《景观设计学》2014年第6期

作    者:卢西亚诺•库佩洛尼(Luciano CUPELLONI)、刘庆柱(Qingzhu LIU)、江大勇(Dayong JIANG)等
类    别:景观
出 版 社:高等教育出版社有限公司
出版时间:2014年12月

导言 目录 作品信息 书评

俞孔坚•精读大地
——《景观设计学》2014年第6期“主编寄语”
A Thorough Reading of the Land
By Kongjian Yu


2014年11月28日,应湖南澧县政府盛邀,我带着无限的憧憬和期盼,前往城头山遗址考察并承接其周边的景观设计任务。城头山古文化遗址拥有距今6 000余年的历史,是迄今在中国境内发现的年代最早、内涵最丰富、保存最完整的古城遗址,被认为是“中国最早的城市”。我早已从教科书上知道其存在,也心向往之。从航拍影像上看,这是一个镶嵌在田野间的多彩的岛屿,其上阡陌纵横,覆盖着稻田和旱作,周边是高起的土台,外围被水体环护—这是给人以无限遐想的迷人之境。

然而当我从机场迫不及待地直奔现场时,我失望了,眼前的景象让我大吃一惊:一条4km长、6车道的景观轴线,“堪比”香榭丽舍大道;轴线上矗立着一座巨大的博物馆和一个巨大的接待中心,都正在做最后的装修工程;景观大道两侧是五彩花木和整齐的银杏树,其投资数以亿计;还有中央领导的题词巨碑,小桥流水环绕,奇石异木簇拥,用心可谓良苦;再往前行(必须乘车),将至古城遗址,但见一占地近2hm2的广场正在修建,原来的稻田已全然不见,推土机正在挖湖堆山;再绕古城遗址外围,护城河边,那航拍影像上看到的稻田湿地、茅草和树丛,已被奇巧的园林之花木、观赏置石和九曲步桥所取代,一条精致的花岗岩路面的车道绕城池一圈。

令人倍感悲哀的是,在过去6 000年中,当地农人们为了生存需要的开垦种植并未曾毁掉一座城市遗址,而是在其上一层层覆盖着历史的印记,为之增加了富有内涵的年轮。而这些农民及其住宅却已被与历史环境不符的名义,被迫搬迁,稻田被改成了花木。富起来的一代,却堂而皇之地在国之瑰宝上,留下了难以弥合的伤疤。然而讽刺的是,这些都是在国家拨款以“保护古城遗址、美化环境和发展旅游”的名义下进行的。而更令我深感悲哀的是,这样的园林和旅游景观工程不仅仅在此地发生,而是在全中国成千上万个考古遗址上发生着。

可休也!荒唐的考古遗址的园林美化工程;可休也!祖先遗产地上的无知无畏的景观大道和广场工程;可休也!无依无据的仿古工程和古建筑再造工程;可休也!以保护和恢复考古遗址为名的农民搬迁工程。

考古学是通过发掘和分析人类遗留的物质文化和环境数据,包括物件、建筑、生态因素和文化景观,来研究过去人类活动和理解其社会文化状况的学问。在人文地理学家的视野里,景观本身就是人类活动在大地上的烙印,是人类社会及其价值观、审美观和生活方式在大地上的投影。所以,作为一个景观设计师,对待每一寸土地时,我们都应怀着无限的敬畏,轻轻地拂去尘土,显露其历史的年轮,揭示完整的物体与环境及其关系(就像负责任的考古学家那样);然后用可逆的方法和可分离的技术创造一种可以阅读、理解它的内涵的方式,并将其设计成一种可供人体验的方式。每一方土地都是一个有着富藏的博物馆,都是人类的文化公共空间(源于2014年与博物馆专家盖儿•罗得女士的一次个人交流)。所以说,景观设计学本质上是考古学的一部分,或者说考古本质上是景观设计学的一部分,两者水乳交融,一个告诉我们大地上的含义,一个告诉我们如何去理解和体验真实的大地。

并不是说我们不能在考古遗址上或周边环境进行创造性的设计,但那种自以为是的景观大道和奇巧园林,除了给遗址及其环境氛围带来不可弥补的损坏外,(如果“有幸”这些景观大道和园林被大水淹没而成为覆盖遗址的又一层堆积)也给后代考古发掘者对这代人的鄙俗与无知留下笑柄;可逆性和可分离的环境解释学途径,才是景观设计与考古遗产地的最恰当的结合;当然,那种试图绝对保护遗址、拆迁农民房屋、毁掉良田、企图恢复古代景观或恢复定格在某个时代的景观的做法既没有意义也没有可能,这是对考古学试图揭示场地完整性和历史的连续的初衷的背叛,这样的做法并没有比在遗址上造园林和景观大道高明多少。

