔坚•灾难景观:美丽与恐怖
——《景观设计学》2014年第4期“主编寄语”
Disaster Landscapes: Balancing Beauty and Fear — Editorial of the No. 4 Issue for 2014, Landscape Architecture Frontiers
By Kongjian Yu



惊悉云南鲁甸地震,已致617人死亡(截至发稿时)。当今的地球,灾难频繁,且不说10年前东南亚的海啸,顷刻间,将美丽的天堂海滩变为恐怖的废墟,呑啮近30万的游客和居民;2005年发生在美国新奥尔良的的卡特里娜飓风导致1 833人死亡,造成1 000多亿美元的经济损失;2008年的中国四川汶川地震,让近7万人永远不见天日;2012年的桑迪飓风,卷走286条人命,并造成680亿美元的经济损失……而发生在身边的和当下的,诸如2012年,77人丧生于北京街头和郊区的洪流中,河南某地的干旱导致大量人畜饮水困难,中国南方某市遭受雨涝等等灾害,就更不胜枚举了。昔日天堂般美丽的山岳与河流、海滩和森林、原野和农田、街道与广场,可以瞬间变成恐怖的景观。于是,我们便埋怨自然的无情,抱怨全球气候变化,归咎于百年一遇的洪水……

而事实上,这些看似自然带给人类的天灾,在很大程度上都是人祸。在这里,我们有必要区分“危险”(Hazard)、“风险程度”(Risk)、“脆弱性”(Vulnerability),以及“灾难”(Disaster)这几个概念。自然总是潜藏着危险的,段义孚有一部名为《无边的恐惧》的著作,其对空间的危险性与人的感知和文化进行了探讨。可以说,恐怖的景观伴随并成就了人类的进化和发展:森林、沼泽、海洋、河流、草原、旷野、山崖、水塘,无不潜伏着危及生命的危险,人类的生理构建和文化智慧正是在应对这些危机四伏的景观过程中得到了进化和发展,学会了如何在攫取景观所提供的机会的同时又能回避其风险,发展了与风险相适应的技术与艺术,包括工程方面和社会组织方面。人类获得了巨大的成功而成为万物之灵。于是,危险与恐怖的景观在我们的眼里便有了“崇高美”的特征。根据埃蒙德•柏克对于“崇高美”的定义,景观越危险,其可怖性或风险程度越高,其崇高性就越显著,即越壮美。所以,充满危险的景观,如陡峭的山崖、澎湃的江河湖海、茫茫的沼泽湿地,甚至幽谷丛林,对人类来说虽然危机四伏,却是美的、充满诗意和令人向往的。至于这种美的景观为何瞬间成为一种残酷的灾难场景,并吞噬人类生命和财产,那完全是因为当事人没能调动祖先们的集体经验所赋予个体的生物本能,也没能调动人类社会的历史经验所赋予的文化智慧来适应危机四伏的景观。或利令智昏,或一叶障目,导致当事人和社会忽视潜在的危险或在危险面前异常脆弱。

拿中国的洪水来说,根据北京大学科研人员的研究,正常情况下,即使没有任何防洪设施,洪水能够淹没的区域仅占国土面积的0.8%;极端情况下,也只有6.2%国土面积会被淹没。如果选址合理,尊重洪水并给以相应的安全空间,洪水便不再是灾害,而是美景了——例如每年农历八月十八的钱塘江大潮——样—其会像非洲草原上的雄狮一般,美不胜收。遗憾的是,我们对自然力太不尊重,就如同没有给野性的雄狮以安全距离一样。

