《景观设计学》2016年第4期

作    者:韩西丽(Xili HAN),赵文强(Wenqiang ZHAO)等
类    别:景观
出 版 社:高等教育出版社有限公司
出版时间:2016年8月

导言 目录 作品信息 书评

俞孔坚•设计“有感觉”的城市
——《景观设计学》2016年第4期“主编寄语”
Designing Cities that Make Sense
By Kongjian Yu


我们通常会用一些大家所共识的词汇来描绘一座城市或一个地方,诸如美丽、丑陋、安静、吵闹、整洁、杂乱、干净、肮脏、凉爽、潮湿、宽广、狭窄、明亮、幽暗……这些描述在很大程度上是可以被定量的,因而是客观的、可以被设计和规范的。而有一个人们常用却充满神秘的词汇,我们却很难将之客观地定量为人们共识的指标,那就是“有感觉”。这似乎是一个高度主观和个性化的词,我们可以将之理解为“有意义”,或者更为口语化的“有意思”。

我完全相信,在今日中国强有力的行政力量下,在众多工程师们的集体努力下,城市会变得更加漂亮、干净、整洁、明亮和宽广。但这并不意味着我们的城市能够更加“有感觉”。其模糊性和高度的个性化,使得设计和管理“有感觉”的城市变得非常困难且往往被忽视,致使我们的城市逐渐沦为缺乏感觉的城市。

“有感觉”的场地关乎其场所感和意义,需要在现象学语境中来讨论。从马丁•海德格尔的“栖居”,到凯文•林奇的“城市意象”,再到包括克里斯蒂安•诺伯格-舒尔茨在内的哲学界、建筑学界以及人文地理界关于地方感和意义的问题,相关的概念已经被讨论了近一个世纪。尽管研究讨论甚多,但仍有较多的问题需要厘清。归结而言,这些研究对当代中国的城市设计和管理具有极其重要的意义,其可借鉴之处主要包括以下几个方面:

第一,求知于理性之外:不要被所谓的“理性的”、“科学的”抽象模型和统计数据所蒙骗,要通过现象背后的真实存在来感知和理解我们的城市和环境;要抛开所谓的“理性的”、“理想的”城市模式,去设计忠实于自然和人类生活需求的城市。诸如田园城市、光明城市、广亩城市等理想城市模式,最终被证明离我们的城市生活何其遥远。相反,基于真实城市生活体验的简•雅各布斯的城市生命之道却大放异彩,至今熠熠生辉。

第二,回归日常生活:要回到日常的、个体的体验和感觉中来设计和管理城市环境。只有设身处地地体量生活其中的每个人的感觉和使用方式,我们才不会以“建设美丽城市”的名义,去清理城市中那些热闹非凡、“有感觉”的城中村和街边的杂货摊、“杂乱的”居民区菜市场、胡同里吆喝的摊贩;只有这样,我们才不会热衷于在城市中建设纪念碑、大剧院、体育馆、博物馆、文化中心、宽广的景观大道和巨型广场。

第三,理解“有感觉”之源:场所或城市之所以“有感觉”,是因为栖居其中的个体找到并获得了属于自己的地方并认同于这个地方,即诺伯格-舒尔茨所强调的两个方面:定位与认同。前者关于空间的结构属性,如焦点、边缘、区域等,决定了城市和地方的可识别性、可想象性,使人们能在茫茫世界中定义出自己的空间位置,在浩淼的宇宙中拥有自己的立锥之地,有了坐标才有安全感,探索世界的旅程才有了起点;所谓认同,则是关于城市与地方的特性,即有别于其他城市和地方的属性,它是弥漫在时空中并通过人的全部感官所感知的氛围和“东西”,诸如温度、湿度、气味、颜色、质感、材料及各种物体及其形状,道路的铺装、墙面的斑驳、树干的裂纹……它们随时间的推移而变换,因地域而不同,从而赋予地方以历史感、地域感,构成了城市的个性和认同感,使人们浸染其中,他们的五感和行为因此适应城市万千的变化,从而潜移默化地成为城市的一分子,共同构成城市中弥漫的氛围和真实的大千世界。简单地说,正是城市的空间特征、自然和文化氛围以及各种真实的物体存在和人本身,使城市或地方变得“有感觉”、“有意思”,体现为城市的归属感和认同感。