但希望并没有彻底破灭,当地领导们已经意识到了上述行为的谬误,发现那些矫情的园林小品和恢弘的景观大道及广场,其实不但与考古遗址主题格格不入,也没有产生美感,更不可能带来旅游效益。而摆在我们面前的景观设计任务—恢复当地生产性的稻田和湿地—将是艰巨而复杂的,要远比园林化之前的、田园上的考古遗址的设计艰难得多,那么问题是,早知今日,何必当初呢!


I went to Chengtoushan with an infinite longing and expectation, to survey the land and undertake a landscape design for the Li County government. The Chengtoushan cultural relics date back 6,000 years and are considered amongst the oldest and the best preserved ancient city in China with rich cultural heritage. I have long wanted to visit this place. Aerial photos show it as a colorful island, with fields of interweaving trials with paddy fields and dry farming field. It is surrounded by an elevated dike and sorrounded by outside water. This wonderland enables unlimited fantasy.

I was filled with disappointment when I arrived at the site. The view in front of me was shocking: an avenue as a landscape axis is 4 km long with six lanes of traffic that could compete with Champs-Elysees. Colorful flowers and aligned ginkgos had been planted on both sides of the avenue, and a giant museum and a huge reception center were undergoing final decoration. The total investment was in the hundreds of millions. There were tablets carved with inscriptions by the central government leaders, intentionally framed by affectedly naturalized landscapes of bridges, creeks, stones and plants. As I traveled around the site by car, the relics of the ancient city emerged in the midst of the construction. The original paddy fields that could be seen in the aerial photos had been bulldozed to create a lake and hill. The historic agricultural landscape had been replaced by a landscape of stones and walking bridges. A granite road for electric bikes now circled the city.

In the past 6,000 years local farmers never destroyed the relics of the city for the purpose of survival. Today, the farmers and their residence have been relocated under the name of conformity. The paddy field was changed to ornamental flowers and trees leaving an eternal scar on this national treasure. Ironically, these actions have been carried out with the state financial allocation for preservation, environmental protection and tourism. Perhaps the most mournful part of this story is that it is happening to hundreds of relic sites.

It is time to stop. These absurd landscape improvement projects on top of archeological relics must stop. These ignorant landscape and plaza projects on the land of agricultural and ancestral legacies must stop. The groundless pseudo-reconstruction of ancient buildings must stop. Farmer relocations under the guise of preservation and archeological recovery must stop.

Archaeology is the study of human activity in the past through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data that has been left behind, including artifacts, architecture and cultural landscapes. The landscape itself is human activity branded on the land. It is a reflection of human society, our values and life. We should bear respect to every inch of land, we should sweep off the dust, reveal the histories of the relationship between object and surrounding, in a rigorous, archaeological way. Every inch of land is potentially a rich museum, a human cultural space of the common human experience (personal communication with museum expert Gail Lord in 2014). Landscape Architecture is therefore considered as a part of the field of Archaeology, or, the realm of Archaeology could be understood as a part of the territory of Landscape Architecture. The two disciplines are intertwined, with one telling us the meaning of the land, the other how to interpret and experience the land.

I do not want to imply that creative design is forbidden on archaeological sites. But, the current practice of pretentious naturalistic landscape design and grandiose gardens brings irrevocable damage to the relics and environment. If these landscape gardens were flooded and became another layer to the relics that would make us a laughingstock of future generations because of our vulgarity and ignorance. Environmental interpretation is the best method of landscape design in archaeologically sensitive sites. However, the way of preserving a site at all costs, completely relocating farmers and destroying their villages, and recovering the ancient landscape to a certain era is meaningless and impossible. Complete landscape restoration would be a betrayal to the original intention of revealing the site’s layered history.

Hope is not completely ruined. More and more local leaders have realized the absurdity of the above practices. They have realized that grandiose landscapes are incompatible with the themes of archaeological relics; they will not add aesthetic value or increase tourism revenue. The design and protection of these landscapes will be arduous and complicated, we need to restore the productive farmlands and wetlands. But the conundrum is why are we still doing these while feeling contrite now (Translated by Xiao WU, Proofread by Sara JACOBS).

