《景观设计学》2015年第1期

作    者:克里斯•韦伯斯特(Chris WEBSTER);姜斌(Bin JIANG);威廉•C•苏利文(William C. Sullivan)等
类    别:景观
出 版 社:高等教育出版社有限公司
出版时间:2015年2月

导言 目录 作品信息 书评

俞孔坚•城市环境与公共健康
——《景观设计学》2015年第1期“主编寄语”
Urban Environment and Public Health
By Kongjian Yu


就在2015年元旦那一天,我与几位同事随婺源县赋春镇的书记,从车田村出发,徒步7km,沿着小溪琴江,穿过万亩竹海,来到偏于一隅的港头村,眼前的景像让我陶醉:一个几十户的村落傍山而建,群山环抱,溪水缠绕,百亩良田,古木参天;时近响午,炊烟袅袅,人声依稀,鸡犬之声相闻。这分明是陶渊明的桃花源,一处上帝留在人间的秘境。我和随行的朋友们坐在小学院内的桂花树下,四季桂的芬芳阵阵袭来,沁入心扉,禁不住深深地吸入,屏息良久,方舍得慢慢呼出。当地的村支书告诉我,他的工作中最大难题是村民们不愿意加入医疗保障计划,对所谓的医疗保险毫无概念,而原因是村里人很少得病。至于城里常见的流感之类的疾病,更与这里的人无缘。是啊,为什么要买医疗保险呢,这里的青山绿水和有机良田难道不就是最好的保险吗?

于是,我便开始眷恋这在地图上难以查询到的地方了。一个多月之后,我再次来到港头村。此时,已近春节,村子里比上次热闹了许多,男人们杀猪宰鸡,妇女们打扫卫生,老人们在村头的小店门口打牌聊天,孩子们在田野上和弄堂里嬉戏打闹……不用担心食物的安全问题,不用担心老人在城里的医院里被虐待,不用担心小孩在繁忙的马路上被汽车碰撞,这一切不就是我们所倡导的健康、安全的社区生活吗?

也许是我的怀旧情结在作怪,也许是我的农民出身在决定了我的立场。但30年的高速城镇化到底给中国人带来了什么,难道不值得我们深思吗?没有一个健康的公共环境,我们的城市化和发展建设还有意义吗?被诟病的PM2.5仅仅是这种不健康城市环境的一个最显而易见的指标而已,深埋在我们城市中的种种隐患时刻威胁着我们的生理和心理的健康和安全:从水质污染、土壤污染、噪声污染、建筑材料和装修材料的污染,一直延伸至食品安全问题、出行安全问题、社会关系问题。钢筋混凝土构成的灰色空间和化学合成的环境仿佛将人类置于灰暗的牢笼。对于城市而言,我们只有两条出路:要么逃离,要么改造。无论哪条路,景观设计师都将承担起天赋之重任—领导保护或再造秀美山川的重任。

逃离城市,意味着中国将迎来一场史无前例的新“上山下乡”运动。景观设计师将担当保护乡土中国不再遭受这一运动的破坏,同时为城里来的“外来务居人员”规划设计如婺源港头村一般的桃源社区。

改造城市,意味着中国将迎来一场新型城镇化的建设高潮,要让城市“望得见山,看得见水,记得住乡愁”。这场改造和建设运动的核心是新型基础设施的规划和建设,即生态基础设施,它将持续地为城市提供生产服务、调节服务、生命承载服务和文化精神服务。

我眷恋那远方的乡村,我也憧憬建立在生态基础设施之上的新型城市,以及健康的新型城
市生活。

译 陈立欣 萨拉•雅各布斯


On the first day of 2015 I walked seven kilometers along the Qinjiang Creek from Chetian Village to Gangtou Village. Colleagues and the Secretary of Fuchun, Wuyuan County accompanied me. I was intoxicated by the view: on the edge of a bamboo forest, a village of a dozen houses sat embraced by the mountains, protected by a meandering creek, fertile farmland, and giant ancient trees. Approaching noontime, the cooking smoke rose, and a human voice, crow squawking, and dog barking were occasionally heard. It was indeed an Acadia as described by Yuanming Tao: a secret Shangri-la. My friends and I sat under a fragrant Osmanthus tree in the yard of a primary school. As we breathed deeply and enjoyed the moment, the village secretary explained how villagers were skeptical of the national health care system and therefore reluctant to join. It was rare for anyone to get sick or require medical
care, and diseases like the flu were almost unheard of. Why should they buy insurance? Aren’t green mountains, crystal water and organic farmland the best health insurance?