所以,设计“有感觉”的城市就是设计可以栖居的、能生活其中的、适应于自然环境、城市历史脉络以及当下人们生活方式的城市。理解这一点,对当前轰轰烈烈的城市设计运动具有重要意义,可使城市设计避免重蹈欧美的“城市美化运动”之路—这是本人在近20年前就在呼吁的,自以为,到今天这种呼吁仍然没有过时。

译 萨拉•雅各布斯 张健


Our common descriptions of the city or place, including beautiful, ugly, quiet, noisy, tidy, messy, clean, dirty, cool, moist, broad, narrow, bright, gloomy, etc., are largely quantifiable. Yet, we have developed methods for these characteristics to become objective and standardized designs. Still, there are other common but mysterious characteristics of the city we cannot understand objectively, for example, “making sense.” This seemed highly subjective and emotional item means making a place meaningful or interesting in the colloquial language.

I believe that today under China’s strong administrative lead, cities will become more beautiful, clean, bright and broad through the collective endeavors of engineers and designers. However, this does not mean that our cities will be more meaningful or interesting on a personal level. It is difficult to design and manage cities for our personal sense of place, since it is often vague and highly individual. As such, designing for a sense of place is often ignored, resulting in cities that are less and less interesting.

“Making sense,” concerning the sense of a place and its meaningfulness, needs to be discussed in the context of phenomenology. In the past century, Martin Heidegger’s “Dwelling,” Kevin Lynch’s “The Image of the City” and Christian Norberg-Schulz’s viewpoint have tried to bring philosophy into human, spatial, and architectural discussions. But, making sense of place continues to puzzle us despite the growing amount of research on the topic. As Chinese cities grow, the study of making sense of place will be an essential piece of China’s contemporary urban design and management that should be noticed from the following perspectives:

First, we must seek more-than-rational knowledge. Instead of focusing on the so-called “rational” or “scientific” abstract models and statistics, cities and environments should be perceived through lived experiences. We should abandon the so-called “rational” and “ideal” city models of the 20th century, such as the Garden City, the Radiant City, and the Broadacre City, which have proven to be so distant from our real urban lives. We should design cities that respond to our needs as feeling, sensing, emotional beings, and that draw from work such as Jane Jacobs, who showed urban life to be diverse, unpredictable, and sparkling.

Next, we must design with daily lives. As we design and manage our urban environments, we should consider how daily, personalized experiences affect urban space. In doing so, we can no longer prioritize building beautiful cities while dogmatically sweeping away bustling villages, messy community vegetable markets or crying Hutong vendors. Our work as designers is no longer to be enthusiastic about monuments, theatres, stadiums, museums, cultural centers or wide avenues and blank city squares.

Finally, we must understand what it means to feel a sense of place. As designers, we must understand that for a city to have a meaningful sense of place, individuals must be able to make it their own, to identify it as their place. Orientation and identification with place are two elements emphasized by Norberg-Schulz. In this case, orientation refers to the spatial structure, being able to identify one’s position in a place and taking place in the vast universe by orienting elements such as a focus, edge or region. Orientation provides a sense of safety and coordinates for exploring the world. To identify with a place, concerning the characteristics which differentiate places and cities, is to place yourself through an understanding of atmosphere perceived by the senses, such as temperature, humidity, smell, color, texture, material and shape. The paving of roads, patterns of walls, and cracks on tree trunks change over time and differ from region to region, giving a sense of history, identity and identification to a place. The identity of a city is created through the senses and actions of its residents, and the ways they adapt, infuse, and mold the forms and shapes of the city. In short, the spatial characteristics of the city, the natural and cultural atmosphere of the city and the various existing objects and ways people live in the city, make the city “interesting” and “meaningful,” through a sense of belonging and sense of identity.

Designing cities for a sense of place is to design cities for dwelling, living, and belonging, to design cities that respond to environmental and cultural histories, as well as contemporary wants. By designing cities that prioritize the needs of residents, we can avoid the path previously taken by the City Beautiful Movement in many European and American cities. I made this same appeal twenty years ago, and the need remains relevant today.