主编寄语(俞孔坚)

论文
对古代世界的干预:启示、理论与案例(卢西亚诺•库佩洛尼)

观点与评论
中国需要一场“复兴运动”(刘庆柱)
规划师应该去了解的另一门语言—地质遗迹与古生物研究(江大勇)
协商下的城市景观:秘鲁利马都市区的考古遗址与建成环境(罗萨贝拉•阿尔瓦利兹-卡德隆•希瓦-桑蒂斯德本)
物质遗留:美国伊萨卡瀑布与伊萨卡枪械棕地考古学设计应用(凯瑟琳•德•阿尔梅达)
以国际视角审视中国乡村景观与可持续城镇化(玛利亚-贝派丝•安德瑞尤斯)

主题实践
向公众展现当地历史之璀璨——西班牙达洛卡考古场地设计(Sergio Sebastián Franco建筑设计工作室)
西安唐大明宫国家遗址公园规划回顾(余定,张哲)
陕西省韩城市梁带村国家遗址公园概念规划(余定,胡彦)
纪念之路:土耳其加里波利半岛国家历史公园景观设计提案(ONZ建筑设计事务所,MDesign设计事务所,LOLA景观设计事务所,24H建筑设计事务所)
巴塞罗那大时代:用展现来强化文化遗产和社会之间的联系(300.000 Km/s工作室)

探索与过程
疏离永恒:对瞬息城市化及批判性保护的反思(费利佩•维拉,本杰明•施尔巴斯)
废弃物堆积山的转变:罗马泰斯塔修山的公众集聚和材料迁移(迈克尔•依兹本)

《景观设计学》2014年目录

 

Editorial (Kongjian Yu)

Papers
Intervene on the Ancient World: Lectures, Theories and Cases (Luciano CUPELLONI)

Views and Criticisms
China Needs a Renaissance (Qingzhu LIU)
Another Language that Designers Need to Understand — Geological Heritage and Paleontological Research (Dayong JIANG)
The Negotiated Urban Landscape: Archaeological Sites and the Creation of the Metropolis of Lima, Peru (Rosabella Alvarez-Calderon SILVA-SANTISTEBAN)
Material Remnants: Design Archaeology on Ithaca Falls and the Ithaca Gun Brownfield Site (Catherine DE ALMEIDA)
Rural China’s Landscape and Sustainable Urbanization: An International Perspective (Maria-Beatrice ANDREUCCI)

Thematic Practices
Show the Richness of Its Own Past to the Public — Archaeological Space in Daroca, Spain (Sergio Sebastián Franco)
Master Plan for the National Relics Park of Tang Dynasty Daming Palace, Xi’an (Ding YU, Zhe ZHANG)
Concept Planning for the Liangdai Village National Relics Park in Hancheng, Shaanxi (Ding YU, Yan HU)
Lines of Memories: A Landscape Design Proposal for the Gallipoli Peninsula Historical National Park, Turkey (ONZ Architects, MDesign, LOLA, 24H Architecture)
Big Time BCN: Strengthening the Link between Heritage and Society through Representation (300.000 Km/s)

Experiments and Processes
Detaching from Permanence: Reflections on Ephemeral Urbanism and Critical Conservation (Felipe VERA, Benjamin SCHEERBARTH)
Midden Mutations: Civic Aggregation and Material Migration at Monte Testaccio (Michael EZBAN)

List of Contents, Landscape Architecture Frontiers, 2014

 

【中文刊名】《景观设计学》——考古学与景观设计学
【英文刊名】Landscape Architecture Frontiers • Archaeology and Landscape Architecture
【作者】卢西亚诺•库佩洛尼(Luciano CUPELLONI)、刘庆柱(Qingzhu LIU)、江大勇(Dayong JIANG)等
【出版社】高等教育出版社有限公司
【页码】178页彩色印刷
【刊号】ISSN 2095-5405
【出版日期】2014年12月
【定价】48.00元

对古代世界的干预:启示、理论与案例
Intervene on the Ancient World: Lectures, Theories and Cases
作者:卢西亚诺•库佩洛尼 Luciano CUPELLONI