After this short trip, I grew attached to this place hardly found on map. A month later, at the beginning of February, I returned to Gangtou Village. The Spring Festival was approaching and the atmosphere was lively. Men were slaughtering pigs and chickens as the women helped clean the homes. The elderly played cards at the one small shop while the children played in the adjoining rice fields and alleys. There was no worries about the food security; there was no mistreatment or neglect of the old people; there was no concern of kids being hit by cars on the road. Isn’t this the ideal lifestyle of health and safety we advocate for creating in our cities and communities?

Perhaps I was overcome with nostalgia for my own rural childhood, but I was left asking, what does the 30-year high-speed urbanization bring the Chinese? Isn’t this a question worth our time and consideration? What is this type of urbanization and development worth without a healthy public environment? The castigated PM 2.5 is only one of the obvious indicators of how we have decimated the urban environment. Serious and long-lasting health and safety risks are buried deep in our cities. Water, soil, noise, and construction pollution are threatening our physiological and psychological health and safety. A lack of food security and neighborhood relationships are two of the consequences of poor urban and environmental health. The grey space that is constructed by steel and concrete and by the chemical-synthesized environment puts human life in dark dungeons. There are only two ways to emancipation: we can either flee from the cities or we can reconstruct the cities. Landscape architects are central to this mission. We must pioneer the revolution to rebuild our glorious mountains and rivers.

The first option, fleeing from the cities, will only bring on a new “Down to the Countryside Movement”. It will be necessary for landscape architects to protect the countryside from being damaged by this movement. Instead, we can help to design new communities modeled after Gangtou Village that will live in peace and harmony with the environment. The second option, rebuilding the city, will mean that China needs to adopt a new model of urbanization that will enable cities to sense the mountains, feel the waters, and recall the nostalgia. This reconstruction will require a campaign to design and construct new infrastructures that can provide provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural service for the cities.

I am attached to far away villages, but I also long for new cities built on the basis of eco-infrastructures
and new healthy urban life.

Translated by Connie CHEN Sara JACOBS

主编寄语

城市环境与公共健康(俞孔坚)

 

论文

绿色等于健康?建立高密度健康城市研究的实证基础(克里斯·韦伯斯特,钱莫伊·沙卡,斯考特·杰宁斯·墨尔本,邓信惠,彭文辉,内扎尔·卡法菲)

健康城市:论城市绿色景观对大众健康的影响机制及重要研究问题(姜斌,张恬,威廉·C·苏利文)

 

观点与评论

重要却被低估的景观功能提升专注力(威廉·C·苏利文)

健康的城市生态与健康的人(张俊彦,唐宜君)

亲自然的景观设计对改善健康与福祉的作用(·克兰西,雷康玲)

以儿科医生的视角诊断城市环境:访谈理查德·J·杰克森(姜斌)

弹性乐清:气候变化、公共健康和景观基础设施(邓信惠,茱莉亚·凯恩·艾弗里卡)

 

主题实践

澳大利亚博士山花园多功能区(澳派景观设计工作室)

哈普雷的未来:健康、水、植被和农业(莱昂纳多·罗伯勒托·克斯坦特)

风之域一个集降温、生产及娱乐于一体的新型城市公园(OFICINAA设计事务所,TRANSSOLAR设计事务所)

哈特福德市2014年首府城市公园总体规划(Sasaki设计事务所)

 

探索与过程

农业都市主义:城郊地区的发展(泰勒·奥斯汀,陆小璇,大卫·罗斯)

墨西哥城:重组过程中的水景改造(洛蕾塔·卡斯特鲁·雷古拉-曼塞拉)

 

简讯

 

 

 