Translated by Sara JACOBS Angus ZHANG

主编寄语
设计“有感觉”的城市(俞孔坚)

论文
感知与城市户外公共空间规划设计(韩西丽,赵文强)
传承或是生活方式引领者:伦敦当代城市环境中的疗愈空间研究(薛菲,刘少瑜)
城市休闲绿地的声景感知研究(任欣欣,康健,刘晓光)

观点与评论
城市感知——历史与记忆角度的探索(邵钰涵,刘滨谊)
城市感知与可持续城市设计(彼得•斯约斯特洛姆)

主题实践
纽约地平线——畅想未来曼哈顿天际线(吴建师,孙艺潭)
纽约修复计划之港口振兴计划(哥伦比亚大学空间信息设计实验室,纽约修复计划组委会,Ennead建筑事务所研究室,夏洛特市树木保护协会,哥伦比亚大学梅尔曼公共卫生学院,Civitas全球性福祉推动组织,布朗克斯区南部社区组织,HealthxDesign咨询机构,巴瑞托湾策略顾问有限公司,蒙特菲奥里医疗中心)
厦门老剧场文化公园(闵一鸣)
内华达州拉斯维加斯大道公园(!melk景观与城市设计事务所)
音场:印度西高止山脉热带雨林地区的生态声学基础设施(罗亚丹)

探索与过程
气味的视觉语言(凯特•麦克莱恩)
夏日侦测员——感知城市(米娅•穆斯伯格,约翰娜•皮丘鲍尔)

简讯


【中文刊名】《景观设计学》——城市感知
【英文刊名】Landscape Architecture Frontiers • City Sense(s)
【作者】韩西丽(Xili HAN),赵文强(Wenqiang ZHAO)等
【出版社】高等教育出版社有限公司
【页码】172页彩色印刷
【刊号】ISSN 2095-5405
【出版日期】2016年8月
【定价】58.00元

感知与城市户外公共空间规划设计
Perception and Planning Design for Urban Outdoor Public Space
作者:韩西丽,赵文强 Xili HAN, Wenqiang ZHAO

摘要
使用户外空间是一种多维度的感官体验过程,我们通过感官来判断户外空间是否宜人和值得停留。现在的人们过多沉迷于网络的虚拟世界之中,如何吸引大家走出去享受自然、感知真实世界的空间,并引导健康的城市生活方式已成为城市设计中的重要课题。本文从感知的空间尺度以及感知偏好等方面对多个维度的感知体验进行了阐释,希望能启发设计师从人的身体感知出发对城市空间进行思考,积极辨识感知体验的潜在价值,创造出丰富多彩的城市场所。

关键词
城市户外公共空间;感知;城市设计;景观设计

Abstract
With outdoor space as a place of multi-dimensional sensorial experiences, we decide whether it is pleasant to linger based on sensory judgments. With the virtual world of the internet, how to invite people to nature and how they interact with it have become an important issue in urban design. This paper explores multi-dimensional sensory experiences at diverse spatial scales and sensory preferences in order to enhance designers’ knowledge of human perception in urban design, to identify the potential value of sensory experiences, and to create rich urban spaces.

Key words
Urban Outdoor Public Space; Perception; Urban Design; Landscape Design


传承或是生活方式引领者:伦敦当代城市环境中的疗愈空间研究
Legacy or Lifestyle Driver: A London Study of Healing Space in Contemporary Urban Environments
作者:薛菲,刘少瑜 Fei XUE, Shaoyu LIU

摘要
以往的研究表明,城市绿地对人类健康具有促进疗愈和恢复的积极作用。传承了有益于人类健康和宜居性的城镇与乡村相结合的后花园城市—伦敦已成为世界上最绿色的城市之一,公园绿地也已深深融入伦敦市民的日常生活之中。本文作者对伦敦中心城区及郊区进行了实证型研究,通过客观评估和主观调查,就建成环境品质、使用者态度和疗愈感知进行了研究。本文尤其关注疗愈感知的感官层面,旨在重新解读当代背景下疗愈空间的转变,并探究疗愈绩效提升的关键标准。最后,本文提出一个概念化的框架,以提升城市绿地设计的疗愈功效。

关键词
健康;宜居性;疗愈空间;感知;伦敦

Abstract
Previous studies have indicated that urban green space has superior benefits for human health on healing and restoration. Inherited with the Post-Garden City legacy that created “the marriage of town and countryside” for health and livability, London has become one of the greenest cities in the world where gardens and parks greatly involved in daily life. The authors conducted an empirical study in central and suburban London to investigate the quality of built environment, user attitude and healing perception by objective assessment and subjective survey. With a special attention to the sensorial dimension of healing perception, this paper aims to reinterpret the transition of healing space in the contemporary context and investigate the key criteria for healing performance promotion. Finally, a framework is conceptualized as an attempt to enhance healing efficacy in urban green space design.