同样,应对地震、泥石流、干旱和水涝等自然危险,古人在居住地的选址、基础设施的修筑、造田和灌溉以及出行规律等方面,为我们积累了一系列的经验和智慧,包括规划设计、工程技术,以及应对灾难的社会组织等方面的智慧。工业革命在带给我们抵抗自然灾害风险的强大技术的同时,也令我们养成了藐视自然力的傲慢,使我们不但忘掉了远古以来适应自然力和降低灾害风险的智慧,也使我们的社会和栖居的空间由于过分依赖灰色基础设施而显得异常脆弱:诸如将一个流域的防洪安全寄托于一个水泥大坝,将有数以万万计人口的区域和城市的用水安全寄托给一条脆弱的人工引水渠……惟其如此,壮美的人类工程景观,如举世无双的拦江大坝、世界最大的跨流域调水工程、千年一遇的刚性防洪堤和防潮堤等等,如同壮美的自然景观,最终都将因为其傲慢与脆弱,而成为灾难性的景观。


It is shocking that the recent Ludian earthquake in Yunnan province caused a death toll of 617 persons as of press time. Every year it seems the earth is suffering from more frequent, and more damaging, natural catastrophes. From the Tsunami in southeastern Asia that rendered tranquil beach heavens into horrifying landscapes of debris, and within hours devoured the lives of 300,000 tourists and residents ten years ago. To Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, USA that took 1,833 lives and caused more than 100 billion US dollars of damages in 2005. The earthquake that buried near 70,000 lives in Wenchuan, Sichuan province, China in 2008. The 286 people who died and the 68 billion lost by Hurricane Sandy in 2012.... Moreover, tragic events happen around us everyday. In 2012, 77 people drowned in the street and suburban rivers of Beijing. Drought causes drinking water and irrigation shortages in the local Henan province. Flooding frequently victimizes the southern Chinese cities. Our ethereal landscapes, mountains and rivers, beaches and forests, prairies and farmlands, streets and plazas, can turn into horrifying landscapes of damage, debris, and death in a flash. In response, we blame nature for its relentlessness, complain about climate change, and impute the flood that happens once a hundred years.

In our current over designed world we can understand most natural disasters as man-made calamities. Here we must break down several concepts: Hazard, Risk, Vulnerability, and Disaster. A degree of jeopardy is always embedded in nature. Landscape of Fear , a masterpiece of Yi-fu Tuan, discusses the perils of space, the sensation and culture of human beings. The landscape of fear accompanies and facilitates the evolution and development of human society. In our relationship with the forests, swamps, the ocean, rivers, prairies, wildness, mountains and ponds there is always a hidden risk, an endangerment of human life. Societal physical structure and cultural wisdom evolves and develops in response to the process of experiencing and dealing with situations of hidden risk. We learned how to take advantages of opportunities and avoid risks from the landscape. We develop technology and artistry, engineering and social organization, to commensurate risk. Human beings have achieved so much in the process of becoming the dominant living creature. As a consequence, in our eyes, the perilous and horrifying aspects of landscape also contain a sublime feature. According to the definition of sublime by Edmund Burke, sublimity is proportionate to the level of scariness and dangerousness: the more dangerous the landscape, the more magnificent. Therefore, even though perilous, landscapes such as the steep cliff, the surging ocean and rivers, the vast wetland, even the mysterious beauty of forests are poetic and desirable. So why can such breathtaking landscapes turn disastrous in a moment and devour human lives and properties? Why do we continue to fail to practice instincts inherited from our ancestors' collective experiences and cultural wisdom to adjust our relationship to these perilous landscapes? Either voracity or parochial views make the victim and society ignore potential dangers and vulnerability in front of the landscape.

Taking the example of flood in China. According to research by Peking University, normally flooding only inundates 0.8% of the national territorial area even in the absence of anti-flood structures. In extreme weather events, the inundation area increases to 6.2% of the national territorial area. Therefore, if property was properly sited and land reserves established, the flood will no longer be an annual disaster, but a view and designed to be experience and celebrated like the grand tide of Tsientang River every August 18th (Luna calendar). This annual event of unspeakable beauty resembles that of lion raring in African wilderness. Sadly, our general lack of respect for natural forces leaves no safe distance between the raring wild lion and us.