摘要 ……
古代,尤其是“古代世界”—对于我们欧洲人,尤其对于大部分意大利人而言,罗马帝国的落没即意味着古代世界的结束—在每一个历史时期,都可以为文化、艺术和建筑创作提供借鉴。它先于我们现有的时代而存在,并以物质的或历史的传承方式延续至今。无论其是处在不断演化的状态,还是处于一种濒临修复或是怀旧复兴的状态,抑或由于意识形态的差别,甚至仅仅是因为愚昧无知而已经消失,向古代世界借鉴都是必要的。
从文艺复兴开始,至少到现代运动,我们与古代之间的关系在连续与间断、记忆与遗忘、接连不断的呈现或突如其来的发现、并存与冲突中不断转换。即便是在当下,法律和规范建立起了各种限制,这种关系的复杂性还是衍生出了理论和实践上的各种立场,这些立场并不互相冲突,但也百家争鸣。当然这种关系也会随着主流考古文化及建筑师的态度的发展而变化。
本文并不拘泥于讨论与考古遗产特性相关的细节问题,而旨在探讨现代建筑文化与历史之间的复杂关系,这种关系可以被理解为一种可识别的记忆,也可以理解为一种古代在城市中心及其范围中的呈现。我们不能将现代性作为一个时间问题来理解,它不是新事物,因为它没有过去;也不能将之作为当代的某个方面来解读(尽管它确实带来了变革与创新);而是从它与过去的比较来谈。本文旨在追述塑造现代与历史之间关系的各种事件和理论。每一个事件、每一个理论都具有启发价值。通过对欧洲,特别是意大利已建成项目的审视,本文试图勾勒出建筑、考古与景观之间的复杂关系。
关键词 ……
古代世界;考古遗产;建筑;现代性;关系

Abstract ...
Understood as what has preceded us, come to us through his physical and historical traces, the ancient and in particular "the ancient world" — that for us Europeans, and mostly for the Italians, coincides with the end of the Roman Empire — has always been, in every historical period, a reference to the culture, art, architecture. A required reference, either when it has been configured as a constant evolution and as when it is a critical restitution, a nostalgic revival or it has been cancelled, due to ideology or simply for ignorance and vulgarity.
From the Renaissance and at least till the Modern Movement, the relationship with the antique is an alternation of continuity and discontinuity, of memory and forgetfulness, of consolidated presence and sudden discovery, of coexistence and conflict. Even today, in spite of laws and regulations that establish the limits, the complexity of this relationship gives rise to theoretical and operational positions articulated if not conflicting. And of course, this relationship also changes depending on the prevalent archaeological culture and attitude of architects over time.
Beyond the specifics of the issues related to the peculiarities of the archaeological heritage, the theme refers to the complex relationship between modern architectural culture and history, understood as identitary memory, but also as presence of the antique in the heart of a city and its territory. Understanding modernity is not a matter of time, not as "new" because it has no past, nor to designate in some way the contemporaries, even if bringing ruptures and innovations, but rather as a way of being compared to the past. The contribution of the author aims to retrace the events and the various theories that have shaped the history of this relationship. Each one is a lesson. It then follows the tentative outline of the complexity of the relations between architecture, archaeology and landscape, through the critical examination of cases realized in Europe and in Italy.
Key words ...
Ancient World; Archaeological Heritage; Architecture; Modernity; Relationship


中国需要一场“复兴运动”
China Needs a Renaissance
作者:刘庆柱 Qingzhu LIU

摘要 ……
城市在现代化的城镇化过程中都不同程度地丧失了历史文化特性。考古学正是挖掘一个地区文化个性的重要方式。只有对文化充分重视,城市才会有自己的特色。但是目前来说,考古学与城市规划是相互隔离的两部分。在未来,我们应促进这两个学科之间的融合。文化遗产是不可再生的资源,文化遗迹保护应在城市发展初期就在整体层面上作出初步的判别。
关键词……
考古;遗址;城市发展;城市特色;公众
Abstract……
To a varying degree the modern cities have all lost their historical and cultural characteristics. Archaeology is one way to excavate the cultural identity of an area. The urban characteristics take root in its culture. But for now, archaeology and planning are currently mismatched and should do more to relate. I suggest that planning majors need enroll in a number of related courses to achieve a cross integration of disciplines. Culture heritage is non-renewable resources, we need make initial identification of culture heritage before city development.
Key words……
Archaeology; Relics; Urban Development; Urban Identity; Public

 

规划师应该去了解的另一门语言——地质遗迹与古生物研究
Another Language that Designers Need to Understand — Geological Heritage and Paleontological Research
作者:江大勇 Dayong JIANG

