《景观设计学》2016年第5期

作    者:刘某承(Moucheng LIU),李博(Bo LI)等
类    别:景观
出 版 社:高等教育出版社有限公司
出版时间:2016年10月

导言 目录 作品信息 书评

俞孔坚•生态安全格局与国土空间开发格局优化
——《景观设计学》2016年第5期“主编寄语”
Ecological Security Pattern and Spatial Development Pattern Optimization of National Territory
By Kongjian Yu



2012年11月8日,举世瞩目的中国共产党第十八次全国代表大会(以下简称十八大)在北京召开。此次大会工作报告的重要内容之一是非常具体而专业地表述了国土空间开发格局在生态文明建设中的意义,并使用了“生态安全格局”这样的专业词汇,明确提出其在优化国土空间开发格局中的地位:“国土是生态文明建设的空间载体,必须珍惜每一寸国土。要按照人口资源环境相均衡、经济社会生态效益相统一的原则,控制开发强度,调整空间结构,促进生产空间集约高效、生活空间宜居适度、生态空间山清水秀,给自然留下更多修复空间,给农业留下更多良田,给子孙后代留下天蓝、地绿、水净的美好家园。加快实施主体功能区战略,推动各地区严格按照主体功能定位发展,构建科学合理的城市化格局、农业发展格局、生态安全格局。”

一年之后,2013年11月12日,中国共产党第十八届中央委员会第三次全体会议进一步提出“加快生态文明制度建设”,并指出应“建立空间规划体系,划定生产、生活、生态空间开发管制界限,落实用途管制。健全能源、水、土地节约集约使用制度”,并具体提出应“划定生态保护红线,坚定不移实施主体功能区制度,建立国土空间开发保护制度,严格按照主体功能区定位推动发展。”

这其中涉及三个核心概念:国土利用的空间格局(包括城镇化格局、农业生产格局和生态安全格局)、生态红线和主体功能区。这三个概念明确了将国土作为生态文明建设空间载体的定位。而这其中有一个关键的学术概念“格局”,尤其是“生态安全格局”。

生态安全格局的概念最早于1995年提出,是景观安全格局的一种。景观安全格局的精髓是把景观中的水平过程(包括雨洪过程、火灾蔓延、动物迁徙、城市扩张、农业开垦等)作为竞争性的空间控制和土地覆盖过程来理解,它们必须有效地克服空间阻力来完成这样的空间覆盖。换句话说,要维护某种过程的安全和健康,必须占据一个关键性的格局,这个格局就称为景观安全格局。景观安全格局研究主要针对中国国土和城市规划建设中面临的重大问题:紧张的人地关系问题,即保护和开发这两类基本的水平空间过程。在这两大类格局之下,可以细分为多种竞争性的控制和覆盖过程,形成包括农业用地、工业用地、城市建设用地、旅游用地等用地类型的格局。

正如围棋中的“金角、银边、草肚皮”所描绘的,无论对白方或黑方来说,占据“角”和“边”这样的空间位置都至关重要。城镇化格局、农业生产格局、生态安全格局有时是互不相干的,但更多情况下是重叠的,如平原滨水地带,它们既是农业的高产地带,也是城镇建设的关键地段,更是保障生态安全的关键地段。必须强调的是,与围棋博弈不同的是,这场格局间的博弈不是非赢即输,而是以平衡与和谐为目标的多赢博弈。其理论支点是博弈论关于平衡点或者安全点的研究——事实上,安全格局概念本身最初也是受到了博弈论中的“安全点”的启发。

生态安全格局是维护生态过程(如雨洪过程、动物栖息地和迁徙等)的安全和健康的关键性格局,即空间意义上的生态底线,或称为生态红线。由于生态过程在当今快速的城镇化过程中总是处于劣势,因此,确定生态安全格局、划定生态底线(生态红线)就显得格外重要,除了其科学的意义之外,还有环境伦理的意义。相仿,农业用地在中国的城镇化过程中也极易被侵噬,因此,耕地保护红线也至关重要。好在中国政府对粮食问题一直较为关注,所以有了“18亿亩耕地保护红线”的概念——这一数据的准确性暂且不论——但相对于生态安全格局来说,农业生产格局的保护要受重视得多。