Over the course of history, across generations, our ancestors have accumulated a system of knowledge based in past experiences and wisdom regarding the selection of housing sites, construction of infrastructure, farming and irrigation practices, and general rules of planning, engineering and technology, as well as emergency social organizations. The industrial revolution brought us powerful technologies to combat disasters, as well as arrogance to despise natural forces. Not only have we forgotten the wisdom to respect natural forces and therefore lower risks by intrinsically following the patterns of natures, but also our social and residential spaces have become extremely vulnerable due to an over dependence on grey infrastructure. For example, flood security relies on concrete dams, urban water security depends on fragile manmade channels. Eventually, just like other spaces of natural grandeur, the magnificent artificially engineered landscape, the world's large dams, China's cross-regional water diversion projects, and levees that can resist flood happening once in a thousand years, will shatter from arrogance and vulnerability.

主编寄语(俞孔坚)

论文
中国防灾避险型城市绿地建设的思想形成与发展概况(李树华)
日本城市避灾公园体系概述(增田昇)

观点与评论
植物抗霾(李延明、李新宇)
调查与实验:泰国朱拉隆功大学设计与建筑国际部之建筑课程介绍(波利雀雅•斯提潘)

原创实践
新西兰基督城过渡性纸板大教堂(坂茂建筑设计事务所)
PINCH:云南省双河村图书馆及社区中心(奥利维尔•欧特维尔、林君翰)
青海省玉树扎西科湿地公园防灾避险体系规划设计(王程程、潘剑彬、李树华)
爱荷华州锡达拉皮兹市滨河总体规划(Sasaki设计事务所)
防御、延迟、储存、排出—美国霍伯肯市综合防洪策略(大都会建筑事务所纽约办公室)
低影响开发绩效评估:德克萨斯州康罗市易干旱景观地下水涵养方案(盖伦•纽曼、孙源敏、李明翰)
意大利萨利内-乔尼彻滨水区重建(艾拉尼联合事务所)
北京市石景山区某中学1/2体育场(高亦陶、顾云端)

探索与过程
移动的地表:哥伦比亚麦德林市的危险栖居点与地质灾害(康纳•奥西亚)
一个案例和一场展览:黑色景观及其他当代景观类型(亚当•鲍贝特)

 

Editorial (by Kongjian YU)

Papers
The Development of Disaster Prevention Green Space in China (by Shuhua LI)
Disaster Refuge and Relief Urban Park System in Japan (by Noboru MASUDA)

Views and Criticisms
Plant Use in Reduction of Atmospheric Haze (by Yanming LI, Xinyu LI)
Investigation and Experimentation: The Architecture Program at INDA, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand (by Preechaya SITTIPUNT)

Original Practices
Transitional Cardboard Cathedral in Christchurch, New Zealand (by Shigeru Ban Architects)
The PINCH: Library and Community Center in Shuanghe Village, Yunnan (by Olivier OTTEVAERE, John LIN)
Disaster Prevention System Planning of Zhaxike Wetland Park in Yushu, Qinghai (by Chengcheng WANG, Jianbin PAN, Shuhua LI)
Master Plan for Cedar Rapids Riverfront, Iowa (by Sasaki Associates, Inc.)
Resist, Delay, Store, Discharge — A Comprehensive Flood Strategy for Hoboken, USA (by OMA New York)
Performance Evaluation of Low Impact Development: Groundwater Infiltration in a Drought Prone Landscape in Conroe, Texas (by Galen NEWMAN, Won Min SOHN, Ming-Han LI)
Reconstruction of Saline Joniche Waterfront, Italy (by Group Aranea)
1/2 Stadium of A Middle School in Shijingshan District, Beijing (by Oscar KO, Yunduan GU)

Experiments and Processes
Shifting Ground: Precarious Settlements and Geological Hazard in Medellin, Colombia (by Conor O’SHEA)
Landscape Noir and other Contemporary Genres as Seen through One Case and One Exhibition (by Adam BOBBETTE)