Editorial

Urban Environment and Public Health (Kongjian YU)

 

Papers

Green Equals Healthy? Towards an Evidence Base for High Density Healthy City Research (Chris WEBSTER, Chinmoy SARKAR, Scott Jennings MELBOURNE, Dorothy TANG, Mathew PRYOR, Nezar KAFAFY)

Healthy Cities: Mechanisms and Research Questions Regarding the Impacts of Urban Green Landscapes on Public Health and Well-being (Bin JIANG, Tian ZHANG, William C. SULLIVAN)

 

Views & Criticisms

A Significant but Under-Appreciated Benefit of Landscape Architecture: Supporting People's Capacity to Pay Attention (William C. Sullivan)

Connecting Healthy Urban Ecology with Human Health (Chun-Yen CHANG, I-Chun TANG)

The Role of Biophilic Design in Landscape Architecture for Health and Well-being (Joe CLANCY, Catie RYAN)

Examining the Urban Environment through the Eyes of a Pediatrician: An Interview with Richard J. Jackson (Bin JIANG)

Resilient Yueqing: Climate Change, Public Health, and Landscape Infrastructure (Dorothy S. TANG, Julia Kane AFRICA)

 

Thematic Practices

Box Hill Gardens Multi Purpose Area, Australia (ASPECT Studios)

Future Hopely: Hutano, Mvura, Miti (Leonardo ROBLETO COSTANTE)

Aeolian Fields — A New Urban Park to Cool, Produce and Play (OFICINAA, TRANSSOLAR)

Hartford 2014 Capital City Parks Master Plan (Sasaki Associates, Inc.)

 

Experiments & Processes

Agro-Urbanism: Peri-Urban Developments (Tyler AUSTIN, Xiaoxuan LU, David ROSS)

Mexico City: A Transformed Waterscape in the Process of Reconfiguration (Loreta Castro REGUERA-MANCERA)

 

Brief

【中文刊名】《景观设计学》——城市环境与公共健康
【英文刊名】Landscape Architecture Frontiers • Urban Environment and Public Health
【作者】克里斯•韦伯斯特(Chris WEBSTER);姜斌(Bin JIANG);威廉•C•苏利文(William C. Sullivan)等
【出版社】高等教育出版社有限公司
【页码】168页彩色印刷
【刊号】ISSN 2095-5405
【出版日期】2015年2月
【定价】58.00元

 绿色等于健康?建立高密度健康城市研究的实证基础

Green Equals Healthy? Towards an Evidence Base for High Density Healthy City Research
作者:克里斯·韦伯斯特,钱莫伊·沙卡,斯考特·杰宁斯·墨尔本,邓信惠,彭文辉,内扎尔·卡法菲 Chris WEBSTER, Chinmoy SARKAR, Scott Jennings MELBOURNE, Dorothy TANG, Mathew PRYOR, Nezar KAFAFY
 
摘要
虽然城市绿化能够有助于身心健康这一观点已在景观和城市规划中得到了广泛认可,但是其仍缺乏具体的研究成果来支持。本文探讨“绿色植被”和健康之间的关联如何在景观和城市设计的历史进程中得到发展,并提出以明确实证为支持在城市中创建更多更高品质的绿色植被基础的迫切需要。我们就增加城市绿色植被和改善公共健康之间的诸多假设性的因果关联进行了讨论,并根据广泛的文献综述,对那些发现了这二者之间关联方面的近期研究予以了着重阐述。除此之外,本文还对未来的研究方向提出了建议。
 
关键词
城市绿地;绿色植被;公共健康;步行;景观;城市规划
 
Abstract
The doctrine that urban greenery is positively associated with physical and mental health is widely acknowledged in landscape and urban planning, but is not underpinned by specific research findings. This paper examines how the association between “greenery” and health has developed through the history of landscape and urban design, and sets out the need for clear evidence based research as the foundation of credible arguments for the provision of more and better quality greenery in the city. We discuss the many hypothetical causal pathways between increased urban greenery and improving public health, and from a broad literature review we highlight recent research studies that have found associations between them. Directions for future research are suggested.
 
