《景观设计学》2014年第5期

作    者:西蒙•斯沃菲尔德(Simon SWAFFIELD)、小詹姆士•L•威斯科(James L. WESCOAT, Jr.)、冯科(Ke FENG)、蒋涤非(Difei JIANG)等
类    别:景观
出 版 社:高等教育出版社有限公司
出版时间:2014年10月

导言 目录 作品信息 书评

俞孔坚•论重构社会与生态的基础设施
——《景观设计学》2014年第5期“主编寄语”
On Ecological and Social Infrastructures — Editorial of the No. 5 Issue for 2014, Landscape Architecture Frontiers
By Kongjian Yu


我常常感叹于“看得见山,望得见水,记得住乡愁”这句话的朴实与深刻。在我的理解中,这是渴望重构美好生态与社会的最得体的表述。
受金华市政府的邀请,2014年10月7日,我与我的团队踏上了故乡金华的土地,开展白沙溪治理和市域内多项规划设计工作。金华市委书记徐加爱念我久别故土多年,特别安排了“省亲”的节目,陪我一起走入古老的东俞村。这座偏僻的村庄顿时异常热闹,场景令人感动。在百年老宅的天井里,在弄堂的台阶上,在村口的平地上,在村中的广场中,在家族的宗祠里,无论是那个曾经欺凌过我的大个子男孩,还是我暗恋无缘、见面红脸的姑娘;无论是“文化大革命”期间迫害我父母的“积极分子”、剥夺过我上学权力的“贫管会”成员,还是在我父母受迫害时出手相助的恩人,这些故乡的人啊,都伸出了热情的手,眼里含着激动的泪花。正所谓相见一笑泯恩仇,浓浓的乡情扑面而来。
我在思考,为什么30多年的离别,刻骨铭心的风雨跌宕,反而使这乡情更加浓烈?这种人与人之间的归属感与认同感何以使恩情未泯?我想,是那共同望过的山,共同见过的水,共同的祖先祠堂,共同走过的弄堂、广场和村门,还有共同躲过雨的亭子、纳过凉的大树……于是,在我的脑海里,便清晰地将我的乡人与故土的景观建立起了不可分割的联系,它是一个网络——一个空间和人的活动相叠加的景观、社会及文化的体验网络。
我所体验的东俞村的社会与生态基础设施是美丽的,是1980年之前的,也是时常在我的梦境中出现的。村的北边是婺江——金华的母亲河,她自东而西,在兰溪与衢江相会,汇入富春江而后进入钱塘江。其江面宽阔,两岸沃野平畴,远山起伏如画,舟帆往来不断,那是乡民们每次去兰溪或金华必经的摆渡河流;沙滩上有成群的水鸟,那是我与伙伴们放养水牛的地方;春汛时节,沙滩被洪水淹没,成群的鲤鱼会跃入周边的水潭和稻田,那正是村民们一起围捕鲤鱼的时节。而夏季干旱时,全村为了共同的命运,人人参与修建提水泵站和水渠。
作为婺江的重要支流,白沙溪发源自南部山区。这条山溪遍布深潭浅滩,河柳丛生,除春汛的少数几日外,溪水在大部分时间里都异常清澈,阳光直透水底,鱼蟹历历在目,那是全村人傍晚共同洗浴、儿童一起戏水的地方。自汉代以来,溪上筑有36道古堰,引出36条水渠,灌溉两岸万顷良田。每条水渠都是沿岸乡民的生命线,对其的分配和使用有着人人遵守的公约;水渠将白沙溪水连同各种鱼蟹引入村中,汇聚成村中的7个水塘,200来户人家以水塘为中心,聚合成几个各有特征的邻里;这水塘是所有日常生活用水的来源,人们还经常借清淤之便,掏干水塘,收获丰富的鱼蟹和泥鳅,共同分享;水塘边的大樟树,浓荫覆盖,是白天集合出工,晚上聚会聊天,孩子们一起分享长辈们故事的地方……我想,正是这些曾经与村民共享的美丽的景观,构成了我的乡情的基础;也正是那些不断在梦中出现的景观,使乡情随时间而日益深长。
也正因为如此,当我看见白沙溪被渠化、硬化,变得面目全非之后,我伤心;当我看见古老的石堰被水泥大坝和橡胶大坝所替代时,我痛心;当我看见河床里的柳树被铲掉,沙洲被掏毁,水潭被填平,鱼鳖匿迹时,我悲叹。而所有这些都是在“水利基础设施”建设的名义下进行的。同样的悲伤,是当我看到从白沙溪引入村中的水渠被垃圾淤塞,村中的7口水塘被填埋,村口池塘边的大樟树被伐去,村前的风水林被毁掉……而这一切是在建设“市政基础设施”的名义和发展社会的名义下进行的。真正的基础设施却消失了,那就是作为乡情纽带的生态基础设施和社会基础设施——一个人人依赖的、人人以此为交流媒介,分享喜怒哀乐的景观基础。在这里,我把社会基础设施广义化为人们的体验和分享环境,而把景观理解为一种自然过程、生物过程和社会行为过程的关键性的空间格局,即生态基础设施(景观基础设施)。
我的母亲河——白沙溪,不是一条简单的溪流,而是一个生态基础设施,它为流域内的人民提供了不可或缺的供给、调节、生命承载和文化及审美启智的服务;它也是一个社会基础设施,它是流域内人人分享体验的网络,是那无限乡情的载体。于是,我明白了应该如何去修复她:重构社会,也即重构生态,应从恢复和构建生态基础设施开始。


