《景观设计学》2016年第3期

作    者:谢世林(Shilin XIE),逯非(Fei LU)等
类    别:景观
出 版 社:高等教育出版社有限公司
出版时间:2016年6月

导言 目录 作品信息 书评

俞孔坚• 栖息地与生物多样性
——《景观设计学》2016年第3期“主编寄语”
Habitat and Biodiversity
By Kongjian Yu





20多年前读爱德华•奥斯本•威尔森的《地球上的生命》,其中的一段话让我热血沸腾,他说:“在人类干扰遍布地球的今天,景观设计将发挥至关重要的作用。在那些已因人类活动而发生了巨大改变的环境中,只要我们对地球上的林地、流域、水库,以及其他人工坑塘和湖泊进行合理巧妙的设计,生物多样性仍可以在很大程度上得以保持。我们笔下的规划不仅要考虑经济效益与美学,对物种和种族的保护也应纳入考量。”他的话一直在鼓舞着我发展景观设计学和修补地球的信心,提高了我对景观设计学的认识,并指导我的规划设计实践。

关于生物多样性,学界的共识包括三个层次:基因的多样性、物种的多样性和栖息地的多样性。

在基因层次上,生物多样性体现在单一物种的个体差异上—世界上没有两棵杨树是一样的,尽管杨树被认为是最普通的树种。人类自身便是基因层次的多样性的最好例证:近60亿人,同样没有两个个体是一样的。正是基因层次的生物多样性,给了每个物种适应多变环境的潜在能力—物种适应和生存的潜力。人类在基因层次上对生物多样性的毁灭,莫过于克隆技术:它可谓是釜底抽薪,斩断了生物多样的基础,使物种失去适应环境变化以及病毒侵扰的能力。尽管我并非现代技术的恐惧者,但对于克隆这样的逆天之术,实在没有好感!

在物种层次上,生物多样性最容易被大众理解:地球上生活着数以百万计的物种。但在这个层次上,人类剿灭生物多样性的历史却也由来已久。其他物种之于人类的实用性抑或危害性,以及人类对其的好恶态度,往往成为剥夺物种生存权力的理由。象牙、犀角、鱼翅、熊掌都是灭杀那些物种的理由。最高效的灭杀物种的“大规模杀伤性武器”,诸如农药、抗生素、火焰喷射器,它们往往因为人类要灭某种“害虫”,如水中的钉螺(吸血虫的寄主)、田间的蚂蚱、土里的地鼠和天空的麻雀,而大量施用,滥杀无辜—这种种都是我亲身经历过的。儿时记忆中那万物竞自由的丰饶乡土大地,已经变得静如死寂!与此同时,人类对其所好的物种却关爱有加,出于美好愿望,科学家们提出所谓的“旗舰物种”的概念,期望通过优先保护如大熊猫等“可爱的”物种,唤醒公众对所有生物及它们生存环境的保护,促进人们保护生态的观念的提升。然而,就在我们不惜成本保护大熊猫的繁衍及其栖息地的同时,与大熊猫处于同一长江流域里的、也许更具生态价值的生物多样性保护,却没有获得应有的重视!

栖息地是生物生存和繁衍的场所,其多样性是物种和基因多样性的保障和基础。栖息地是地理单元内各种环境因素的总和,每一种因素的微妙变化都会对生物的生存造成影响。当今地球上的人类活动已造成了栖息地的巨大变化—堪比恐龙灭绝时代的全球性变化!全球范围的气候变化、区域尺度的城市扩张、粗暴无度的水利工程和大型灰色基础设施的建设、日益机械化和规模化的农业生产、原始森林的大规模砍伐、能源作物如油棕的大规模种植……都在以惊人的速度毁灭着大量的生物栖息地!