 

【中文刊名】《景观设计学》——灾难景观
【英文刊名】Landscape Architecture Frontiers • Disaster Landscapes
【作者】李树华(Shuhua LI)、增田昇(Noboru MASUDA)等
【出版社】高等教育出版社有限公司
【页码】172页彩色印刷
【刊号】ISSN 2095-5405
【出版日期】2014年8月
【定价】48.00元

中国防灾避险型城市绿地建设的思想形成与发展概况
The Development of Disaster Prevention Green Space in China

作者:李树华   Author: Shuhua LI

摘要 ……
中国的防灾思想和防灾方式的不断演变,从古代城市中兼具防火防洪功能的景观,到当代国家及地方法规的建立,防灾公园绿地作为城市防灾避险系统中重要的一个组成部分,其规划建设应该得到重视。本文回溯了中国城镇绿地防灾避险思想的发展,并在此基础上,总结了中国防灾避险绿地建设的策略。

关键词 ……
防灾;城市绿地;法规

Abstract ...
Approaches to disaster prevention have changed over the generations in China. From an integration and appreciation of urban landscapes that doubled as fire and flood prevention strategies in ancient China, to new national and local legislation, planning and construction for disaster prevention and response should be better integrated in urban landscapes and city planning. This paper summarizes historic and contemporary strategies for better implementation of strategies for disaster response and prevention into urban green spaces in Chinese cities.

Key words ...
Disaster Prevention; Urban Green Space; Legislation

 

日本城市避灾公园体系概述
Disaster Refuge and Relief Urban Park System in Japan

作者:增田昇   Author: Noboru MASUDA

摘要 ……
本论文概述了日本公园避灾体系的建立历程,以及避灾体系发展的现状和今后的展望。基于1923年东京关东大地震的教训,城市公园在避灾方面的重要性得以被广泛认识,从而设立了由广域避难场所和避难通道构成的防灾公园体系。1995年阪神淡路大地震发生后,城市公园作为灾害时重建、复兴据点、物资中转基地和城市街区火灾的避难点,进一步促进了日本现代的避灾公园体系形成,本文同时阐述了将避灾公园与周边的城市街区进行一体化规划建设的必要性。最后,本文提出了对日本公园避灾体系的展望,指出仅针对避灾公园硬件性设施的改善具有一定的局限性,需要从景观设计学的视点出发,寻找综合性解决途径。包括对公园绿地平时的利用管理、对地区社区居民防灾意识的培养、“共助性”社会的形成,以及对于城市其他防灾设施的建设等。

关键词 ……
灾害;城市;避灾公园;日本

Abstract ...
This paper provides an overview of the establishment and history of the Japanese disaster refuge park system, the current state of the system, and planned future developments. Urban parks, as places of disaster refuge, have been significantly important, and recognized as such, since the Great Kanto Earthquake of Tokyo in 1923. In response to this earthquake, a system of shelters and escape route were established. The modern Japanese disaster refuge system is tied to the period following the Osaka-Kobe Earthquake in 1995. During this period, urban parks became the center of disaster reconstruction and renovation, transfer stations for rescue materials, and shelter from fire of urban blocks. Additionally, this paper elaborates on the necessity for integrated planning and construction of disaster refuge spaces in urban design, and speculates on future park developments. Finally, the paper offers a critique on the limitations of urban green spaces to also function as disaster refuge areas. Landscape Architecture can play an important role in disaster-prevention and response, daily park use, park management, and increased community awareness and social resiliency.