Few sayings have inspired me or come close to expressing the desire to rebuild society as a beautiful ecology as, "mountain inmy view, water in my sight, and home in my deep heart" (words by Chinese Central Government).

In October, I was invited to do a site investigation in Jinhua, my hometown. Jia’ai Xu, the parentlike city secretary, thoughtfully arranged a visit to the ancient Dongyu Village, my home village, where I was born and grew till I left for college in 1980. During my visit, the usually quiet village was vibrant and streets were packed with people. The scene was moving. Suddenly everything felt familiar: the courtyards of the ancient houses, the steps of the alleyways, the entrance ground in front of the village, the square in the village, and the ancestral hall of the family.... No matter who I ran across: the boy who bullied me, the girl on whom I had a crush, the "activist" who persecuted my parents during the Cultural Revolution, the member of "The Management Committee of the Poor and Lower-middle Peasants" who deprived my right of education, or the benefactors who helped my parents when they were suffering, welcomed me with tears in their eyes. I was filled with humility. The saying a "smile can melt away allies and enemies" could not of felt more true.

Since this trip, I have been thinking, what makes the nostalgia of home after 30 years away make you forget the ups and downs? How can belonging and self-identity live well beyond the friendships between people? Perhaps the answer is simple. We have viewed the same mountains, drank the same water, shared the same alleyways, walked the same roads, and been sheltered by the same trees. We are connected to the landscape beyond a place of mind; we have shared a feeling of the landscape. We are strongly connected by the network consisting of rich landscape, social, and cultural experience and memories. The social and ecological infrastructure of Dongyu Village was beautiful. It was there before the year of 1980, and appears in my dreams from time to time. To the north of the village is the Wujiang River — the mother river of Jinhua. The river meets the Qujiang River at Lanxi, flows into the Fuchunjiang and then Qiantangjiang River. The Wujiang River was wide and open and filled with dozens of boats. Mountains framed distant scenes. Waterfowl sat on the shoal, where my friends and I raised buffalos. During the spring floods, when the shoal disappeared and carps jumped from ponds to fields, the villagers would work collectively to catch the fish. During the dry summer, pumping stations and water channels supported the village.