真正使生态安全格局被提升到今天这样高度的是十八大之后新一届政府的认识水平。过去30年的城市扩张带来的一系列生态安全危机日渐凸显,特别是近年来的城市洪涝问题日益严峻,生态危机已经成为危及人类生存的问题。但相较于农业生产格局,生态安全格局或生态底线空间的研究、规划和管理等则相对滞后得多。过去30多年,尽管在达成三个格局的和谐方面,我们已经失去了许多机会,但所谓“亡羊补牢,未为晚矣”,今天来推动关于生态安全格局和生态基础设施的研究仍然具有重要意义。而且,中国的经验将为其他发展中国家及早开展国土生态安全格局研究,以及协调生产、生活与生态三个格局提供借鉴。

On November 8, 2012, the Eighteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China was held in Beijing. One of the most important topics of this congress meeting was to convey the significance of territorial development on ecological civilization construction. Terms such as “Ecological Security Pattern” were used, along with intentions to optimize national spatial development pattern. “It is in geographical space that ecological civilization can be advanced, and we must cherish every bit of it. Guided by the principle of maintaining balance between population, resources and the environment and promoting economic, social and ecological benefits, we should keep the pace of development under control and regulate its spatial composition. We should ensure that the space for production is used intensively and efficiently, that the living space is livable and proper in size, and that the ecological space is unspoiled and beautiful; and we should leave more space for nature to achieve self-renewal. We should keep more farmland for farmers, and leave to our future generations a beautiful homeland with green fields, clean water and a blue sky. We should ensure the speedy implementation of the functional zoning strategy and require all regions to pursue development in strict accordance with this strategy, and advance urbanization, agricultural development and ecological security in a scientific and balanced way.”

One year later, on November 12, 2013, the Third Plenary Session of the Eighteenth Central Committee of the Communist Party of China further defined the strategy to speed up systems building to promote ecological civilization progress by calling for the establishment of a spatial planning system that would designate the control limits in spatial development in production, life and ecology. The same planning system would be used to implement land use regulations for the economical use of energy, water, and land. Specifically, the Central Committee called for “delimiting a redline for ecological protection; firmly implementing functional zoning system; establishing protection system of national spatial development; progressing the development in strict accordance of functional zone positioning.”

There are three concepts at work here: 1) spatial pattern of land uses, including urbanization, agricultural, and ecological patterns, 2) ecological redline, and 3) functional zones. Together, these concepts illustrate how land is the spatial foundation for ecological civilization construction. Still, the most important academic concept to understand is that of “pattern,” specifically, “ Ecological Security Patterns.”

The concept of Ecological Security Pattern was first introduced in 1995 as a type of Landscape Security Pattern, which was developed as a framework for treating horizontal landscape processes, such as stormwater management, fire control, animal migrations, urban expansion, and agricultural reclamation as active spatial land processes. These processes seek to maximize their spatial coverage through overcoming spatial limitations and resistances. In other words, to maintain the safety and health of a landscape process, the key patterns at work must be identified beforehand. These came to be known as “Landscape Security Patterns.” The studies of Landscape Security Patterns focuses on the human-environment relationship in China’s territorial development and urban growth. The tension between protection and development creates various competitive control and coverage processes, seen in the protection and development of agricultural land, industrial land, urban land, and tourism land.

As in Go game, it is critical to occupy as much space in the corners and edges of the board as possible. The planning and management of urbanization patterns, agricultural patterns, and ecological security patterns are pieces in a Go game of national territory. The different patterns can be unrelated, but more often are overlapped. Waterfront plain areas, for example, have potential to be high-yield agricultural land as well as spaces for urban construction and ecological protection. It must be emphasized however that this is not a win-or-lose game, but seeks balance and harmony — in fact, the theoretical foundation in the game of landscape security patterns is that of Game Theory and security points.