Key words ...
Disaster; Urban; Disaster Refuge and Relief Park; Japan

 

植物抗霾
Plant Use in Reduction of Atmospheric Haze

作者:李延明、李新宇   Author: Yanming LI, Xinyu LI

摘要 ……
“霾”是指大气中细颗粒物浓度升高,而导致能见度下降的现象。本访谈介绍了治理霾的主要思路和措施,植物在消减PM2.5的机制,以及两个相关研究课题—“应对PM2.5空气污染的北京造林工程关键技术研究与示范”和“北京地区扬尘抑制技术研发及示范应用”—的最新研究进展。

关键词 ……
气象灾害;PM2.5;霾;植物
Abstract ...
“Haze” reduces visibility when fine air particles build up in the atmosphere. This interview introduces the main concepts and methods of measurement for haze control and the PM2.5 reduction mechanisms of plants. It also gives an overview of recent research progresses made, such as “Technology Development and Demonstration of PM2.5 Control in Beijing Forestation Projects” and “Technology Development and Demonstration Applications on Dust Pollution Prevention and Control in Beijing”.

Key words ...
Meteorological Disasters; PM2.5; Haze; Plants

 

调查与实验:泰国朱拉隆功大学设计与建筑国际部之建筑课程介绍
Investigation and Experimentation: The Architecture Program at INDA, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand

作者:波利雀雅•斯提潘   Author: Preechaya SITTIPUNT

摘要 ……
泰国朱拉隆功大学设计与建筑国际部(INDA)成立于2006年,在近年迅速发展,已成为东南亚地区最大且最成功的建筑院校之一。INDA关注于设计创新,使学生能够为高水准的国际建筑实践打好基础。本文探讨了INDA项目中调查与实验的过程,展示了设计营、游学考察和设计建造项目等活动如何来培养学生的国际视野。我们同时也设置了核心课程来帮助学生理解建筑与其他设计学科之间的关系,尤其是与景观设计和城市设计之间的关系。
关键词 ……
INDA;朱拉隆功大学;建筑课程;设计研讨课程;研究

Abstract ...
“INDA” is the International Program in Architecture and Design at Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok, Thailand. Since its first intake in 2006, INDA has quickly grown to be one of the largest and most successful architecture schools in Southeast Asia. With a focus on design innovation, the school aims to prepare its graduates for high-level international architectural practice. In this article we explore processes of investigation and experimentation that characterise the program at INDA, and show how activities such as workshops, traveling studios, and design build projects enable students to develop an international outlook. We also address ways in which the core curriculum helps students to understand the relationship between architecture and other design professions, especially landscape architecture and urban design.

Key words ...
INDA; Chulalongkorn University; Architecture Program; Design Studio; Research

 

新西兰基督城过渡性纸板大教堂
Transitional Cardboard Cathedral in Christchurch, New Zealand

作者:坂茂建筑设计事务所   Author: Shigeru Ban Architects

摘要 ……
2011年2月,新西兰基督城经历了一场灾难性的地震。设计师坂茂利用纸管与集装箱,建造了一座可容纳700人的“纸板”教堂,并于2013年8月开放。其作为基督城的第一个震后建成公共建筑,在城市的复苏中扮演了极为重要的角色。

关键词 ……
地震;教堂;过渡性;心灵慰藉

Abstract ...
In February, 2011, Christchurch experienced a devastating earthquake. The “Cardboard” Cathedral in Christchurch, New Zealand, is the transitional cathedral built post the earthquake, and opened in August 2013. Designed by architect Shigeru Ban, the cathedral was formed with paper tubes and containers, and can provide seats for 700 people. It is the first public building to be completed post earthquakes and greatly benefit the city in its recovery.