Key words
Health; Livability; Healing Space; Perception; London


城市休闲绿地的声景感知研究
Soundscape Perception of Urban Recreational Green Space
作者:任欣欣,康健,刘晓光 Xinxin REN, Jian KANG, Xiaoguang LIU

摘要
随着城镇化进程的加快,城市休闲绿地作为贴近日常生活的景观体验空间在市民生活中愈发重要。本文以声景为视角,旨在了解人们对城市休闲绿地声景的感知特征,以为相关设计与管理提供参考。本研究通过对使用者的声景感知及其影响因素、声景与景观评价的相关性,以及专业设计人员与使用者的声喜好差异性进行分析,结果表明,大多数使用者最先感知到声喜好较低的道路交通声,而对声喜好较高的自然声与旋律声的感知率较低;年龄与行为方式均使声喜好发生规律性变化;声景与景观评价显著相关;与专业设计人员相比,使用者的道路交通声、人为声与旋律声喜好显著较高,而自然声喜好则反之。

关键词
城市;休闲绿地;声景;声喜好;感知;景观评价

Abstract
Urban recreational green space, in part because of accelerated urbanization, is becoming more important as part of a healthy urban life and being places of landscape experience. This paper aims to understand how soundscape perception in urban recreational green space can provide insight for design and management. The paper investigates factors that affect soundscape, the relationship between soundscape evaluation and landscape evaluation, and differences in sound preference between professional designers and users. The results show that general users prefer natural and melodies to road traffic noises, but they often perceive road traffic noises first and their perception sensitivity to natural sounds and melody is low; People’s sound preferences are affected by age, and behavior style; Soundscape evaluation is closely associated with landscape evaluation; And, general users’ preference of traffic, human sound, and melody was significantly higher than that of professional designers.

Key words
City; Recreational Green Space; Soundscape; Sound Preference; Perception; Landscape Evaluation


城市感知——历史与记忆角度的探索
A Sense of City — From a Historical Perspective
作者:邵钰涵,刘滨谊 Yuhan SHAO, Binyi LIU

摘要
在城市发展的过程中,城市感知是主观现实存在的关键,而所有的主观现实均与社会构成一种辩证关系。城市感知研究关注个体对物质环境的感受,而这种感受来源于个人经历的记忆,这种记忆由一段时间内的意识所形成。然而,随着城市的发展,这种感知正在逐渐消失;相应地,迅速变化的环境也正面临着城市独特性的普遍削弱,这一问题在发达国家中尤为显著。在这样的过程中,城市感知具有两种功能:在减少基于历史的城市独特性的遗失的同时,创造新的城市身份特征。在这两种功能所带来的结果中,积极与消极影响并存。因此,为了在城市发展的过程中发扬城市感知的积极功用并减少其消极后果,如何对城市感知进行阐释变得愈发重要。在此观点的引领下,本文将聚焦于历史因素在城市感知形成过程中的影响,并论述形成重要的城市感知的巨大意义。

关键词
城市感知;历史;城市身份特征;场所感;记忆

Abstract
In the urban development process, city sense is the key to a subjective reality and all subjective realities are in a dialectic relation with the society. It focuses on feelings toward the physical environment from a personal level; such feeling could be gained through the memory of their own experiences, which focus on the consciousness over a period of time. However, such sense has been lost due to the urban development process, and the loss of uniqueness has become a common problem that fast changing environments are facing, especially in developed countries. The city sense of such urban development process has two functions: prevent the loss of uniqueness, which was based on history, and generate new identities. The two have both positive and negative aspects, therefore, how to interpret the sense of city becomes more important as the needs to develop the positives and avoid the negatives in urban development. With such perspectives, this paper will concentrate on evaluating the effect that history has to the form of city sense and why it is important in terms of forming a valuable city sense.