理解了生物多样性消减的原因,我们便可以回到威尔森的憧憬中去:景观设计将在未来的生物多样性保护中发挥至关重要的作用。要如此,景观设计学必须立足于以下几大基本原则和策略:

第一,设计遵从自然,首先通过规划途径,建立国土和区域的生态安全格局,在人地关系日益紧张的背景下,通过判别和保护关键性的栖息地,用最少的土地最大限度地保护和改善生物多样性。

第二,在栖息地的生态修复和大规模城乡绿化中,尽可能地使用本土的原生物种,避免外来物种和园艺栽培种的泛滥。

第三,对水利工程、交通基础设施工程、农业及林业活动,以及城市开发建设,景观设计师必须承担起生态化设计的重任。所有这些人类活动并非注定就是生物多样性的杀手,古代水利工程中的陂塘系统、有机农业系统、可持续的林木采伐管理、与山水相适应的城镇建设等经验都告诉我们,通过科学与艺术的结合,优秀的景观设计可以使人类活动不加害于其他生命的栖息地,反而有助于生物多样性的保护与栖息地的共享。

译   萨拉•雅各布斯   张健


When I first read Life on Earth by Edword Osborne Wilson over 20 years ago, I was enlivened by his words: “In the expanding enterprise, landscape design will play a decisive role. Where environments have been mostly humanized, biological diversity can still be sustained at high levels by the ingenious placement of woodlots, hedgerows, watersheds, reservoirs and artificial ponds and lakes. Master plans will meld not just economic efficiency and beauty but also the preservation of species and races.” Wilson’s statement has continued to inspire me and bring confidence to my commitment to healing the earth through landscape architecture. His words also increased my awareness of the potential of landscape architecture, helping to guide my professional practice.

There are three consensuses about biodiversity: genetic diversity, species diversity, and habitat diversity.

Biodiversity can refer, at the scale of the gene, to the individual differences within a single species. For example, there is no same two poplars on earth, despite being the most common tree. In many ways, humans are the best example of the diversity at the genetic level. There are nearly six billion people on the earth, with no two the same. It is the genetic diversity that gives each species the potential to thrive and adapt to changing environments. Cloning, despite replicating genes, does not contribute to biodiversity. Rather, it dramatically cuts off biodiversity, causing species to lose their ability to adapt to the environment. I am not, however, fearful of modern technology, yet I cannot help hating such technology that is against natural law!

Biodiversity at species level is most understandable. Simply, there are millions of species living on earth. However, this awareness has not curtailed our long history of destroying biodiversity. Often, a species’ right to life depends on their usefulness to humans, our likes or dislikes. The harvesting of ivory, rhino horn, shark fin, or bear paw can, and often does, result in the death of those animals. Weapon of mass destruction, such as pesticides, antibiotics, or flamethrowers are widely used only as human pest control. I have seen creatures innocently killed, such as oncomelania in water (the host of aquatic blood-sucking insects), the grasshopper in fields, the hamster in the earth and the sparrow in the sky. My childhood memories of a fertile homeland where all species live in free competition is now nothing but dead silence. At the same time, humans go to great efforts to save the species they like. “Flagship species,” most of which are charismatic species, such as the Giant Panda, are proposed by ecologists with a good intention of arousing public’s awareness of species and habitat conservation and given priority within conservation measures. Even these efforts are now being challenged as people go to great lengths to protect panda habitats and breeding grounds while ignoring greater species diversity within the same valley, the Yangtze River!

Habitat is where creatures reproduce, live, and grow, the diversity of these landscapes is the foundation of species and gene biodiversity. Habitat is the sum of our environments, where subtle changes in subtle factors impact living things. Human activity has resulted in huge changes in habitat, on par with global change that occurred in the era of the dinosaurs! Worldwide climate change, regional-scale urban expansion, the construction of brutal gray infrastructure, increasingly mechanized agricultural production, the large-scale clearing of primeval forests, and the mono-cultivation of energy crops such as oil palm are all examples of activities actively destroying habitat at an alarming rate!
With knowledge of what causes biodiversity reduction, we can go back to Wilson’s words, that landscape design will play a decisive role in biodiversity conservation. With this in mind, landscape architecture must incorporate the following principles and strategies:

First, we must design with nature. Beginning with planning, this will require establishing ecological security patterns at both the regional and state level. Working between people and land, landscape architects must use less land. This will require first protecting, and then resorting, biodiversity through identification and conservation of critical habitats.