摘要……
化石是古代生物的遗存,是自然界留给我们的不可再生的资源。它们是我们人类了解地球上生物演化过程的唯一资料,化石及其所存在的环境都应当得到保留。本访谈介绍了国家重点保护古生物化石集中产地在城镇化的进程中所面临的问题,并指出古生物化石集中产地的规划需要多专业、多部门的配合,以实现化石遗迹保护、当地经济发展、科学研究的共赢。而对于规划师而言,只有提升自身素养,并有效地与地质学家沟通,才能引导公众去了解地质知识、探索自然。
关键词……
地质遗迹;古生物研究;国家重点保护古生物化石集中产地;城镇发展;规划
Abstract……
Fossils are the remains of ancient organisms, they are our non-renewable resource; they are the only data we have to understand the evolution of human life on Earth. Fossils and its existing environments must be preserved. This article introduces the issues what National Protected Important Paleontological Fossils Sites are facing in the urbanization process, and points out planning for these sites needs a multi-disciplinary and -sectoral collaboration for site preservation, local economic growth, and scientific research. Planners have to enhance their knowledge and productively communicate with geologists in order to guide the public to learn geology, and explore the nature.
Key words……
Geological Heritage; Paleontological Research; National Protected Important Paleontological Fossils Site; City and Town Development; Planning


协商下的城市景观:秘鲁利马都市区的考古遗址与建成环境
The Negotiated Urban Landscape: Archaeological Sites and the Creation of the Metropolis of Lima, Peru
作者:罗萨贝拉•阿尔瓦利兹-卡德隆•希瓦-桑蒂斯德本 Rosabella Alvarez-Calderon SILVA-SANTISTEBAN

摘要……
20世纪,发生在利马的城市扩张和现代化进程几乎不曾将这座城市数量众多的考古景观纳入考量,令这些场地在现代化的城市中缺乏鲜明的角色定位。本文旨在探索如何对这些场地进行设定和设计,使之成为有意义的、开放的、民主的城市和历史性空间,令其既属于过去,也属于现在。
关键词……
利马;秘鲁;社会角色;公共空间;考古学
Abstract……
The process of expansion and modernization of Lima during the20th century mostly excluded the city’s rich archaeological landscape, leaving these sites without a defined role in the modern city. This article asks how can these places be framed and designed as meaningful, open and democratic urban and historical places of both the past and present.
Key words……
Lima; Peru; Social Actors; Public Space; Archaeology


物质遗留:美国伊萨卡瀑布与伊萨卡枪械棕地考古学设计应用
Material Remnants: Design Archaeology on Ithaca Falls and the Ithaca Gun Brownfi eld Site
作者:凯瑟琳•德•阿尔梅达 Catherine DE ALMEIDA

摘要……
景观保存着一层一层嵌在地表和地下的历史物质遗留。从表象上来说,空间反映的是一种压缩的时间;现在只是过去与未来之间的一瞬。考古学揭示了历史活动中的物质遗迹,场地的历史以不同的时间层次得以体现。棕地保留了在土壤和水中以污染物形式存在的物质遗迹,成为了解过去活动的线索。在那些工业活动曾经发生的棕地上,其所遗留的大型建构(比如物质废墟),展示着其工业化的过去和去工业化的未来。这种类型的场地具有重塑景观设计师角色的潜力,使其既成为能够揭露过去的考古学家,又成为能够重新构想场地未来的设计师。本文探索了未来在去工业化的场地上,物质遗迹和遗留对景观设计的影响。在此以位于纽约州五指湖区域的兼具文化与历史重要性的伊萨卡瀑布和伊萨卡枪械工厂旧址为例,来研究拥有物质遗留的、历史层次的复杂景观。
关键词……
物质;遗迹;棕地;景观考古学;工业废墟;伊萨卡

Abstract……
Landscapes carry layered material remnants of history embedded in the surface and underground. Phenomenologically, spaces contain a compression of time; the present is the moment between past and future. Archaeology uncovers material traces from past activities, revealing a site’s history as layers of time. Brownfields bear material traces in the form of contaminants in the soil and / or water, and become clues for understanding past activities. Brownfields where industrial activities once occurred leave larger structures as material ruins, revealing an industrial past and a deindustrializing future. These types of sites have the potential to recast landscape architects as both archaeologists uncovering the past, and designers reimagining a new future for a site’s legacy. This article explores the impact of trace and remnant physical materials on the future terrain of landscape architecture operating within deindustrializing sites. Ithaca Falls and former Ithaca Gun Factory, a culturally and historically significant landscape in the Finger Lakes region of New York State, is used as a case study for approaching a historically layered, complex landscape with material remnants.
Key words……
Material; Traces; Brownfields; Landscape Archaeology; Industrial Ruin; Ithaca

 

以国际视角审视中国乡村景观与可持续城镇化
Rural China’s Landscape and Sustainable Urbanization: An International Perspective
作者:玛利亚-贝派丝•安德瑞尤斯 Maria-Beatrice ANDREUCCI