Key words
City Sense; History; Urban Identity; Sense of Place; Memory


城市感知与可持续城市设计
City Sense(s) and Sustainable Urban Design
作者:彼得•斯约斯特洛姆 Peter SIÖSTRÖM

摘要
随着全球化与城镇化进程的不断加速,城市空间在日常生活中扮演着越来越重要的角色。科学技术的发展使得人们与世界的联通更加密切,但以身体感官去体验真实世界的需求却并未因此而减弱。瑞典隆德大学工学院十余年来始终致力于可持续城市设计的研究与应用,在本次采访中,彼得•斯约斯特洛姆副教授对城市感知在可持续城市设计中的作用进行了解析,就城市的身份特征、城市意象等概念展开了讨论,并分析了大数据等技术应用对于城市设计的影响,同时也对景观设计行业的发展前景做出了展望。

关键词
城市感知;可持续城市设计;身份特征;大数据;教育

Abstract
With the accelerating process of globalization and urbanization, the space of the city plays an increasingly important role in our daily lives. Although science and technology enable us to better communicate with the whole world, the need for concrete physical experiences in the real world has not diminished. Sustainable Urban Design Program at Faculty of Engineering of Lund University has been dedicated in sustainable urban design for more than 10 years. In this interview, Associate Professor Peter Siöström dissects the impacts of city sense(s) on sustainable urban design, discusses the concepts of identity and city image, analyzes the influences of technology application like big data in urban design, as well as making a prospective outlook to the future of landscape architecture.

Key words
City Sense(s); Sustainable Urban Design; Identity; Big Data; Education


纽约地平线——畅想未来曼哈顿天际线
New York Horizon — Reimagining the Future of New York City's Skyline
作者:吴建师,孙艺潭 Jianshi WU, Yitan SUN

摘要
伴随着纽约的城镇化进程,种种矛盾与冲突也随之产生:高耸的摩天大楼和密集的街道网络使得城市同时在垂直和水平空间上扩张蔓延;垂直发展带来横向沟通的缺失和阶级地位的分化;人造景观渐渐代替自然景观而抹去城市的原始肌理与天然群落……这一切都使得生活在其中的市民失去感知城市原始魅力的机遇。“纽约地平线”这个概念设计通过对纽约现存的上述矛盾进行乌托邦式的大胆解读,在试图回答这些问题的同时,也越发凸显了纽约独有的城市特色。传统的高楼在这里被隐去,一度被掩埋的场地肌理得以重现,镜面表皮呈现出高楼遮挡前无限蔓延的自然景观。这些诗意化的手法跳脱了传统思维,将纽约的“天际线”真正移至了“地平线”的高度。

关键词
纽约;乌托邦;摩天大楼;中央公园;城市意象

Abstract
What follows New York City’s urbanization process is the rising of conflict and contradictions: towering skyscrapers and dense street grid witness the simultaneous vertical city development and horizontal urban crawl; while the vertical development has resulted in the lack of lateral communication and hierarchical differences; manufactured landscapes substitute for natural scenes, eliminating the urban primitive texture and natural communities, etc. The bold concept “New York Horizon” strives to address these contradictions in an innovative yet utopian point of view, at the same time making characteristics and contradictions of New York more obviously revealed. In the project, traditional towering skyscrapers are concealed while the original site texture reemerges, boundless natural landscape is created by the reflection of glass facade, although with the shield of the skyscrapers. These poetic approaches eventually enabled us to transform New York’s skyline into its new horizon.

Key words
New York; Utopia; Skyscraper; Central Park; City Image


纽约修复计划之港口振兴计划
The Haven Project of the New York Restoration Project
作者:哥伦比亚大学空间信息设计实验室,纽约修复计划组委会,Ennead建筑事务所研究室,夏洛特市树木保护协会,哥伦比亚大学梅尔曼公共卫生学院,Civitas全球性福祉推动组织,布朗克斯区南部社区组织,HealthxDesign咨询机构,巴瑞托湾策略顾问有限公司,蒙特菲奥里医疗中心 Columbia University Spatial Information Design Lab, New York Restoration Project, Ennead Lab, TreesCharlotte, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, Civitas, South Bronx Unite, HealthxDesign, Barreto Bay Strategies, Montefiore Medical Center

摘要
纽约修复计划旨在为位于布朗克斯区南部的莫特港和莫里斯港地区的开放空间网络制定一份总体改造规划。通过大量的地图绘制、空间分析和数据可视化,该项目力图展示在社区尺度对物质空间进行改善所带来的可测量的健康与社会成果。

关键词
地图绘制;空间分析;数据可视化;交互式;开放空间

Abstract
New York Restoration Project (NYRP) is developing a master plan to renovate a network of open spaces in Mott Haven and Port Morris in the South Bronx. Through extensive mapping, spatial analysis and data visualization, this project aims to demonstrate measurable health and social outcomes resulting from an improved physical environment at the neighborhood scale.