Baishaxi Stream (the White Sand Creek) is a major tributary of the Wujiang River, originating from the southern mountain area, with willows and shallow pools. Except for several days in the spring flood season, the stream was visibly clear, and sunlight reaches all the way to where fish and crabs could be seen. The stream had long been a place to gather and play. During the Han Dynasty, 36 weirs were constructed on the stream and 36 channels were diverted to irrigate tens of thousands of agricultural fields. The channels became the lifeline for villagers, and through collective agreement they began to regulate distribution and usage. Channels brought the stream into the village, where it formed seven ponds. The village was made up of over 200 homes in several neighborhoods — each with a pond in the center. The ponds were not only a source of daily water use, but also provided aquaculture for the locals. The camphor trees provided shade around the ponds, and they naturally became places for daily gathering and night chatting. These beautiful landscapes that I have experienced, together with other villagers, is the foundation of my nostalgia and memory of landscape; these landscapes appear in my dreams and the nostalgia grows deeper and deeper throughout the years.

I therefore felt sad when I saw the Baishaxi Stream embanked and engineered. I felt sorrow when I saw the ancient weir being replaced by cemented and rubber dams. I felt grief when I saw the willows being removed from the waterbed, the shoal being destroyed, the ponds being filled, and the wildlife disappearing. Ironically, everything has been completed in the name of "Hydrological Infrastructure Development". I was at a loss when I saw that the channel diverted from the Baishaxi Stream was choked with trash, that the seven ponds in the village had been filled, the camphor tree near the village gate had been cut, and the forest in front of the village had been destroyed. All in the name of "Civil Infrastructure Development". In reality, real infrastructures — the ecological and social infrastructure, the landscape infrastructure that everyone relies on, and critical for natural process, biological process, social process, and ecological process — have disappeared.

My mother river, the Baishaxi Stream, is not a simple stream but an ecological infrastructure. It provides essential supplies, it carries of lives, culture, aesthetics, and enlightenments for people throughout the watershed. It is a social infrastructure, an experienced network, and a carrier for the endless memoires. All of these have inspired me the solution to rehabilitate her: Rebuilding society, as rebuilding ecology, should start with the rehabilitation and construction of these essential ecological infrastructures.

主编寄语(俞孔坚)

论文
由内而外还是由外而内?—对城市边缘地区景观管理的反思(西蒙•斯沃菲尔德)
古代水利基础设施比较研究对新兴城市的意义(小詹姆士•L•威斯科特)

观点与评论
应对中国经济模式转型的城市建设:适度与留白(冯科)
解读中国城市乱象(蒋涤非)

主题实践
巴拿马帕伦克岛生态旅游规划(Design Workshop设计事务所)
内-外:芬兰瓦萨市让维昂丹地区总体规划(Mandaworks建筑设计事务所、Hosper景观设计事务所瑞典办公室)
绿树林荫—印度孟买市多功能城市新区(Sasaki设计事务所)
上海市张庙科普健身公园(上海创意国际建筑设计有限公司)

原创实践
2014青岛世界园艺博览会“论道”展园(润衡集团)
北京市房山区政府第三办公区屋顶花园景观设计(中外园林建设有限公司)
葡萄牙塔霍河线性公园(Topiaris景观设计事务所)

探索与过程
图像自适性(大卫•巴克利•伯顿)
蛇口:发展新模式(左龙、亚历山卓•劳拉)

 

Editorial (by Kongjian YU)

Papers
Inside Out or Outside In? — Rethinking Peri-urban Landscape Management (by Simon SWAFFIELD)
Comparing Ancient Water Infrastructure for New Cities (by James L. WESCOAT, Jr.)