Key words ...
Earthquake; Cathedral; Transitional; Spiritual Consolation

 

PINCH:云南省双河村图书馆及社区中心
The PINCH: Library and Community Center in Shuanghe Village, Yunnan

作者:奥利维尔•欧特维尔、林君翰   Author: Olivier OTTEVAERE, John LIN

摘要……
PINCH项目所处的村庄在2012年的地震中被毁于一旦,这里急需一处可供社区居民使用的公共空间。尽管政府计划建造一个公共广场,但缺乏配套的景观项目。PINCH项目在提供了从住宅直接进入广场的通道的同时,又可被视作一座图书馆,这里成为当地居民聚会的场所,同时可供孩子们玩耍和阅读。

关键词……
地震;重建;社区活力;图书馆;木结构

Abstract ...
A new library and community center, nicknamed the PINCH, and built after the Shuanghe Village was completely destroyed by an earthquake in 2012 demonstrates the need for community spaces and participatory design in post-disaster landscapes. As part of the rebuilding effort, the government built an open plaza, however it lacked program or activity. In response, the PINCH provides direct access from the houses to the public library and provides meeting spaces, play areas, and reading zones.

Key words ...
Earthquake; Reconstruction; Vitality of Community; Library; Timber Structure


青海省玉树扎西科湿地公园防灾避险体系规划设计
Disaster Prevention System Planning of Zhaxike Wetland Park in Yushu, Qinghai

作者:王程程、潘剑彬、李树华   Author: Chengcheng WANG, Jianbin PAN, Shuhua LI

摘要……
青海省玉树县自古就是地震多发地。2010年玉树地震发生后,大批受灾群众等待家园的重建。在这期间,人们的基本生活需要维持,而扎西科湿地公园的建设则成为承载这些功能的良好载体。本文以此为契机,采用理论与实践相结合的方法,对扎西科湿地公园防灾避险体系的规划与构建进行了研究。

关键词……
地震;防灾公园;平灾结合;设施活用;应急避险;景观设计

Abstract ...
Yushu County in Qinghai Province is geologically prone to earthquakes, and after the most recent Yushu Earthquake in 2010 a large number of people had to rebuild their homes. During this reconstruction period, subsistence needed to be maintained through landscape. Combining theory with practice, this essay focuses on the planning and construction of the Zhaxike Wetland Park disaster prevention system.

Key words ...
Earthquake; Disaster Prevention Park; Integrated Design of Normal and Earthquake; Disaster Facility; Emergency Hedge; Landscape Design

 

爱荷华州锡达拉皮兹市滨河总体规划
Master Plan for Cedar Rapids Riverfront, Iowa

作者:Sasaki设计事务所   Author: Sasaki Associates, Inc

摘要……
爱荷华州锡达拉皮兹市在2008年遭遇一场大洪水侵袭,灾后Sasaki设计事务所为该市制定的滨河总体规划成为城市与区域复兴的载体。成千上万的参与者对城市公园和休闲需求提出反馈意见,并最终形成综合整体规划,该规划描绘了一幅引领锡达河沿岸未来数年投资决策的蓝图。

关键词……
洪水;总体规划;城市复兴;滨河目的地

Abstract ...
Sasaki’s master plan for the Cedar Rapids Riverfront is a vehicle to revitalize the city and the region, which was devastated by a flood in 2008. Thousands of community participants gave feedback on the city’s parks and recreation needs, culminating in a comprehensive plan that provides a blueprint to guide decisions about investments along the Cedar River for years to come.

Key words ...
Flood; Master Plan; Urban Revitalization; Riverfront Destination

 

防御、延迟、储存、排出—美国霍伯肯市综合防洪策略
Resist, Delay, Store, Discharge — A Comprehensive Flood Strategy for Hoboken, USA

作者:大都会建筑事务所纽约办公室   Author: OMA New York

摘要……
桑迪飓风影响的区域—新泽西州的泽西市、霍伯肯市和威霍肯市—极易受到洪水和风暴的影响。面对综合的城市环境,一次解决一栋住房的解决方案毫无意义。我们需要一个意识到城市的密度、肌理的复杂性,顾及到多样化的社区的每一个利益相关者,并且守护整座城市(包括其资产与公民)的综合途径。

关键词……
飓风;桑迪;防洪策略;弹性

Abstract ...
Within the Sandy-affected region, New Jersey's communities of Jersey City, Hoboken and Weehawken are susceptible to both flash flood and storm surge. As integrated urban environments, discreet one-house-at-a-time solutions do not make sense. What is required is a comprehensive approach that acknowledges the density and complexity of the context, galvanizes a diverse community of beneficiaries, and defends the entire city, its assets and citizens.