Key words
Urban Green Space; Greenery; Public Health; Walking; Landscape; Urban Planning
 
 
健康城市:论城市绿色景观对大众健康的影响机制及重要研究问题
Healthy Cities: Mechanisms and Research Questions Regarding the Impacts of Urban Green Landscapes on Public Health and Well-being
作者:姜斌,张恬,威廉·C·苏利文Bin JIANG, Tian ZHANG, William C. SULLIVAN
 
摘要
本文针对目前中国突出的城市环境问题及其所导致的大众健康问题,从促进身体锻炼、舒缓精神压力、减轻精神疲劳、提供生态产品与服务、提升社会资本5个理论机制来解释城市绿色景观对公众健康及福祉的影响,并据此提出了一个简明的理论框架和一系列有待研究的重要问题。
 
关键词
公众健康;城市绿色景观;影响机制;理论框架;研究问题
 
Abstract
The paper presents a summary of critical environmental problems in Chinese cities and serious public health crisis resulting from those environmental problems. The paper explains five theoretical pathways through which urban natural landscape influences human health and wellbeing: promoting physical exercises, relieving stress, reducing mental fatigue, providing ecological products or services, and enhancing social capital. A theoretical framework connecting urban natural landscape with health outcomes is established and a set of important research questions are presented.
 
Key words
Public Health; Urban Green Landscape; Mechanism; Theoretical Framework, Research Questions
 
 
重要却被低估的景观功能提升专注力
A Significant but Under-Appreciated Benefit of Landscape Architecture: Supporting People’s Capacity to Pay Attention
作者:威廉·C·苏利文 William C. SULLIVAN
 
摘要
专注力—即将注意力集中在某一想法或任务上,同时屏蔽大脑中诸多刺激与思绪—是所有人类成就的基础。但是这项能力却是一种有限的资源,我们会在专注过程中变得疲劳而无法集中注意力。科学家们最近发现:接触绿色空间,即便是高密度城市中的绿色空间,也是恢复专注力的一种有效方法。因此,公园、相互连通的绿色廊道、行道树、雨水花园、绿色屋顶、绿色景观墙等绿色空间的功能不止局限于提供生态系统服务,它们还能帮助人们集中注意力,并在保持专注的过程中实现人生活中的目标。这项研究成果意味着我们应该加倍努力在每一扇门前营造出绿色自然环境。
 
关键词
专注力;修复;精神疲劳;景观设计;绿色基础设施
 
Abstract
Our capacity to pay attention — to direct our focus toward one idea or task while excluding from our minds a host of competing stimuli and thoughts — is key to every human achievement. But our ability to pay attention is a limited resource, it fatigues with use. Scientists have recently discovered that having contact with green spaces, even in otherwise dense urban settings, is an effective way to restore our ability to focus. Thus, green spaces in the form of parks, interconnected green corridors, street trees, rain gardens, green roofs and green walls do more than provide ecosystem services. They help people concentrate their attention and in doing so, help us achieve our goals in life. One implication of these findings is that we should re-double our efforts to ensure that we provide nature at every doorstep.
 
Key words
Attention; Restoration; Mental Fatigue; Landscape Architecture; Green Infrastructure
 
 
健康的城市生态与健康的人
Connecting Healthy Urban Ecology with Human Health
作者:张俊彦,唐宜君 Chun-Yen CHANG, I-Chun TANG
 
摘要
我们的城市建设已将人类隔离于生态世界之外。然而,近期实验证据表明,自然环境是影响人类健康,尤其是城市居民健康的一个重要因素。在本文中,我们提出了“健康的城市生态与健康的人”的概念框架,倡导健康的城市生态可以支撑健康城市生活的观点,通过对生态及人类健康两个方面的综合考虑,我们可以形成健康城市发展的可行途径。我们建议以实证为基础的疗愈性景观设计。创造一个健康的城市需要考虑城市居民的身心健康,同时也需要考虑生态建设,包括综合考虑空间解决方案、自然格局和生态流,以及文化和环境的社会经济条件。也就是说,建立一个健康的城市必须同时考虑人类健康与生态建设,发展两者兼备的城市环境。虽然我们不能创造一个具有这两方面所有品质的城市绿地空间,但至少应采取行动,寻找机会,在城市环境开发中至少满足这些目标的某些方面。我们应为了人与自然世界的和谐寻求机会以创造健康城市环境。借由所提出的框架,我们建议城市规划师和景观设计师利用所介绍的理论和环境因子来创造出健康城市。这一目标的实现对个人和城市都将带来有利影响。
 