Key words
Mapping; Spatial Analysis; Data Visualization; Interactive; Open Space


厦门老剧场文化公园
Old Theatre Cultural Park in Xiamen
作者:闵一鸣 Yiming MIN

摘要
厦门老剧场文化公园是在原鹭江剧院基础上改造而成的,集文化传播、休闲、康健等为一体的新型公共空间。场地承载着当地居民的回忆,但建筑破败、年久失修,自然空间非常匮乏。该项目通过在时间和空间的尺度上进行扩展,丰富了人们的感知体验,不仅使老剧场的元素得以再现,更促进了人们的交流、延续了场地的精神。

关键词
城市感知;厦门;文化公园;公共空间;公共记忆

Abstract
The Xiamen Old Theatre Cultural Park is a new public space that integrates culture, recreation, and wellness. The cultural park was transformed from the former Lujiang Theatre, a place of memory for many local residents. However, the theatre had fallen into disrepair after years of neglect. The new project enriched the space by drawing on historical experiences of place, as well as the current decay of the structure, combining both time, space, and scale. The new space is a spiritual inheritance of the old site while facilitating interaction among current residents.

Key words
Perception; Xiamen; Cultural Park; Public Space; Public Memory



内华达州拉斯维加斯大道公园
“The Park” at The Strip in Las Vegas, Nevada
作者:!melk景观与城市设计事务所 !melk landscape architecture & urban design

摘要
拉斯维加斯大道近日迎来了其有史以来的第一座公园——一个充满活力的公共空间。拉斯维加斯位于环境条件极具挑战性的干旱地区,终年烈日高温、沙尘肆虐,并饱受水资源匮乏问题的困扰。该项目所有的设计元素都旨在缓解这些极端气候环境,并在此基础上最大程度地营造怡人的感官体验。大道公园前沿的设计凸显了莫哈韦地区的沙漠背景,并重现了拉斯维加斯的昔日景致——沙漠中的绿洲。

关键词
拉斯维加斯大道;大道公园;微气候设计;感官体验;步行基础设施

Abstract
The Las Vegas Strip recently received its first-ever park, a spectacular public space. Las Vegas exists in an extremely challenging arid location, exposed to sun, heat, dust storms, and scarcity of water. All design elements mitigate these extremes to create the most enjoyable sensory experience possible. The cutting-edge design of The Park celebrates the context of the Mojave region and reinstates what Las Vegas once was — an oasis in the desert.

Key words
Las Vegas Strip; The Park; Microclimate Design; Sensory Experience; Pedestrian Infrastructure


音场:印度西高止山脉热带雨林地区的生态声学基础设施
Soundfield in Western Ghats, India
作者:罗亚丹 Yadan LUO

摘要
音场项目将声音作为理解和观察印度西高止山脉热带雨林的主要方式。通过记录和分析具体声音的强度和范围,项目希望使用一种新的方法重新理解人类开发建设对生物迁徙廊道的影响。大象迁徙廊道是研究的重点,由于热带雨林植被茂密、能见度低的空间特点,居住其中的大象们主要依靠听觉和震动来感知周边环境。但当地人类开发建设对其造成的影响不在于空间上,而在于听觉上的干扰。基于此,本项目着力于设计出不同的音场范围,进而引导象群的行进方向。这些音场被定义为森林中的生态基础设施,在大象及其他野生动物与当地居民间创造出一种新的生态平衡。

关键词
音场;声音生态基础设施;大象廊道;西高止山脉热带雨林;缓冲区;十字路口

Abstract
Soundfield envisions sound as the lens through which to view the landscape of the Western Ghats. By gaging the intensity and location of specific sounds within the landscape, Soundfield seeks to realign human and wildlife transit within the Western Ghats. Focusing on elephant corridor which is based on ecologies of sound, Soundfield defines divergent areas of elephant and human traverse. By generating types of sounds that attract, or dissuade these distinct groups, Soundfield proposes the infrastructure to mitigate navigation between humans, elephants and other wildlife through the Ghats.