Second, landscape architects must, where possible, use local and native species during ecological restorations, particularly large-scale urban and rural afforestation, avoiding exotic species invasion and intensive use of cultivated species.

Finally, landscape architects must assume the task of ecological design as it applies to hydraulic engineering, transportation infrastructure, agriculture and forestry, and urban development. While none of these activities are designed to kill biodiversity, without proper planning and design they can be incredibility environmental destructive. Various methods, such as the ponds system of historic water conservancy projects, organic farming systems, sustainable management of forestry, and adaptive settlement with hilly land and flood have shown that by combining science and art, landscape architecture can produce life, rather than take life, helping achieve a shared world.

Translated by   Sara JACOBS   Angus ZHANG

主编寄语
栖息地与生物多样性(俞孔坚)

论文
北京城区公园景观格局对夏季鸟类群落的影响(谢世林,逯非,曹垒,周伟奇,欧阳志云)
基于自然演替的湿地植物景观的恢复与优化——以哈尔滨文化中心湿地公园为例(刘航)

观点与评论
碎片化是生物多样性保护的最大障碍(李迪华)
绿色基础设施与城市生物多样性(沃维克•萨瓦斯)

主题实践
阿肯色州康威市城市流域框架规划:经调和的景观(阿肯色大学社区设计中心)
上海张家浜城市设计及景观总体规划(Sasaki设计事务所)
德克萨斯州休斯顿植物园与自然中心(Design Workshop设计事务所,Reed Hilderbrand设计事务所)
山东省微山湖国家湿地公园(陶练)

探索与过程

诱人的原始林地(朱莉•D•内特尔顿)
城市颤抖的呼喊(克里斯蒂娜•利•吉洛斯)

简讯


【中文刊名】《景观设计学》——栖息地与生物多样性保护
【英文刊名】Landscape Architecture Frontiers • Habitat and Biodiversity
【作者】谢世林(Shilin XIE),逯非(Fei LU)等
【出版社】高等教育出版社有限公司
【页码】154页彩色印刷
【刊号】ISSN 2095-5405
【出版日期】2016年6月
【定价】58.00元

 

 

北京城区公园景观格局对夏季鸟类群落的影响
The Effect of Landscape Patterns on Avian Communities during Summer Months in Beijing’s Urban Parks
作者:谢世林,逯非,曹垒,周伟奇,欧阳志云 Shilin XIE, Fei LU, Lei CAO, Weiqi ZHOU, Zhiyun OUYANG
 
摘要
城市公园是最重要的城市绿地类型,也是当前城市生物多样性研究的热点。公园面积及其景观格局特征对鸟类的影响规律对公园的设计和管理具有重要指导意义。本研究以城区29个公园为对象,利用高分辨率(1m)的卫星数据,研究了公园面积、景观破碎度、林地和人工表面比例、林地最大斑块指数、景观聚集度指数、景观多样性及均匀度指数等公园景观格局特征,探讨了公园景观格局特征对夏季鸟类群落的影响。结果表明,北京城区公园面积平均值较小(约为13.9hm2),公园中林地比例较高(平均约为74.7%),林地景观是公园的优势景观类型,但景观破碎化程度很高(平均约为8.63个/hm2),且景观聚集度指数偏低(平均约为63.0)。公园中平均鸟类物种数为13.2种,鸟类物种数与公园面积、景观聚集度、林地面积比例呈显著正相关,而与景观均匀度、斑块密度、景观多样性呈显著负相关,本研究表明,由于平均斑块面积小,公园景观多样性和均匀度指数对鸟类物种丰富度有明显的不利影响,研究结果可以为城市公园的设计提供参考。
 