Views and Criticisms
Strategies Responding to the Urban Construction in China’s Economic Transformations (by Ke FENG)
Interpretation of the Urban Chaos in China (by Difei JIANG)

Thematic Practices
Isla Palenque Eco-tourism Master Plan, The Republic of Panama (by Design Workshop, Inc.)
Inside-Outside: Master Plan for Raviradan in Vaasan, Finland (by Mandaworks, Hosper Sweden)
The Trees — A New Mixed-use Urban District in Mumbai, India (by Sasaki Associates, Inc.)
Zhangmiao Exercise Park, Shanghai (by Archi-Union Architects)

Original Practices
The Lun Dao Garden at the International Horticultural Exposition 2014 Qingdao (by Runheng Group)
Landscape Design of Roof Garden at the Third Office Area of Fangshan District Government, Beijing (by Landscape Architecture Corporation of China)
Tagus Linear Park, Portugal (by Topiaris)

Experiments and Processes
Graphic Adaptation (by David Buckley BORDEN)
Shekou: New Modes of Development (by Long ZUO, Alejandro LARA)

【中文刊名】《景观设计学》——面向新型城镇化的社会-生态基础设施
【英文刊名】Landscape Architecture Frontiers • Socio-Ecological Infrastructure for New Urbanization
【作者】西蒙•斯沃菲尔德(Simon SWAFFIELD)、小詹姆士•L•威斯科(James L. WESCOAT, Jr.)、冯科(Ke FENG)、蒋涤非(Difei JIANG)等
【出版社】高等教育出版社有限公司
【页码】158页彩色印刷
【刊号】ISSN 2095-5405
【出版日期】2014年10月
【定价】48.00元

由内而外还是由外而内?—对城市边缘地区景观管理的反思
Inside Out or Outside In? —Rethinking Peri-urban Landscape Management

作者:西蒙•斯沃菲尔德   Author: Simon SWAFFIELD

摘要 ……
随着全世界城市经济的发展,以及城市区域的不断扩张,人们正逐渐将城市边缘地区的管理视为一个重要的政策问题。然而,与此同时,由于经济转型或因气候变化有关的自然灾害而从风险区中撤离,城市区域内正渐渐出现新的边界条件。本文对城市边缘地区的景观管理予以了重新思考,将城市内部的边界条件也纳入考量,并就城市边缘地区—这一21世纪城市化的新兴特征—所面临的挑战与机遇进行了审视。本文通过新西兰基督城的案例研究,提出了一种将基于价值的视角,与传统空间战略相结合的方法。采用一种更为清晰明确的、以景观为基础的城市边缘地区管理框架,需要同时发展与之配套的景观尺度合作伙伴关系,从而能够为城市边缘地带提供愿景和政策的长期连续性。

关键词 ……
城市边缘地区景观管理;城市内部边缘;基督城;治理框架

Abstract ...
As urban economies grow worldwide, and cities expand geographically, peri-urban management is being more widely recognized as a significant policy issue. At the same time however, new edge conditions are emerging within urban regions, due to economic re-structuring and retreat from areas at risk due to natural hazards associated with climate change. This paper reframes consideration of peri-urban landscape management to include intra-urban edge conditions, and examines the challenges and opportunities of urban edges as an emerging feature of 21st century urbanization. Drawing upon the case of Christchurch, New Zealand it argues for an approach that combines conventional spatial strategy with a values-based perspective. Adoption of a more explicit landscape based framework of peri-urban management will require a parallel commitment to the development of landscape scale partnerships that can provide long term continuity of vision and policy in urban edge situations.

Key words ...
Peri-urban Landscape Management; Intra-urban edges; Christchurch; Governance Framework

 

古代水利基础设施比较研究对新兴城市的意义
Comparing Ancient Water Infrastructure for New Cities

作者:小詹姆士•L•威斯科特   Author: James L. WESCOAT, Jr.