Key words
Soundfield; Acoustic Ecological Infrastructure; Elephant Corrdior; Western Ghats; Buffer Zone; Cross


气味的视觉语言
Towards a Visual Voice for Smells
作者:凯特•麦克莱恩 Kate MCLEAN

摘要
气味是一种奇怪的存在。作为气流中飘荡的“搭便车者”,它们不受场地所限;但人类嗅觉的微妙感知却通常与场地密切相关。
我的研究工作将气味视为实体,并试图推测它们移动的模式和相互间的作用。西方世界并未给予气味足够的关注,因此,本研究期望探寻一种策略,使得人们无论身处本地还是外来城市的“气味景观”之中,都可以分享和探索日常的气味,进而意识到理解气味的重要意义。
通过当地居民的嗅觉体验以及地图绘制的方式,本文对全球诸多城市进行了探索,同时就我从事这项研究的初衷进行了讲述。
作为一名平面设计师,我将整个设计过程视为一种研究方法—每一件新的作品都是对前一作品的延续。
气味景观地图利用“隐含信息”作为沟通设计的方式,即将看起来“已知的”信息转变为“未知的”,以促成围绕“将气味以地图的形式重现可能性”议题的讨论,并鼓励基于现场体验的感知式学习:嗅即是学。

关键词
气味景观制图;感官知识;嗅觉呈现;隐含信息

Abstract
Smells are whimsical creatures. As errant hitchhikers of rides on air currents, they appear to defy being tied to a location, yet our nuanced perception of olfactory knowledge is often linked with place.
My work considers smells as entities and speculates on their patterns of movement and their interactions. Smell is under-represented in the Western world. In order to raise awareness about the value of understanding “smell,” my research seeks strategies by which we can share and explore the everyday odours within both local and exotic urban smellscapes.
This article traces the exploration of global cities through the noses of local inhabitants, and uses map-making as a means of communication; whilst also exploring my personal motivation for undertaking this research.
As a graphic designer, I utilise the design process as a methodology; each new piece of work is an iteration on a previous piece.
Smellscape maps use “ex-formation” as a communication design method to render the seemingly “known” as “un-known” so as to encourage discussion and dispute over the possibility of mapping smells and to encourage experiential learning in situ through personal experience. To sniff is to know.

Key words
Smellscape Mapping; Sensory Knowledge; Olfactory Representation; Ex-formation


夏日侦测员——感知城市
Summer Scouts — Sensing the City
作者:米娅•穆斯伯格,约翰娜•皮丘鲍尔 Mia MEUSBURGER, Johanna PICHLBAUER

摘要
智慧城市力求使我们的生活更加便捷:通过运用大数据,我们的出行线路得以优化,工作流程更加高效,资源利用更加合理。然而,技术是否能让城市更具人情味?这些情感因素应怎样被激发,又由何释放?“夏日侦测员”项目试图逐步探索我们深爱的城市的非物质层面。起初,我们只是做了一个简单的尝试—转变审视城市的视角。这一尝试很快将我们引向下一个问题,即哪些因素尚未为人所知,却能够使人们意识到“个体感知反映着更为宏大的集体感知”?什么可以被感知却无法为肉眼所见?我们该怎样衡量这些无形的因素?寻找城市中不同事件之间内在联系的尝试,使我们发现了能够用以衡量人们情感状况的指标。通过几组简单参数的应用,我们的“夏日侦测员”试图捕捉一种属于维也纳市民的集体感知:夏日的到来。

关键词
大数据;计测器;集体感知;智慧城市

Abstract
Smart cities strive to make our lives easier: utilizing big data, our routes get optimized, work steps become more efficient and resources better used. However, what about the emotional potential of a smart city? How could it be triggered and who releases it? Step by step we tried to grasp the immaterial layer of our beloved city. What started out with simple experiments of perspective shifts, soon led us to the question what exactly makes us feel like a part of a bigger system — but stays hidden. What can be sensed yet not seen? How do we measure the intangible? Finding interconnections between different occurrences throughout the city enabled us to measure indicators of emotional patterns. By using simple parameters, our Summer Scouts try to grasp one of the communal feelings sensed by the population of Vienna: the beginning of summer.

Key words
Big Data; Sensors; Communal Feeling; Smart City