关键词
城市公园;景观格局;鸟类群落;生物多样性;景观设计;北京
 
Abstract 
Parks are among the most important green spaces in urban landscapes, making them hotspots for urban biodiversity research. The scale and spatial patterns of these urban landscapes suggest best practices for avian communities. This study considers the landscape patterns of Beijing’s urban parks and their relationship to avian species abundance and density. The study analyzed high-resolution satellite images, with an accuracy of one meter, from 29 urban parks during the summer months. The research showed the average size of Beijing’s urban parks to be small (with an average size of 13.9 hm2), with woodland landscapes as the most common landscape typology (with an average of 74.7%). In the analyzed parks, the patch density was high, with an average density of 8.63 per hectare, while the contagion index was low, with a 63 on average. Additionally, the number of avian species found in each sample park was low, with only 13.2 recorded on average. Spearman correlation analysis showed that avian species abundance were positively correlated with park areas, along with the landscape contagion and the proportion of woodland landscape, and negatively correlated with patch density, SHDI, and SHEI. Finally, the analysis showed a correlation between small patch size and low species diversity. The conclusions drawn can help provide guidance and reference for avian urban park planning and design. 
 
Key words
Urban Park; Landscape Pattern; Avian Community; Biodiversity; Landscape Design; Beijing
 
 
基于自然演替的湿地植物景观的恢复与优化—以哈尔滨文化中心湿地公园为例
Restoration and Optimization of a Wetland Landscape Based on Natural Succession of Vegetation — A Case Study of Harbin Cultural Center Wetland Park
作者:刘航 Hang LIU
 
摘要
哈尔滨文化中心湿地公园原场地为退化的城市湿地,植被设计旨在恢复场地原有的生长模式,即淤泥湿地—乡土草本—耐湿乔灌木构成的次生湿地群落,最终形成趋于稳定的水生至沙生植物群落,在维系其生态演替过程的同时,创建自然的场地景观特征。本文对项目建成三年后的生态绩效提升进行了论述,梳理了哈尔滨文化中心湿地公园建设中对生态景观保护、景观建造以及场地特征景观再现所进行的探索性恢复方案,并指出本项目与一般湿地公园的区别所在,期待能为我国城市湿地公园的建设提供有益的借鉴与启示。
 
关键词
自然湿地;植物群落;植被恢复;生态绩效;城市公共空间
 
Abstract 
Harbin Cultural Center Wetland Park was constructed on a degraded urban wetland, with a primary goal of restoring the vegetative landscape of the site — secondary wetland communities consisting of marsh, native herbs, and moisture tolerant trees and shrubs — ultimately establishing and maintaining ecological succession of vegetation communities from aquatic to arenaceous habitats, while celebrating the natural landscape characteristics of the site. This paper reports mainly on the improvement of ecological performance in the park three years after its construction. It also reviews the exploratory plan for landscape protection, construction, and restoration of the wetland park. In addition, this paper demonstrates the unique qualities of the project which distinguish it from common wetland parks, making it a helpful reference for the construction of other urban wetland parks in China. 
 
Key words
Natural Wetland; Plant Community; Vegetation Restoration; Ecological Performance; Urban Public Space
 
 
碎片化是生物多样性保护的最大障碍
Fragmentation —The Biggest Obstacle for Biodiversity Conservation
作者:李迪华 Dihua LI
 
摘要
栖息地和生物多样性的保护已经成为全球普遍重视的议题。而随着城镇化的高速推进和气候变化的影响,物种数量减少、栖息地加速消失,以及生物多样性下降等现象仍层出不穷。本文旨在追本溯源,深入剖析栖息地与生物多样性保护过程中存在的认知、引导等多层面的碎片化问题,辨析中国在该进程中所面临的现状与挑战,并指出设计师所应当肩负的责任与角色的更新转化。
 
关键词
生物多样性与栖息地保护;碎片化;公众关注;传媒;城市生态;生态设计
 
Abstract 
Habitat and biodiversity conservation has become an important issue across the world. Phenomena such as dropping species numbers, disappearing habitat, and biodiversity loss continue to emerge under the impact of the rapid urbanization and climate change. This paper aims to discuss the problem of fragmentation caused by the disconnect awareness and instruction during the process of habitat and biodiversity conservation. The paper also attempts to diagnose the status quo and challenges China faces in habitat and biodiversity conservation and point out the pressing transformation of responsibilities and roles of designers.
 