摘要……
中国的领导者于近期宣布,要实现在2025年城市化水平达到70%(城镇人口达到约9亿人)的目标,同时强调未来城市化将不再以特大城市的扩张(都市化)为特点,而是主要集中在村镇与小城市的发展(城镇化)。农业的地位随着中国的城市经济发展而逐渐衰退,而中国农业中心区域几千年的农耕文明也随着大量的乡村聚落一起被清除。这些急速的城镇化正在重新塑造中国的乡村,包括其景观、文化遗产以及社会结构。本文作者审视了这些多种多样的变化,并总结了在2014年华东师范大学设计学院组织的关于小城镇建设的设计课程上的成果。该设计课程在中国和欧洲分别展开,就主题为“新城镇建设过程中乡村自然与人文风貌的保护”的多种提案进行了讨论与评价。作者还陈述了景观设计——尤其是与绿色基础设施相关的设计与实施工作——如何在解决中国乡村的城镇化所面临的挑战过程中扮演起关键角色。
关键词……
绿色基础设施;景观设计学;传统中国式乡村;城镇化
Abstract……
China’s leaders have set an urbanization target of 70% (approximately 900 million people) by 2025 andhas emphasized that future urbanization will be characterized by growth in rural towns and small cities (ChengZhenHua, 城镇化) not by expansion of megacities (DuShiHua, 都市化). As a consequence of China’s urban-focused economy, the role of agriculture has declined. Rural villages have been wiped out, and with them, thousands of years land cultivation and stewardship. Onrushing urbanization is reshaping rural China – its landscape, cultural heritage, and social structures. This paper examines these changes through the outcomes of a workshop about “Construction of Small Towns and Villages” organized by the ECNU School of Design in 2014 in China and Europe. At the workshop, proposals for “Preserving Rural Nature and Humanity Features during Urbanization” were discussed and critiqued. The paper concludes by describing how landscape architecture, and in particular Green Infrastructure, can play a key role in addressing the major challenges of Rural Chininse Urbanization.
Key words……
Green Infrastructure; Landscape Architecture; Traditional Chinese Rural Village; Urbanization


向公众展现当地历史之璀璨——西班牙达洛卡考古场地设计
Show the Richness of Its Own Past to the Public — Archaeological Space in Daroca, Spain
作者:Sergio Sebastián Franco建筑设计工作室  Sergio Sebastián Franco

摘要 ……
这座达洛卡古宅的地面以类似折纸的形式被掀起,以向公众展示其埋藏的璀璨历史。建成后,此场地成为了这座城市中的一个标志设计,并非出于对历史遗迹单单的保护,而是源于设计师对场地精神的深刻理解。达洛卡考古场地因人们对其的尊重而活络,犹如一片静默历史的层层缩影。
关键词 ……
建筑;重写本 ;考古;达洛卡;博物馆
Abstract ...
The ground of the historical villa of Daroca folds and lifts to show the richness of its past to the public. A single image is generated within the city, a silent palimpsest born from the respect for it, not from a mere conservation strategy but understanding the place.
Key words ...
Architecture; Palimpsest; Archaeology; Daroca; Museum

 

西安唐大明宫国家遗址公园规划回顾
Master Plan for the National Relics Park of Tang Dynasty Daming Palace, Xi’an
作者:余定,张哲  Ding YU, Zhe ZHANG

摘要 ……
大明宫是中国盛唐时期的主要宫殿建筑群之一,被誉为“中国宫殿建筑的巅峰之作”。西安唐大明宫国家大遗址保护展示示范园区暨遗址公园项目的规划与实施,无论是从保护理念到项目操作,从规划方案到设计管理都具有非常强的示范性。本文回顾了公园的规划过程,并且从道路规划、景观设计、水体设计、遗址保护与展示方式等方面详细论述了大明宫的规划思想。最后,文章从规划管理经验以及规划实施效果两个方面对其示范性予以进一步阐释。
关键词 ……
大明宫遗址;遗址公园;总体规划;遗址保护与展示
Abstract ...
Daming Palace, known as "the pinnacle of Chinese palace architecture", is one of the most important palaces during China’s Tang Dynasty. The master plan and construction of the National Relics Park of Daming Palace, which consists of the Daming Palace Demonstration Park and the National Archaeological Heritage Park, is a successful exemplar of integration and implementation of design concepts and principles, project objectives, planning and design, and management. Through reviewing the entire process, from planning through construction, this article further demonstrates the main planning aspects, including palace gate and wall, roads and squares, green / blue space, and preservation and exhibition of the ruins. In the end this paper, we share the experience in management and evaluates the final implementation effects.
Key words ...
Relics of Daming Palace; Relics Park; Master Plan; Relics Preservation and Exhibition