Ecological Security Patterns play a pivotal role in maintaining ongoing ecological processes such as stormwater management, animal habitat and migration. In a physical sense, it is the ecological bottom line (red line) of territorial land. In the context of rapid urbanization, ecological processes are often pushed towards a disadvantaged position. It is important to establish ecological security patterns as a way to mark the ecological bottom line. In addition to maintaining the scientific importance of these landscapes, marking the ecological bottom line helps establish an environmental site ethics. Agricultural land also faces similar challenges, thus making the agricultural redline equally important. Fortunately, the Chinese central government pays close attention to grain issues, going as far as establishing a “1.8 billion Mu of agricultural land redline.” However, when compared with the ecological security pattern, agricultural protection is greater. 

The new government after the Eighteenth National Congress helped lift the concept of an ecological security pattern into mainstream governmental work. The urban expansion of the past 30 years has brought about an ecological security crisis resulting in a question of survival. Compared with agricultural security pattern, the research, planning, and management of ecological security pattern have remained lackluster. Although we may have lost lots of opportunities to achieve harmony among the three patterns, there is still room for ecological security patterns and ecological infrastructures. The experiences of China can help other developing countries to start early on ecological security pattern studies in order to coordinate the three patterns of production, life and ecology.

Translated by   Sara JACOBS   Angus ZHANG

主编寄语
生态安全格局与国土空间开发格局优化(俞孔坚)

论文
基于碳足迹的中国能源消费生态安全格局研究(刘某承)
“反规划”途径:理论、应用与展望(李博,黄梓茜)

观点与评论
中国生态环境现状及趋势剖析(欧阳志云)
“多规合一”实践中的生态探索(胡耀文)
中国生态基础设施建设与思考(约翰•兰斯)

主题实践
丹麦哥本哈根暴雨防控详细规划(索尔•维尔斯赫伊,安娜•亚丝拉琪•隆德,尼尔•休•麦克莱恩•戈林,吕焕来)
从闲置土地到生态基础设施——休斯顿市曼彻斯特街区弹性设计方案(盖伦•纽曼,金埈铉,菲尔•伯克,杰里米•梅里尔,王洋镝,李秋硕)
菲律宾阿纳纳斯新社区总体规划——以整体性食物系统方式改善人居环境与社会可持续性(Sasaki设计事务所)
以山水为画布:衢州鹿鸣公园(俞孔坚)
宁波甬江平台公园(艾奕康环境规划设计(上海)有限公司)

探索与过程
关于暴洪与沙漠的思考(伊尔玛•赫尔克斯肯斯)
探寻卓有成效的基础设施——生态机场景观(劳拉•西普里亚尼)

简讯

【中文刊名】《景观设计学》——生态安全与生态基础设施
【英文刊名】Landscape Architecture Frontiers • Ecological Security and Ecological Infrastructure
【作者】刘某承(Moucheng LIU),李博(Bo LI)等
【出版社】高等教育出版社有限公司
【页码】172页彩色印刷
【刊号】ISSN 2095-5405
【出版日期】2016年10月
【定价】58.00元

 

基于碳足迹的中国能源消费生态安全格局研究
The Ecological Security Pattern of China’s Energy Consumption Based on Carbon Footprint
作者:刘某承 Moucheng LIU

摘要
工业化和城镇化进程在推动人类文明和生活进步的同时,也加剧了对生态系统产品和服务的消费。能源消费的碳足迹的增加及吸纳其产生的CO2所需的林地的减少,已成为生态赤字的主要原因,也对国土生态安全造成了重要影响。本文基于碳足迹对中国能源消费的生态安全格局的影响进行了分析,研究发现:1949年以来中国大陆人均碳足迹增长了20倍;碳足迹的生态赤字对国土安全的威胁未得到有效控制,这种影响仍将长期存在;能源资源的分布不均及社会经济发展的区域差异等因素造成碳足迹的区域流动,对国土生态安全带来额外的压力和威胁;最后,本文指出应从区域能源消耗量以及自然生态禀赋两个角度来考虑中国能源消费的生态安全格局。