Key words
Biodiversity and Habitat Conservation; Fragmentation; Public Attention; Media; Urban Ecology; Eco-design
 
 
绿色基础设施与城市生物多样性
Green Infrastructure and Urban Biodiversity
作者:沃维克·萨瓦斯 Warwick SAVVAS
 
摘要
由于城镇化、地面植被清除和气候变化带来的压力,城市中的栖息地正在以惊人的速度从我们的身边消失。绿色基础设施在澳大利亚生物多样性保护方面发挥着重要作用。澳派景观设计工作室通过与众多领域的专家合作,试图在人造环境中,通过一种绿色基础设施的方式来提供生态系统服务,并借此提升城市的生物多样性价值。
 
关键词
绿色基础设施;城市生物多样性;植物种植设计;实证型设计;人类世生态系统
 
Abstract 
Due to the pressures of urbanization, land clearing and climate change we are losing urban habitats at an alarming rate. Green infrastructure has a large role to play in biodiversity conservation in Australia. ASPECT Studios and their collaborators from a wide range try to provide ecosystem services in artificial environments through a green infrastructure approach, and by doing so contribute to biodiversity values in our cities.
 
Key words
Green Infrastructure; Urban Biodiversity; Planning Palette Design; Evidence-based Design; Novel Ecosystem
 
 
阿肯色州康威市城市流域框架规划:经调和的景观
Urban Watershed Framework Plan for Conway, Arkansas: A Reconciliation Landscape
作者:阿肯色大学社区设计中心 University of Arkansas Community Design Center
 
摘要
城市与流域作为两种截然不同的流动系统,在景观中各自形成一定的形状与结构,以最大化地体现其固有特征。那么,如何通过城市的形态来确定流域的形态?康威市城市流域规划由美国环境保护局出资,意在减缓阿肯色州康威市子流域严重的水资源管理问题。该子流域在水源处即被污染,显示出一种晚期城市河流综合征的病态,进而造成下游康威湖的水质污染。
规划方案采用绿色基础设施结合城市汇水地形(用以保水)和滨河走廊(用以排水),为场地提供生态系统服务。在传统设施的基础上,一组经改良的配套基础设施使设计增值不少。此方案为城市流域提供了一组新型可转换式规划工具,并将之与17种生态系统服务、6种适应性基础设施类型、海绵城市梯度以及水处理技术相结合。它创建了一种典型城市风貌,其包含一套具有场地特色的城市水资源管理系统。
 
关键词
绿色基础设施;流域规划;城市规划;海绵城市;栖息地;生物多样性
 
Abstract 
The city and the watershed are distinct systems of flow that generate shape and structure across the landscape to maximize their intrinsic objectives. How can city form fix the watershed? The framework plan is a U.S. EPA-funded initiative to mitigate severe water management problems in the sub-watershed incorporating Conway, Arkansas. The sub-watershed contains polluted headwater streams exhibiting advanced urban stream syndrome contributing to the decline of Lake Conway downstream.
The framework plan employs green infrastructure incorporating urban rain terrains (based on holding water) and riparian corridors (based on drainage) that deliver ecosystem services. A portfolio of modulated infrastructural retrofits are value-added to conventional infrastructure. The approach provides a novel set of transferable planning tools for urban watersheds, combining a sponge city gradient, a water treatment technologies spectrum, the 17 ecosystem services, and six adaptive infrastructure types. The approach builds a representative cityscape expressive of place-based urban water management.
 
Key words
Green Infrastructure; Watershed Plan; Urban Planning; Sponge City; Habitats; Biodiversity
 
 
上海张家浜城市设计及景观总体规划
Shanghai Zhangjiabang Urban Design and Landscape Master Plan
作者:Sasaki设计事务所 Sasaki Associates, Inc.
 