摘要 ……
在新兴城市发展水利基础设施时,对其他城市先前的水利模式和运行效果进行比较具有借鉴意义。本文由中国古代城市水利系统与南亚、北美古代水利基础设施的比较研究受到启发,每一个案例皆包含丰富的考古、历史和地理佐证;然而21世纪的新型城市化却甚少从中汲取经验以作参考。其中,正面案例包括长期强调的城市选址、流域保护、溪流恢复、漫滩管理和灾后重建等工作。失败案例则包括水源枯竭、退化、灾害和破坏性冲突等,在某些情况下,这些失败的基础设施正是导致城市被遗弃的原因之一。本文提出六项原则,依此说明对古代水城市主义的比较研究对当代城市景观设计挑战的重要意义。

关键词 ……
古代水利基础设施;中国;南亚;北美

Abstract ...
When developing water infrastructure for new cities, it is useful to compare the water patterns and performance of distant cities in earlier times. This paper takes its inspiration from research on ancient urban water systems in China which it compares with ancient water infrastructure in South Asia and North America. In each case, there is a wealth of archaeological, historical, and geographical evidence, which is only occasionally drawn upon to inform new urbanization in the 21st century. Positive examples include the enduring emphasis on urban siting, watershed protection, stream restoration, floodplain management, and post-disaster reconstruction.  Infrastructure failures include water depletion, degradation, disasters, and destructive conflict that have in some cases contributed to the abandonment of cities. The paper offers six principles by which comparative study of ancient water urbanism can have relevance for contemporary urban landscape design challenges.

Key words ...
Ancient Water Infrastructure; China; South Asia; North America

 

应对中国经济模式转型的城市建设:适度与留白
Strategies Responding to the Urban Construction in China’s Economic Transformations

作者:冯科   Author: Ke FENG

摘要 ……
本文以经济发展的视角,指出不管是从土地价格模式,还是从城市建设技术的角度看,未来的城镇化或者未来经济模式一定会发生剧烈的变化,并呈现跳动式发展。而规划师、设计师要前瞻性地为未来的可持续发展留出接口,以便根据时代需求而灵活地做出调整。

关键词 ……
经济发展;城镇化;土地价格;规划机制

Abstract ...
Whether it is determined by land prices or from the perspective of urban construction, future urbanization will experience a number of changes. Planners and designers should have a greater dialogue with history, and have a greater understanding of what should go and what should stay, rather than only meeting current and immediate design needs. We need to leave something to be developed in future!

Key words ...
Economic Development; Urbanization; Land Price; Planning Mechanisms

 

解读中国城市乱象
Interpretation of the Urban Chaos in China

作者:蒋涤非   Author: Difei JIANG

摘要 ……
在拥有13亿人口的背景之下,中国的城镇化取得今天的成果是非常不易的。但是中国城市面临着非常严重的城市风貌问题。中国从南到北、从东到西几乎千城一面。但这“一面”并不是说只有一种面貌,而是同样的多元混杂、乱象丛生。当代中国城市在相互模仿中不断趋同,城市的同质化已成为现代化的“并发症”。这将是中国城市发展在未来要面对的核心问题。

关键词 ……
城镇化;城市风貌;乱象;城市特色

Abstract ...
With a population of 1.3 billion, it has not been easy to achieve the level of urbanization that China has today. However, Chinese cities are facing a severe problem — lack of diversity of cityscape. China’s cities are almost homogenous across the country. That is not saying they only have one appearance; instead, they have assorted mixes of aggregated chaos. Contemporary Chinese cities tend to mimic each other and look alike. Homogenization of cities has become a negative side effect of urbanization, and this is going to be the core issue to face in the future of the urban development in China.

Key words ...
Urbanization; Cityscape; Urban Chaos; Urban Characteristic

 

巴拿马帕伦克岛生态旅游规划
Isla Palenque Eco-tourism Master Plan, The Republic of Panama

作者:Design Workshop设计事务所   Author: Design Workshop, Inc.