关键词
健康城市;生态福祉;人类健康;绿色空间
 
Abstract
Our cities have been created to isolate humans from the ecological world. However, recent empirical evidence shows that the natural environment is a crucial determinant of human health, especially for urban dwellers. In the current article, we propose a conceptual framework of “healthy urban ecology and healthy people” to advocate the idea that healthy urban ecology can support healthy urban living, and by considering both aspects, we might reach a feasible approach to developing healthy cities. We suggest an evidence-based therapeutic landscape design. Creating a healthy city requires spatial development that considers both the physiological and psychological health and wellbeing of urban dwellers. A healthy city also needs ecological construction that considers a spatial solution, natural patterns and ecological flows, and the culture and socioeconomics of the environment. Moreover, the creation of a healthy city must include the idea of ecological construction with human health to develop an urban environment that includes both features. Although we cannot create a green space that has all of these qualities in both features, actions should be taken to find opportunities to fulfill at least some aspects of these goals in the development of urban environments. We should make every attempt to create a healthy city for humans and the natural world. With the proposed framework, we suggest city planners and landscape architects to use the introduced theories and environmental factors to create healthy cities. Achieving this goal will benefit both individuals and cities.
 
Key words
Healthy City; Ecological Well-being; Human Health; Green Space
 
 
亲自然的景观设计对改善健康与福祉的作用
The Role of Biophilic Design in Landscape Architecture for Health and Well-being
作者:·克兰西,雷康玲 Joe CLANCY, Catie RYAN
 
摘要
截至2007年,全球50%以上的人口生活在城市。随着城市居民越来越多,全球城市化的水平不断提高,而城市中心的绿色空间与自然环境却不断减少。亲自然设计的目的是在我们建造与设计的环境中恢复自然刺激,以保护、维持、恢复、提高我们与自然世界在生理、认知和心理上的联系。作为助益健康的一种途径,亲自然设计可以催化景观设计在改善城市环境中的公众健康方面发挥核心作用。
 
关键词
热爱自然的天性;景观设计;城市;健康;复杂系统
 
Abstract
As of 2007, over 50% of the global population is now urban. With more global urbanites, has come increased urbanisation and displacement of green space and natural environments from our urban centres. Biophilic design aims to restore natural stimuli in our built and designed environments to protect, maintain, restore and enhance our physiological, cognitive and psychological connections with the natural world. As part of a wider salutogenic approach to health, biophilic design has the potential to catalyze landscape architecture into playing a central role in public health of urban environments.
 
Key words
Biophilia; Landscape
 
 
以儿科医生的视角诊断城市环境:访谈理查德·J·杰克森
Examining the Urban Environment through the Eyes of a Pediatrician: an Interview with Richard J. Jackson
作者:姜斌 Bin JIANG
 
摘要
本次访谈从儿科学的视角, 就与城市景观对人类健康的影响相关的几个重要问题进行了讨论。理查德·J·杰克逊介绍了其在该领域内的职业生涯,并对如何通过改善城市环境来促进身体、精神和社会健康这一问题进行了阐释。另一位对话者姜斌也在中国城市的社会和物质环境语境下提出了与该主题相关的一些重要问题。本次对话以一种全新的视角,将有助于城市管理者和设计专业人士通过重塑城市环境和改变市民的生活方式和社会规范,解决迫在眉睫的人类健康问题。
 
关键词
儿科学;人类健康;城市环境;中国城市;后代
 
Abstract
This interview article focuses on discussion of several important issues related to the influence of urban landscape on human health from a perspective of pediatrics. Richard J. Jackson introduced his career in the field and explained how to promote physical, mental, and social health through improvement of urban environment. Bin Jiang, the interviewer, raised a few important questions related to the topic within the social and physical context of Chinese cities. Together, through a fresh perspective, this work would help city managers and design professionals to contribute to solving pressing human health problems by reshaping urban environment and changing citizens’ lifestyles and social norms.
 