摘要
上海市占据着长江三角洲冲积洪泛区最昂贵的地块,20世纪以来大规模的城镇化为这片具有生态复杂性的地块带来的是环境的恶化和自然栖息地面积的骤减。张家浜公园在此背景下应运而生,其关注在这座不断扩张的大都市中人类与自然的关系。作为8个“楔形绿地”项目之一,张家浜公园旨在提高全上海范围内的自然接触度,建成后将成为上海市最大的公共公园。这是一个颇具野心的项目,其力图改善城市微气候、增加区域生物多样性,并提高上海2 600万居民的生活品质。
 
关键词
生态恢复;微气候营造;栖息地;生物多样性
 
Abstract 
Shanghai spreads across the expansive alluvial floodplain of the Yangtze River delta. Considerable urbanization over the past century has led to environmental degradation and a dramatic reduction of natural habitat in this ecologically complex landscape. Zhangjiabang Park is designed within this context, focusing on the relationship between humans and nature within the ever-expanding megacity. Zhangjiabang is one of eight “green wedges” proposed throughout Shanghai to improve access to nature and, when completed, will be the city’s largest public park. It is an ambitious project, seeking to enhance the city’s microclimate, contribute to regional biodiversity, and improve the quality of life for Shanghai’s 26 million inhabitants.
 
Key words
Restore Ecology; Enhance Microclimate; Habitat; Biodiversity
 
 
德克萨斯州休斯顿植物园与自然中心
Houston Arboretum & Nature Center, Texas
作者:Design Workshop设计事务所,Reed Hilderbrand设计事务所 Design Workshop, Inc., Reed Hilderbrand
 
摘要
休斯顿植物园与自然中心目前受到了包括干旱和飓风在内的诸多极端天气的破坏。该植物园更新计划的重中之重是对场地的自然和文化资产进行详尽的评估、对气候变化影响进行判断,以及鼓励利益相关者广泛参与。该方案为植物园描绘出了一种更具弹性的蓝图,亦为其他面临着类似威胁的地区树立了典范。
 
关键词
弹性;更新;栖息地;生物多样性
 
Abstract 
The Houston Arboretum & Nature Center is devastated by weather extremes from drought to hurricanes. Fundamental to the Arboretum’s renewal is an exhaustive assessment of the site’s natural and cultural heritage, diagnosis of the climate change impacts, and extensive stakeholder engagement. The plan outlines a more resilient evolution for the Arboretum and is a model for regions facing similar threats.
 
Key words
Resiliency; Renewal; Habitats; Biodiversity
 
 
山东省微山湖国家湿地公园
Weishan Lake National Wetland Park, Shandong 
作者:陶练 Lian TAO
 
摘要
随着中国三、四线城市迅猛的城市建设,如何平衡自然资源保护和城市发展之间的矛盾、如何让自然和城市更好地融合已成为这些城市面临的挑战。微山湖湿地公园就此问题提供了一种解决途径:一方面通过低影响设计策略有效地保护湿地,净化水质,巩固城市的天然屏障和宝贵的自然资源;另一方面通过维护现有湿地功能,完善休闲服务设施,提供科普教育和生态旅游功能,以提升城市竞争力。与此同时,通过将湿地延伸到城市公共空间,在更大的区域内构建完整的生态网络和绿色基础设施,使整个区域不仅受益于良好的生态环境,也由此成为具有自然特色的“湿地之城”。
 
关键词
湿地;生态;栖息地;生物多样性;低影响设计
 
Abstract 
Rapid urbanization is now being experienced in China's third- and fourth-tier cities, raising questions of how to balance urban development with natural resources protection. The integration of nature into expanding urban environments is one of the largest challenges facing those cities. Weishan Lake National Wetland Park is an example of how low-impact design strategies can protect wetlands and purify water while functioning as a natural buffer for the city. Conserving the existing wetland and enhancing service facilities can also provide educational experiences and ecological tourism that will help communicate the city’s identity. Meanwhile, the project moves the wetland into urban public spaces in order to build an integrated regional network of ecological and green infrastructure that will contribute to regional ecological improvement while transforming the city into a unique wetland destination.
 