陕西省韩城市梁带村国家遗址公园概念规划
Concept Planning for the Liangdai Village National Relics Park in Hancheng, Shaanxi
作者:余定,胡彦  Ding YU, Yan HU

摘要 ……
2012年,IAPA以其综合了人文遗址保护与展示、景观规划、旅游规划等方面的设计方案,赢得了陕西梁带村国家遗址公园的国际竞赛。该方案旨在将梁带村遗址公园打造成为一个能够全面展示梁带村两周文化、韩城地域文化、黄河文化的遗址公园。
关键词 ……
墓葬遗址;人文遗址保护与展示;旅游规划;景观规划;建筑设计
Abstract ...
In 2012, IAPA won the international competition of Liangdai Village National Relics Park in Hancheng, Shaanxi. Their winning scheme integrates various perspectives — including cultural relics preservation and exhibition, landscape planning, tourist planning and architectural design. The design proposal aims to transform Liangdai Village Relics Park into a comprehensive one, which represents and demonstrates its rich historic heritage — culture of Eastern and Western Zhou dynasties in the site, regional culture of Hancheng and the Yellow River culture.
Key words ...
Tomb Heritage; Cultural and Historical Heritage Preservation and Exhibition; Tourism Planning; Landscape Planning; Architecture Design

 

纪念之路:土耳其加里波利半岛国家历史公园景观设计提案
Lines of Memories: A Landscape Design Proposal for the Gallipoli Peninsula Historical National Park, Turkey
作者:ONZ建筑设计事务所,MDesign设计事务所,LOLA景观设计事务所,24H建筑设计事务所 / ONZ Architects, MDesign, LOLA, 24H Architecture

摘要 ……
加里波利半岛拥有壮美的景观和厚重的历史。设计团队希望突出该场地的现存价值,而非空降一个与当地的独特性和历史性无关的全新设计。许多建筑师会希望通过创造新的构筑物来彰显个人印记,但有时让景观自己“说话”也许会产生更好的效果。“纪念之路”中的一条条游径引导人们去追寻历史的踪迹,同时将对场地的干预减到最低。
关键词 ……
加里波利;纪念景观;第一次世界大战;国家公园;历史景观
Abstract ...
The existing landscape and history of Gallipoli are extremely powerful. That is why the design team wanted to highlight the existing value of the site instead of bringing something totally new to this unique historical area. Most architects feel compelled to build. To leave their mark. Sometimes however it is better not to build, and to allow the landscape to speak. The Lines of Memories is a minimal intervention based on the traces of the history and solitude.
Key words ...
Gallipoli; Memorial Landscape; World War I; National Park; Historic Landscapes


巴塞罗那大时代:用展现来强化文化遗产和社会之间的联系
Big Time BCN: Strengthening the Link between Heritage and Society through Representation
作者:300.000 Km/s工作室 / 300.000 Km/s

摘要 ……
“巴塞罗那大时代”是借由数位工具所提供的模拟制图能力及新型互动发展潜力而制成的巴塞罗那动态地图,其旨在文化遗产与保护及热爱巴塞罗那古迹的使用者之间营造出一种全新的联系,并随之加强认同感的纽带。这个项目将巴塞罗那超过70 000个城市区块中的3 000处历史遗迹数据用交互可视化的方式予以了展示。
关键词 ……
遗产;建筑;制图;大数据;巴塞罗那
Abstract ...
Big Time BCN is a dynamic cartography of Barcelona that uses the synthetic capacity of “mapping” and new interaction possibilities offered by digital tools to establish novel links between heritage and the society that protects and admires it, while strengthening the bonds of identity. This project is an interactive visualization of data from more than 70,000 plots and 3,000 monuments.
Key words ...
Heritage; Architecture; Cartography; Big Data; Barcelona

 

疏离永恒:对瞬息城市化及批判性保护的反思
Detaching from Permanence: Reflections on Ephemeral Urbanism and Critical Conservation
作者:费利佩•维拉,本杰明•施尔巴斯  Felipe VERA, Benjamin SCHEERBARTH