Key words
Pediatrics; Human Health; Urban Environment; Chinese Cities; Future Generations
 
 
弹性乐清:气候变化、公共健康和景观基础设施
Resilient Yueqing: Climate Change, Public Health, and Landscape Infrastructure
作者:邓信惠,茱莉亚·凯恩·艾弗里卡 Dorothy S. TANG, Julia Kane AFRICA
 
摘要
气候变化对公共健康的负面影响激发了因地制宜的、强调方案弹性的设计实践。成功的景观设计从公共健康专家、工程师和生态学家那里吸收真知灼见,从而能对建成环境、公共健康和气候变化间的复杂关系进行整合式的探讨。位于浙江省沿海地区乐清市的景观设计研讨课程为我们提供了一个讨论城市景观如何可持续地支持人类健康和福祉的机会。小尺度的干预被用于检验一种策略途径的可行性,从而在全球和系统性的尺度下解决问题。
 
关键词
气候变化;健康;适应性;景观基础设施;浙江;弹性
 
Abstract
The impact of climate change on public health spurs geographically specific and resilient design interventions. Successful landscape architecture, harnesses insights from public health professionals, engineers, and ecologists to synergistically address the complex relationships between the built environment, public health, and climate change. A landscape architecture workshop in Yueqing City, a coastal community in Zhejiang Province, provides an opportunity to explore how urban landscapes might sustainably support human health and well-being. Small-scale interventions are used to test the viability of a tactical approach to design that addresses problems at a global and systemic scale.
 
Key words
Climate Change; Health; Adaptation; Landscape Infrastructure; Zhejiang; Resilience
 
 
澳大利亚博士山花园多功能区
Box Hill Gardens Multi Purpose Area, Australia
作者 澳派景观设计工作室 / ASPECT Studios
 
摘要
澳派接受怀特霍斯市政府委托,为博士山花园打造了一个可容纳各种娱乐项目和活动的公共空间。该场地最终的设计方案通过场地历史和记忆的彰显,以及景观和建筑形式的细致整合,成功地体现了一种大胆的当代审美。设计师为这个不断扩大的社区创造了一个珍贵而独特的公共空间,为场地本身的历史抹上了浓墨重彩的一笔。
 
关键词
城市公共空间;公园;健康;历史;社区
 
Abstract
ASPECT Studios was commissioned by the City of Whitehorse to create an innovative space with a diverse array of recreation activities and events within the Box Hill Gardens. The final design of the space successfully embodies a bold contemporary aesthetic with layers of history and memory, and the careful integration of landscape and built form elements. This growing community has been delivered a valued and unique public space that adds to the local history of the site.
 
Key words
Urban Public Space; Park; Health; History; Community
 
 
哈普雷的未来:健康、水、植被和农业
Future Hopley: Hutano, Mvura, Miti
作者:莱昂纳多·罗伯勒托·克斯坦特 Leonardo ROBLETO COSTANTE
 
摘要
通过简单的区域及场所营造手法,该项目为哈普雷农场的发展设立了一个景观框架。哈普雷农场是在津巴布韦哈拉雷市的一个非正规聚居区。该项目为非正规的居民创建了他们往往无法自己建立的社交中心,而这些社交中心亦将成为对未来自建城市形成补充的核心基础设施。项目将区域扩张格局、雨水管理以及农林业系统连接在了一起,解决了困扰哈拉雷目前与未来发展的问题,创建了一个健康的社区。
 
关键词
非正规;健康;湿地;社交;教育
 
Abstract
Through territorial and simple place-making moves, the project establishes a landscape framework for the growth of Hopley Farms, an informal settlement in Harare, Zimbabwe. The provision of social hubs that informal dwellers usually do not build on their own become the centerpiece infrastructures that complement the future self-built city. A territorial growth pattern, rainwater management and an agroforestry system are linked to create a healthy community by tackling issues that plague Harare and its future growth.
 