关键词
能源消费;碳足迹;生态承载力;生态系统服务;生态安全

Abstract
Industrialization and urbanization have improved people’s standard of living, but these two processes have also accelerated consumption of ecological goods and services. China’s increasingly high carbon footprint relative to energy consumption and the decreasing ability of forestlands to absorb CO2 have become primary causes of ecological degradation while also effecting China’s territorial ecological security. This paper analyzes China’s carbon footprint to determine how the ecological security pattern has been effected by regional energy consumption. China’s per capita carbon footprint has doubled more than twenty times since 1949, while the relationship of ecological deficit to territorial security has not been adequately considered. Regional differences in carbon footprint, due to the uneven distribution of energy resources as well as uneven social and economic development, now threaten China’s territorial ecological security. Finally, this paper suggested that regional energy consumption and natural ecological reserves are the two factors most effecting the ecological security pattern of China’s energy consumption.

Key words
Energy Consumption; Carbon Footprint; Bio-capacity; Ecosystem Services; Ecological Security

“反规划”途径:理论、应用与展望
Theory, Application and Prospect of Negative Planning Approach
作者:李博,黄梓茜 Bo LI, Zixi HUANG

摘要
“反规划”是一种通过优先控制非建设区域来进行空间规划的逆向规划途径。它以景观安全格局为方法论,以生态基础设施为规划战略和成果,形成一个维护国土安全和保障土地生态系统服务功能的绿色网络,作为控制城市建设用地增长的刚性框架。本文分析了“反规划”的概念特征与理论体系,论述了近十年来该理论在国土尺度的空间规划与国土保护规划、海绵城市建设、新型城镇化和新农村建设4个方面的新发展;随后综合述评了其应用领域和实践探索;最后基于研究现状,提出了对接耦合“正反规划”、强化定量实证研究、考虑城市自组织增长和存量更新、加强管控实施等研究展望。

关键词
“反规划”途径;景观安全格局;生态基础设施;新型城镇化;生态文明

Abstract
Negative Planning Approach is a reverse spatial planning method which gives priority to preserving and planning non-urban development area. Taking landscape security pattern as its methodological base, Negative Planning Approach is a rigid framework to control urban growth, aiming to develop ecological infrastructure plans as its planning strategy and results, and establishing a green network which can ensure national territorial security and ecosystem services. This article reviews the concept and theories of Negative Planning Approach and elaborates its new theoretical advances in the fields of spatial planning and protection planning of national territory, sponge city construction, new urbanization, and new rural construction. Then it further reviews the application and exploration of Negative Planning Approach in the past decade. Finally, this article points out the insufficiency of the current research on Negative Planning Approach, and puts forward prospects including the combination of Negative Planning Approach with conventional planning methods, strengthening quantitative evidence-based study, taking urban self-organized growth and inventory renewal into consideration, and enhancing related management and implementation.

Key words
Negative Planning Approach; Landscape Security Pattern; Ecological Infrastructure; New Urbanization; Ecological Civilization

中国生态环境现状及趋势剖析
Current Situation and Trend of China’s Ecosystems
作者:欧阳志云 Zhiyun OUYANG

摘要
本采访首先对生态安全、生态安全格局、景观生态安全格局等概念进行了辨析,并强调了在设计实践中将景观设计学与生态学相结合的重要性。随后对生态系统生产总值核算的概念、产生背景和应用范围进行了介绍,并就刚刚完成的“全国生态环境十年变化(2000-2010年)调查评估”系统性地分析了中国生态环境状况与变化趋势,以及生态系统质量与服务功能的变化情况,并探讨了未来中国生态环境保护与城市生态建设的方向。最后,受访人还对城市规划建设中存在的生态保护红线划定、部门协作困难等问题进行了剖析。

关键词
生态安全格局;生态系统生产总值;全国生态环境十年变化

Abstract
This interview started with distinguishing the concepts of ecological security, ecological security pattern, and landscape ecological security pattern and stressed the importance of the integration of landscape architecture and ecology in design practice. Then it introduced the concept of Gross Ecosystem Product, its background, and the scope of its application. The just-completed “National Ecosystem Survey and Assessment of China (2000-2010)” systematically assessed the status and trends of China’s ecosystems, analyzed the changes in ecosystem quality and services, and explored the future of environmental protection and urban ecological construction. Finally, the interviewee also analyzed the difficulties in urban planning and construction, concerning ecological protection redline delimitation and department cooperation.