Key words
Wetland; Ecology; Habitat; Biodiversity; Low-Impact Design
 
 
诱人的原始林地
BUSHLAND BECKONING
作者:朱莉·D·内特尔顿 Julie D. NETTLETON
 
摘要
数千年前,古老的风积沙沉积在悉尼盆地中。丰富多样的灌丛和林地植物在贫瘠的土壤和海岸气候中茂盛地生长着,为诸多小型的本土动物、鸟类和昆虫提供栖息地。这个被称作东郊班克木属灌木林的生态保护区,如今已被列入极危保护区名录。我的工作主要围绕一处名为“北角保护区”的场地展开,这是东郊班克木属灌木林在悉尼郊区中心地带仅存的几小块保护区之一。我虽然生长于此,但直到我成为植绘艺术家后,才认识到这里脆弱的美和重要意义。这并不是什么顿悟,相反,它是我用一种全新的明智眼光来审视这个场地时,一段缓慢但无法抗拒的醒悟过程。这片生境慢慢走向毁灭的事实启发并驱使我去保护我们尚且拥有的东西,并讲述它独特的故事。本文将阐述我的发现之旅与灵感启迪,以及造就了我植绘作品独特性的源泉。
 
关键词
植绘艺术;澳大利亚本土植物;东郊班克木属灌木林;濒危物种
 
Abstract 
Thousands of years ago, ancient aeolian sands were deposited in the Sydney Basin. A rich diversity of heathland and woodland plants thrived in the impoverished soil and coastal climate, along with many small native animals, birds and insects. This ecological community known as Eastern Suburbs Banksia Scrub (ESBS) is now listed as critically endangered. My work focuses on a site called North Head Sanctuary, one of the last remaining pockets of ESBS, in the heart of suburban Sydney. Although I grew up in the area, it was not until I became a botanical artist that I understood its fragile beauty and significance. There was no epiphany. Rather, it was a slow but compelling dawning as I saw the site with new and wiser eyes. With its very existence slipping towards extinction, the urgency to keep something of what we still have, and tell its unique story, is what inspires and drives me. This article will discuss my journey of discovery, inspiration, and what shapes the uniqueness of my work.
 
Key words
Botanical Art; Australian Native Plants; Eastern Suburbs Banksia Scrub; Endangered Species
 
 
城市颤抖的呼喊
The Cries of a City’s Trill
作者:克里斯蒂娜·利·吉洛斯 Christina Leigh GEROS
 
摘要
印度尼西亚喧嚣的首都雅加达拥有约2 800万人口。作为世界上生物多样性最高的区域之一,印度尼西亚群岛的动植物长久以来塑造着当地乃至全球的文化习惯和贸易行为。过去30年间,雅加达保持着全球都市区域中最高的城镇化速度,促成了一种城市生态类型,其会不断重新定义已建立起来的城市内部关系。无论是透过听觉、视觉还是嗅觉,通过城市中隐性或显性、空间或知觉的界限和导向,对人类与非人类群体之间复杂关系的讲述逐渐变得清晰。作为富布莱特国家地理数位故事创作协会成员,我在雅加达生活期间得以对塑造城市环境、并为城市环境所塑造的生态和政治因素进行分析。此间,那些人类城市生活中最小但最具朝气的同伴们的歌声,改变了我在研究中曾试图采用的建筑学方法;它们的歌声展现了在我们如今的城市印象形成之前就发生了的城市建造故事——这些故事对于既是“小科学”亦是“大科学”的城市认知而言,是不可或缺的。
 
关键词
雅加达;大科学;小科学;城镇化;鸟类
 
Abstract 
Jakarta — the bustling capital city of Indonesia — is home to roughly 28 million people. From local to global, cultural practices and trade have long been shaped by the flora and fauna of the Indonesian archipelago — one of the most biodiverse regions in the world. Over the past three decades the city of Jakarta has sustained the highest rate of urbanization of any single metropolitan district in the world generating an urban ecology that is constantly redefining the relationships upon which it is built. Through the aural, visual, and olfactory expressions of these complexities, the constructed narratives of human to nonhuman communities reveal themselves in the boundaries and vectors both latent and exposed — both spatial and sensorial — within the city. As a Fulbright National Geographic Digital Storytelling Fellow living in Jakarta, my architecturally-driven approach to the analysis of ecological and political forces that shape and are shaped by the urban environment has been pierced by the song of some of our smallest and most vibrant companions — exposing a narrative of city-building that pre-dates the city as we know it and as essential to our understanding of cities as a minor science is to a major science.
 
Key words
Jakarta; Major Science; Minor Science; Urbanization; Birds