Key words
Informal; Health; Wetland; Social; Education
 
 
风之域——一个集降温、生产及娱乐于一体的新型城市公园
Aeolian Fields — A New Urban Park to Cool, Produce and Play
作者:OFICINAA设计事务所,TRANSSOLAR设计事务所 OFICINAA, TRANSSOLAR
 
摘要
“风之域”(一个可用于降温、生产及娱乐的新型城市公园),是OFICINAA和TRANSSOLAR设计事务所为位于曼海姆的原美国军事基地所做的竞赛入围方案,其采用空气的流动作为设计前提。设计方案提出用一系列大型景观形态来塑造风的流动极其在该场地中的特性。该方案描绘了一个新型公园,其运用空气来雕琢空间环境,以提升社区的使用和健康,在加强城市和临近街道通风性的同时,也能够防止热量累积和空气污染。
 
关键词
生物气候学;景观设计;城市设计;城市气候学;通风走廊;小气候;舒适和健康
 
Abstract
Titled Aeolian fields (a new urban park to cool, produce and play), the competition entry by OFICINAA and TRANSSOLAR for Mannheim’s former US military base, uses air movement as a premise in design. The design proposes a series of large-scale landscape features to sculpt the wind flow and its qualities through the site. While promoting the ventilation of the city and the adjacent neighborhoods and preventing accumulation of heat and air pollution, the proposal sets forth a new park with spatial conditions crafted by air for the community’s use and wellbeing.
 
Key words
Bioclimatic; Landscape Architecture; Urban Design; Urban Climatology; Ventilation Corridor; Microclimates; Comfort and Wellbeing
 
 
哈特福德市2014年首府城市公园总体规划
Hartford 2014 Capital City Parks Master Plan
作者 Sasaki设计事务所 Sasaki Associates, Inc.
 
摘要
哈特福德市的公园系统拥有辉煌的公园设计历史,包括从袖珍的口袋公园到地区性景区的大批规模不等的城市公园。但是这种丰富度也为哈特福德带来了挑战。Sasaki设计事务所的“首府城市公园总体规划”旨在复兴公园系统的传统,为21世纪及更长远的未来创造在环境和财政上均可持续的公园系统。在解决关键的维护与安全问题的同时,该项目为增加收入,以及同学校、社区和企业进行战略性合作创造了机遇,旨在提升城市的自然资产的环境健康、改善城市居民的身心健康,提高整个公园系统的财政健康。
 
关键词
城市公园;总体规划;健康;可持续的公园系统;战略性合作
 
Abstract
The City of Hartford's park system has a rich legacy of park design, and comprises abundant acreage of urban parks, ranging from small pocket parks to large parks that are a regional attraction. Yet this abundance is also a challenge. Sasaki's Capital City Parks Plan aims to renew the park system's legacy, creating a fiscally and environmentally sustainable park system for the 21st century and beyond. Addressing key issues of maintenance and safety, the project identifies opportunities for revenue generation and strategic partnerships with schools, neighborhoods, and businesses, to improve the environmental health of the city's natural assets, the physical and mental health of its residents, and the fiscal health of the park system as a whole.
 
Key words
City Park; Master Plan; Health; Sustainable Park System; Strategic Partnerships
 
 
农业都市主义:城郊地区的发展
Agro-Urbanism: Peri-Urban Developments
作者:泰勒·奥斯汀,陆小璇,大卫·罗斯 Tyler AUSTIN, Xiaoxuan LU, David ROSS
 
摘要
随着农业科技的进步、景观同质化和城市发展,那些为不断提升工业模式效率而进行的研究和开发使我们的土地成了牺牲品。随着人口的不断增长,城市周边的土地不断被开发。土地开发之所以带来负面影响是由于缺乏健康的导则和监管标准。为了应对食物和生态资源的丧失,“农业都市主义”这项研究试图为位于美国地理中心的内布拉斯加州林肯市的城郊地区(城市周边地区)的发展提供一种全新的、健康的城市框架,这一框架建立在对公共空间系统和基本农田(土壤等级I-II)的保留和保护基础之上。
 