摘要 ……
位于巴拿马的帕伦克岛借助自然、人工以及文化力量,成为了一个中美洲地区地理保护型设计实践范例。该项目将85%的岛屿面积划定为自然保护区,针对场地规划决定的生物气候策略进行了考察,对农业旅游的方式进行了探索以减少进口,并开发了水与能源管理方案以减少对不可再生资源的依赖。该项目通过重新定义地域发展和保护的标准,对现有的政府性法规发起了挑战。

关键词 ……
生态旅游;生物气候设计策略;度假胜地;巴拿马;农业旅游;教育

Abstract ...
Isla Palenque, in Panama serves as a model for geo-responsible design practices throughout Central America, drawing upon natural, human-made and cultural patterns. The project preserve 85 percent of the island for a nature sanctuary, examines bioclimatic strategies for site-planning decisions, explores methods of agro-tourism to decrease imports and develops water and energy management plans that reduce dependency on nonrenewable resources. The project challenges existing governmental regulations, redefining regional development and conservation standards.

Key words ...
Eco-tourism; Bioclimate Design Strategies; Resort; Panama; Agrotourism; Education

 

内-外:芬兰瓦萨市让维昂丹地区总体规划
Inside-Outside: Master Plan for Raviradan in Vaasan, Finland

作者:Mandaworks建筑设计事务所、Hosper景观设计事务所瑞典办公室   Author: Mandaworks, Hosper Sweden

摘要 ……
该项目的设计方案以城市的历史网格系统设计为基础,打造出具有当代特色的城市框架,不仅将项目区域融入整体城市环境,还丰富了区域内的城市多样性,为21世纪所面临的全面可持续发展的挑战提供了解决方案。

关键词 ……
历史网格;可持续性;连通性;层级结构;对角线连接;多样性

Abstract ...
Our proposal looks to build from historical grid to create a contemporary framework that connects the site to its context, sponsors diversity within the block, and takes on the 21st century’s challenge for holistic sustainability.

Key words ...
Historical Grid; Sustainability; Connectivity; Hierarchy; Diagonal Connection; Diversity

 

绿树林荫——印度孟买市多功能城市新区
The Trees — A New Mixed-use Urban District in Mumbai, India

作者:Sasaki设计事务所   Author: Sasaki Associates, Inc.

摘要 ……
Sasaki的“绿树林荫”规划方案,旨在将孟买市废置的戈德里奇肥皂工厂综合体改造为了一处重新焕发活力的城市区域。该项目将场地打造为一个综合利用、充满活力,且舒适宜居的崭新区域,积极地与城市融为一体。设计团队用以人为本和社区导向型设计方案,创造了一个促进社会、文化、经济与环境融合的强健的发展框架。

关键词 ……
“绿树林荫”;棕地更新;城市空间改造;综合体;多功能;立体花园

Abstract ...
Sasaki’s master plan for The Trees transforms a decommissioned Godrej soap manufacturing complex into an urban district that captures the kinetic energy of the city. The project will pave the way for a mixed used, vibrant, and livable new district that proactively engages the city. The plan creates a robust framework that fosters social, cultural, economic, and environmental cohesion in a people-centric and community-oriented design.

Key words ...
The Trees; Brownfield Regeneration; Transformation of Urban Space; Complex; Mixed-use; Stereoscopic Garden

 

上海市张庙科普健身公园
Zhangmiao Exercise Park, Shanghai

作者:上海创意国际建筑设计有限公司   Author: Archi-Union Architects

摘要 ……
上海市张庙科普健身公园的设计代表了一种城市更新态度:通过市民的自发活力塑造城市空间的形态。结合原有的功能,并通过对场地的空间与市民实际功能需求的分析,设计提供了不同视角下的城市绿地改造的可能方式。

关键词 ……
城市边角绿地;城市更新;市民自发活力;科普

Abstract ...
The design of Zhangmiao Exercise Park shows an attitude towards city regeneration: forming urban space from the citizens’ spontaneity. Through combining the existing functions of the site, and investigation and analyze of site space and citizens’ real needs, the design team provided an alternative plan for this urban greenspace transformation project, and a dynamic place for public activities.