Key words ...
Hurricane; Sandy; Flood Strategy; Resiliency

 

低影响开发绩效评估:德克萨斯州康罗市易干旱景观地下水涵养方案
Performance Evaluation of Low Impact Development: Groundwater Infiltration in a Drought Prone Landscape in Conroe, Texas

作者:盖伦•纽曼、孙源敏、李明翰   Author: Galen NEWMAN, Won Min SOHN, Ming-Han LI

摘要……
由于地下水极度短缺,美国德克萨斯州正经历着严峻的水资源匮乏挑战,为了防止此情况继续恶化,该项目对整合低影响开发的替代性设计方法予以了探讨与研究。其采取的设计方法是通过対拟建的雨水基础设施可能带来的环境和经济绩效的衡量,来决定它的设计,包括其概念与项目安排。其重点在于尽量提升文化和水文系统之间的关联性。

关键词……
干旱;地下水;涵养

Abstract ...
Texas, USA is undergoing critical water challenges due to immense groundwater deficiencies. Alternative methods to integrating design with Low Impact Development need to be explored to stymie this condition. This projectapplies an approach to design whose concept / program is reinforced by projected environmental and economic performance measures of proposed stormwater infrastructure. The focus is to maximize the relationship between cultural and hydrological systems.

Key words ...
Drought; Groundwater; Infiltration

 

意大利萨利内-乔尼彻滨水区重建
Reconstruction of Saline Joniche Waterfront, Italy

作者:艾拉尼联合事务所   Author: Group Aranea

摘要 ……
萨利内-乔尼彻是意大利南部墨西拿海峡绵延8km的沿海地区,邻近埃特纳火山。萨利内-乔尼彻拥有丰富的景观资源,但却饱受工业活动所造成的持续退化的影响。复原一种健康的环境平衡并创造一个新型的生态系统的时机已经到来。该项目的目标是将萨内利-乔尼彻转化为可持续生态恢复及后工业利用的全球典范。

关键词 ……
滨水区;工业遗产;生态;重建

Abstract ...
Saline Joniche is an 8 km long coastal area in southern Italy along the Messinastrait and near the Etna volcano. Saline Joniche is a rich landscape, but has suffered continuous degradations as a result of industrial activities. The time has arrived to restore a healthy environmental balance and create a renewed ecosystem. The goal of this project is to transform Saline Joniche into a global model for sustainable ecological restoration and post-industrial use.

Key words ...
Waterfront; Industry Heritage; Ecology; Reconstruction

 

北京市石景山区某中学1/2体育场
1/2 Stadium of A Middle School in Shijingshan District, Beijing

作者:高亦陶、顾云端   Author: Oscar KO, Yunduan GU

摘要 ……
1/2体育场改造项目位于北京西部的一所中学。我们通过一个非连续性的环形建筑将场地与功能汇总成统一但各自独立的系统,赋予了操场一个明确的建筑构成意向,提升了操场的整体性。这种功能和规模的统一性,以及使用方法的差异性和独特性,最终造就了一种新型的校园建筑类型—1/2体育场。

关键词 ……
体育馆;环形建筑;学校;改造

Abstract ...
The 1/2 Stadium is located at a middle school in western Beijing. We used a discontinuous and circular architectural form in order to make the site a unique system, defining a clear architectural that strengthens the integrity of the design. This combination of uses and casual flexibility creates a new type of stadium model – the 1/2 Stadium.