关键词
农业都市主义;城郊地区;土壤;开发
 
Abstract
Research and development devoted to streamlining our inherently progressive industrial model sacrifices the land with the advancement of agricultural technologies, mono-cultured landscapes and the urban development. As our population increases, land continues to be developed around our cities. The negative connotations of land development are due to a lack of healthy guidelines and regulation standards. In an effort to combat against food and ecological resource losses, this research Agro-Urbanism① attempts to provide a new healthy city framework for peri-urban (urban perimeter) development in Lincoln, Nebraska, the geographic center of the United States, based on the conservation and preservation of open space networks and prime farmland (Soil Class I-II).
 
Key words
Agro-Urbanism; Peri-urban; Soil; Development
 
 
墨西哥城:重组过程中的水景改造
Mexico City: A Transformed Waterscape in the Process of Reconfiguration
作者:洛蕾塔·卡斯特鲁·雷古拉-曼塞拉 Loreta Castro REGUERA-MANCERA
 
摘要
墨西哥城建立于1325年,古名“特诺奇提特兰”,它位于一个内流盆地湖泊系统的中心。其所在的地理位置对于城市的形态起着决定性作用:这里由疏浚过的渠道和“水中田畦”——即人工地块,这种田畦系统对于城市的居住和功能等各个方面有着决定性的作用——组成。作为一个大都市,其充满矛盾的历史发展,深刻影响了它的景观和城市形态。如今,城市发展已经完全不再倚仗水景,而是被改造成由土和石构成的系统,而伴随这一突变而来的却是严峻的后果。由于建造在一个动荡的湖床上并持续受到洪水的影响,这个有着2 200万人口的大都市已经使得自身淡水资源逐渐枯竭,还面临着土地下沉等相关问题。所幸的是,上文所提及的渠道系统并没有完全丧失。在盆地的南侧,那片曾被称为“索奇米尔科”(那瓦特语,意为“播种鲜花的土地”)和提拉霍克(那瓦特语,意
为“水之地”)的古镇,还依旧保留着一种通过理解原始景观所蕴藏的益处而生活的方式,他们在经济上、社会上都依赖于水中田畦系统。尽管在盆地各地恢复这一类型的城市肌理的想法不太实际,但它提供了一种与水完全融和的城市设计范式。除此之外,世界上其他城市在处理水景方面也有着成功经验,
这使得我们意识到,水可以成为城市的资产而非威胁。这种情况对设计相关的专业人士而言既意味着机遇,也意味着责任,因为提供能够保证城市未来生存力的解决方案是他们所应关注的范畴。本文探讨了墨西哥城在干旱的景观条件下,如何以水为基础并依水而设计。
 
关键词
渠道;水中田畦;水;洪水;弹性
 
Abstract
Mexico City was founded in 1325, under the name of Tenochtitlan, in the center of the lake system of an endorheic basin. Its geographical position was fundamental in the conception of its form: a settlement of dredged channels and constructed pieces of land, called chinampas, which determined every aspect of habitability and use. The history of this metropolis has been a conflicting one, profoundly affecting its landscape and urban form. Today, far from having a waterscape, the development of the city has transformed its context into an earth and stone setting with severe effects resulting from this mutation. The 22 million-megalopolis, built upon the unstable ground of a lakebed, continuously floods, has depleted its freshwater sources, and suffers from profound ground subsidence related problems. However, not all traces of the above mentioned city of channels are lost. The southern part of the basin, the former towns of Xochimilco and Tlahuac, still have a lifestyle that relies on the understanding of the benefits that the original landscape provided, economically and socially dependent on the system of chinampas. Despite the fact that it is impossible to recover this type of urban fabric around the basin, these burrows set a paradigm of an urban design fully blended with water. Beyond these examples, several other cities around the world have managed to successfully deal with their waterscapes, making of water an asset instead of a menace. This condition raises an opportunity and an obligation for the design related professionals as it is in their sphere to provide solutions that guarantee the city’s future viability. This article tells the story of an ongoing effort to design for and with water in the apparently dry landscape of Mexico City.
 
Key words
Channel; Chinampa; Water; Flood; Resilience