Key words ...
Urban Green Corner; City Regeneration; Citizens’ Spontaneity; Scientific Popularization

 

2014青岛世界园艺博览会“论道”展园
The Lun Dao Garden at the International Horticultural Exposition 2014 Qingdao

作者:润衡集团   Author: Runheng Group

摘要 ……
“论道”展园项目基于设计师对生活的观察和对大自然的尊敬,以生态环保的设计理念,将多维度的空间层次与人们的活动结合起来,营造了可承载不同行为的空间场所;并以“高椅、长桌花园、植物秀场”为设计主题,力求通过探索出更多对传统景观设计思维具有颠覆性的设计方法,使“论道”展园成为一件具有时代特征的标志性景观作品的同时,也成为一项事件性景观设计的宣言。

关键词 ……
论道;高椅;长桌花园;植物秀场;事件性景观


Abstract ...
The Lun Dao Garden takes inspiration from the life and respect to nature, ecological protection, and human activity to create a space that supports a variety of functions. With the theme “High Chair", "Garden Table", and "Plant Show", the garden seeks to explore more design methods than seen in traditional landscape design. The Lun Dao Garden is an iconic event landscape design.

Key words ...
Idea Exchange; High Chair; Garden Table; Plant Show; Event Landscape

 

北京市房山区政府第三办公区屋顶花园景观设计
Landscape Design of Roof Garden at the Third Office Area of Fangshan District Government, Beijing

作者:中外园林建设有限公司   Author: Landscape Architecture Corporation of China

摘要 ……
房山区政府第三办公区屋顶花园采用简约的设计风格,按照空间的不同功能分为“心语园”、“喧聚园”、“聆听园”和“游思园”4个主题园。项目在实施的过程中解决了屋顶荷载、排水以及防水问题,为屋顶花园的建设提供了可供借鉴的参考。

关键词 ……
屋顶花园;简约设计;荷载;排水

Abstract ...
The design of the roof garden of the third office area of the Fangshan District government takes a minimalist approach. Based on the various functions of the space, four themed gardens were designed, namely “Xinyu Garden”, “Xuanju Garden”, “Lingting Garden”, and “Yousi Garden”. The project throws new light on ways to resolve common issues — such as loading, drainage, and water proofing — in the construction of roof gardens.

Key words ...
Roof Garden; Simple Design; Load; Drainage

 

葡萄牙塔霍河线性公园
Tagus Linear Park, Portugal

作者:Topiaris景观设计事务所   Author: Topiaris

摘要 ……
葡萄牙塔霍河线性公园的场地原被周围私有工业区所占据。一直以来,这里都受到大型工业区屏蔽,对于临近社区的人们来说,塔霍河线性公园为他们提供了首次近距离与河岸接触的机会,同时还能令他们尽情享受公园所提供的休闲娱乐。该公园在保护了现有自然系统的同时,也促进了受损区域的生态恢复。

关键词 ……
改造;滨河空间;线性公园;休闲设施


Abstract ...
The Tagus Linear Park was conquered by the surrounding communities of the industrial private sector. For the first time, people of adjacent urban communities are given recreation and leisure opportunity in direct contact with the riverside, which was until recently blocked by large industrial lots. The park safeguards the existing natural systems and promotes the ecological regeneration of damaged areas.

Key words ...
Transformation; Riverfront Space; Linear Park; Recreational Facility

 