Key words ...
Stadium; Circular Architectural Form; School; Re-design

 

移动的地表:哥伦比亚麦德林市的危险栖居点与地质灾害
Shifting Ground:  Precarious Settlements and Geological Hazard in Medellin, Colombia

作者:康纳•奥西亚   Author: Conor O’SHEA

摘要 ……
21世纪初期,城市化日渐复杂多样、范围不断扩大、速度逐渐加快,设计师、城市规划师和决策者等相关人士必须建立新的理论和方法论途径。本文对景观作为现代城市化理论阐释的基础框架进行了论证,并通过对一篇关于麦德林阿布拉山谷泥石流造成的死亡风险的设计报告进行讨论,提出了防御性的设计策略。在过去80年中,这些存在地质危害的山坡已造成784名低收入居民死亡,2030年预计约有350 000名居民面临危险。
“移动的地表”是位于麦德林市的行政、金融和技术大学的Urbam城市与环境研究中心,与哈佛大学设计学院社会机构实验室共同开展的一个合作项目,该项目建议采用基于景观的策略对城市化进程进行引导,从而避免山谷地区更为严重的灾害出现,与此同时亦可带来新的经济体。在该项目中,景观成为了研究和设计的框架,同时也将坡地的地质构成、区域水文、当地经济和迁入坡地的居民均纳入考虑范围当中。

关键词 ……
城市化;景观基础设施;设计研究;泥石流;侵蚀

Abstract ...
As the force field of urbanization grows in complexity, variety, scale, and rate in the early decades of the 21st century, designers, urbanists, and policy-makers alike must develop new theoretical and methodological approaches. This article demonstrates the use of landscape as a primary framework for theorizing contemporary urbanization and developing pre-emptive design strategies through a discussion of a design research report on the risk of death by landslide in Medellin’s Aburra Valley. Landslides in these geologically hazardous slopes have killed 784 low-income residents in the past 80 years, and by 2030 nearly 350,000 residents will be at risk. 
Shifting Ground, a collaboration between the think-tank URBAM of Eafit University in Medellin and the Social Agency Lab of the Harvard Graduate School of Design, proposes landscape-based strategies for redirecting urbanization processes in order to avoid further disasters in the valley and simultaneously produce new economies. Landscape is used as a research and design framework and takes into account the geologic makeup of the slopes, regional hydrology, local economies, and the flow of settlers relocating to the slopes.

Key words ...
Urbanization; Landscape Infrastructure; Design Research; Landslide; Erosion

 

一个案例和一场展览:黑色景观及其他当代景观类型
Landscape Noir and other Contemporary Genres as Seen through One Case and One Exhibition 

作者:亚当•鲍贝特   Author: Adam BOBBETTE

摘要 ……
2006年,拉宾多公司开始在印尼东爪哇省小镇徐图利祖县郊外进行天然气勘探钻井。然而勘探活动引发泥火山喷发直至今日,造成几千人移民他乡且未获赔偿,村庄、工厂及农田被淹。当地人不得不面对灾害持续存在这一新的现实,而政治界及政府当局充斥着腐败,设计师及其他专家却使现实情况更加混乱。这一深入的案例研究与最近题为“应急计划:居于动土之上”的展览有关。该展览深入分析了类似的当代景观,我认为如果以“黑色”及“谬误的黑色喜剧”此类当代景观的角度来解读,会获得更多富有成效的理解。

关键词 ……
黑色;黑色喜剧;类型;应急

Abstract ...
In 2006 Pt Lapindo Brantas began exploratory drilling for natural gas outside of Sidoarjo, a small town in East Java, Indonesia. Its activities created a mud volcano which continues to erupt today and has displaced thousands without compensation and submerged villages, factories and agricultural land. This disaster persists and has created a new reality for its residents where corruption rules politics and government and design specialists and other experts exacerbate it. This extended case study is then related to a recent exhibition Contingency Plans: Or, Living with Unstable Grounds which analyses in depth similar contemporary landscapes which I argue can be productively understood in terms of contemporary landscape genres of noir and dark comedy of errors.

Key words ...
Noir; Dark Comedy; Genre; Contingency