摘要 ……
关于保护的话题总是围绕着保留与拆除既有建造实物之间的矛盾而展开。从一开始,这些讨论的重点总集中于保护“什么”,而非“如何”保护。因此,关注的焦点一直围绕着物体本身展开,而忽视了有效和有意义的保护模式。然而,伴随着近期将保护的讨论对象延伸至景观和地理环境的这一趋势,曾经局限于物体本身的保护模式—而非关注过程及行为的保护模式—逐渐变得落伍。例如,越来越多的人开始不再对物质实体老化与消逝的问题抱以恐惧的心态。在这一新的框架之下,我们建议审视那些临时性环境,这可以有效地挑战正统的思维和讨论。换言之,保护实践可以从那些并不完全依赖于物质实体建造便可保存集体记忆的案例中学习,从而将焦点放在城市景观更加宽广的维度。本文从目前已成为主导趋势的“瞬息城市化”中找寻参考案例,试图阐释那些虽然与实物直接关联,却不需要盲目追求实体连续性以保存其价值的暂时性行为。
关键词 ……
批判性性保护;拆除;分解;仿制;文化生态学
Abstract ...
Conversations on conservation have explored different strategies for resolving the tension between preserving and destroying material constructions. From their inception, these discussions have prioritized the question of what to preserve over how to do it. In consequence, the focus has been on the object itself rather than on the articulation of effective and meaningful conservation modalities. However, not least due to the recent tendency to broaden subjects of conservation to include landscape and geographical contexts, formulations of conservation in objectual terms — rather than in terms of processes and practices — seem outdated. There is growing interest, for instance, in overcoming the fear of material aging and loss. Under this emergent framework, we suggest that looking at contexts that are by definition temporary could productively challenge the orthodox discourse. In other words, conservation practices might learn from cases in which collective memory does not necessarily rely on material construction, thus placing the emphasis on thicker dimensions of the urban landscape. Drawing from examples of what has been recently denominated as Ephemeral Urbanism, this article describes and learns from temporal operations that, while being directly related to materiality, conserve value without fetishizing its continuity.
Key words ...
Critical Conservation; Demolition; Dissolution; Resemblance; Cultural Ecology


废弃物堆积山的转变:罗马泰斯塔修山的公众集聚和材料迁移
Midden Mutations: Civic Aggregation and Material Migration at Monte Testaccio
作者:迈克尔•依兹本  Michael EZBAN

摘要 ……
泰斯塔修山是一个存留至今的古代堆填场,由近2 500万个陶质双耳瓶的碎片堆积而成。在地中海地区,这些双耳瓶曾被用于将橄榄油由伊伯利亚省装运至罗马帝国的中心。泰斯塔修山是罗马城的野性遗迹,一部有关材料、传说、利益和事件的,不那么赏心悦目的历史。几个世纪以来的各种活动、利益和使用者的变迁已经改变了这个垃圾空间的文化特征,而该场地独特的物质条件则助推了各种新奇的使用和功能安排。作为历史性的先例,泰斯塔修山提供了可供现代人参考的两种将垃圾空间融入城市文明的模式。第一种模式为“聚集”—通过使城市功能和居民向已关闭的都市废弃物堆填场聚集,从而提升该遗迹的文化价值;第二种模式则是“分离”—堆填场是材料和能源的宝库,从长远来看,对它们进行开发能够推动本地和远郊的工业生态和城市进程。泰斯塔修山这一历史遗迹所展现出的持久活力,强有力地向我们证明:垃圾景观可以转化为公众参与的推动者和城市发展的催化剂。
关键词 ……
泰斯塔修山;堆填场再利用;堆填场先例;垃圾景观
Abstract ...
Monte Testaccio is an extant ancient landfill comprised of the fragments of nearly 25 million clay amphorae which conveyed olive oil across the Mediterranean Sea from the provinces of Hispania to the heart of the Roman Empire. Monte Testaccio is Rome’s feral monument, an ungainly aggregation of material, mythology, interests and events. Over centuries the intersection of diverse activities, interests and constituencies has transformed the cultural identity of this waste space, and the peculiar material condition of the site has sponsored curious uses and programs. As a historical precedent, Monte Testaccio offers two models for the contemporary aspiration to transform waste spaces into civic terrain. The first model involves the aggregation of many uses and constituencies on a closed metropolitan landfill in order to increase its cultural value. The second model that Monte Testaccio provides is one of dispersal — landfills can be troves of valuable material and potential energy that can be mined to prompt local and distant industrial ecologies and urban processes over time. The vitality and longevity of this archaeological site make Monte Testaccio a potent example of what a waste landscape can become: an agent of civic engagement and an urban catalyst.
Key words ...
Monte Testaccio; Landfill Reclamation; Landfill Precedent; Waste Landscape