图像自适性
Graphic Adaptation

作者:大卫•巴克利•伯顿   Author: David Buckley BORDEN

摘要 ……
非设计人员之间文化凝聚力的缺乏是生态城市的最大挑战之一。特别是在生态共享意识的缺乏和生态价值亟待提高的情况下,长期以设计为驱动的可持续实践依然遥不可及。为了促进生态设计的成功,景观设计师不仅要教育公众,而且要使生态议题更普及、更贴近非设计专业的普罗大众。
我的创作基础在于将艺术与设计以富有想象力的形式相结合,从而与生态议题进行对话,以填补传统景观的可视化技术的空白。我的“艺术”图像表达方法是对传统的景观表达工具进行适应性的转化,这些交流工具包括图表、地图、模型和透视渲染。在我最近的项目“福尔曼水彩图示”中,这种创作方法的力量尤其显而易见。我重新呈现了理查德德•T•T•福尔曼开创性的景观生态学图示。通过结合新旧媒介的感召力,专业景观知识的可视化不仅易于理解,而且富有启迪意义。

关键词 ……
生态学;图像表达;可视化;创作过程;实践

Abstract ...
One of the biggest challenges to the eco-city is a lack of cultural cohesion among non-designers. In particular, without a shared awareness and heightened value of ecology, long-term design-driven sustainable practice remains out of reach. To support successful eco-centric design, landscape architects must not only educate the general public, but must also make ecological issues relevant and accessible to non-designers.
The cornerstone of my creative practice is communicating ecological issues with a imaginative combination of art and design in order to fill the gap left by traditional landscape visualization techniques. My “artistic” graphic communication approach is an adaptation of many conventional landscape communication tools such as the diagram, map, model and perspective rendering. The power of this creative approach is evident in my recent project “The Forman Watercolor Diagrams”, in which I re-present Richard T. T. Forman’s seminal landscape ecology diagrams. By employing an evocative combination of old and new media, the visualization of specialized landscape knowledge is not only accessible, but also inspirational.

Key words ...
Ecology; Graphic Communication; Visualization; Creative Process; Practice

 

蛇口:发展新模式
Shekou: New Modes of Development

作者:左龙、亚历山卓•劳拉   Author: Long ZUO, Alejandro LARA

摘要 ……
在中国当下的现代化和城市化进程中,城市设施荒废率高得惊人。中国近些年来,改造和翻新项目正逐渐成为主要的城市建设议题。
蛇口工业区创立于1979年,是中国城市发展中最早进入现代工业化进程的先行者之一,我们的研讨课程的主要任务就是深圳发展的大趋势下,蛇口作为即将被大规模废弃的工业区,应该如何利用这些大片的工业土地和其他工业设施,积极自我适应和改变从而平稳甚至高效过渡。
我们将蛇口半岛定位为联系前海新城和深圳市区的纽带,并逐渐转化,改变其现存肌理。设计对于荒废化这个核心问题的解决方式是创造一个功能充分混合化的城市,其用地属性互相重叠、边界模糊且具备一系列多样化的城市锚点。与现有中国城市规划趋势不同,我们强调的是去主题化的混合策略。新的蛇口半岛将不仅仅为深圳和前海提供便利,还将刺激沿深圳湾的香港新区发展。

关键词 ……
荒废化;去主题化;有机网格;蛇口;分期;后工业再开发

Abstract ...
A striking aspect of China’s recent modernization and urbanization has been a high rate of obsolescence, and redevelopment and renewal have become an increasingly large part of China’s developmental agenda.
Aiming at the Shekou Industrial District in Shenzhen, one of the earliest excursions into modern industrial and urban development since 1978, the issue to be confronted in our studio is how should Skekou District comport itself and be reconfigured to best leverage the obsolescence rate of the plant sites and other facilities while undergoing new development.
The concept of our project is to position the Shekou Peninsula as the link between Qianhai and Shenzhen by gradually adapting and transforming the existing fabric. The design targets the obsolescence through a highly programmatically mixed urban fabric, an overlap of districts, various urban anchors, dynamic transitions and most importantly, the dethematazation of the current urban planning trends. The new Shekou Peninsula will serve not only as an amenity for Shenzhen and Qianhai but also a destination for Hong Kong and the new towns developing across Shenzhen Bay.

Key words ...
Obsolescence; Dethematazation; Organic Grids; Shekou; Phasing; Post Industrial Redevelopment