Key words
Ecological Security Pattern; Gross Ecosystem Product; National Ecosystem Survey and Assessment of China (2000-2010); Ecological Protection Redline

“多规合一”实践中的生态探索
Explorations in Multiple-plan Integration Practice
作者:胡耀文 Yaowen HU

摘要

自中央城镇化工作会议提出“探索建立统一的空间规划体系,推进规划体制改革”以来,全国多个城市开展了“多规合一”的实践工作。2015年6月,中央全面深化改革领导小组第十三次会议同意海南开展省域“多规合一”改革试点。海南省是全国第一个开展省域空间规划的改革试点。中国城市规划设计研究院承担了海南省及省内12个市县的规划编制工作,规划团队在这次采访中分享了他们在省域及市县两级的空间规划体系、生态环境保护规划、生态红线划定等方面的思考与实践。

关键词
多规合一;空间规划;海南省;省域;市县;生态环境保护

Abstract
Since the establishment of a unified spatial planning system was introduced at the Central Urban Work Conference, a number of cities across China have introduced “multiple-plan integration” urban planning practices. In June 2015, the 13th Meeting of the Central Leading Group for Deepening Overall Reform approved a proposal in Hainan Province to carry out a province-wide “multiple-plan integration” reform pilot. The Hainan example represents the first province-wide spatial planning. China Academy of Urban Planning and Design led the planning work of Hainan Province and its twelve cities and counties. This interview focuses on the academy’s method and process during the project.

Key words
Multiple-Plan Integration; Spatial Planning; Hainan Province; Provincial Region; Cities and Counties; Ecological Environment Protection

中国生态基础设施建设与思考
Practice and Reflections on the Ecological Infrastructure Construction in China
作者:约翰•兰斯 John LENTH

摘要
随着中国新型城镇化进程的推进,生态基础设施建设受到的关注日益增加,包括海绵城市建设在内的大批生态基础设施项目也不断涌现。荷瑞然环境咨询有限公司作为一家拥有丰富经验的环境科学与工程顾问公司,在近10年间深度参与了中国的生态基础设施建设,在见证了中国在城市与景观设计领域理念上的转变与技术上的改进的同时,也洞悉了设计和实践过程中暴露出来的问题,并形成了对中国未来的生态基础设施建设的建议。

关键词
生态基础设施;低影响开发;新型城镇化;海绵城市建设;雨洪管理

Abstract
With the transition towards a new urbanization, China’s ecological infrastructure construction has gained more and more attention, resulting in a large number of ecological infrastructures including Sponge City projects. As an experienced environmental science and engineering firm, Herrera has been closely working on China’s ecological infrastructure projects over the past decade. In this interview, Herrera recognizes the theoretical changes and technical improvement, notes the shortages and difficulties in practice, and shares their perspectives on China’s future ecological infrastructure construction.

Key words
Ecological Infrastructure; Low Impact Development; New Urbanization; Sponge City Construction; Stormwater Management

丹麦哥本哈根暴雨防控详细规划
COPENHAGEN CLOUDBURST CONCRETIZATION PLAN, DANMARK
作者:索尔•维尔斯赫伊,安娜•亚丝拉琪•隆德,尼尔•休•麦克莱恩•戈林,吕焕来 Søren HVILSHØJ, Anna Aslaug LUND, Neil Hugh McLean GORING, Cathy LV

摘要
在海绵城市设计中,对城市宜居性的提升应与对气候的适应并重。作为此方面的典范,丹麦首都哥本哈根市的暴雨防控规划提出了一套雄心勃勃的计划,旨在帮助城市免受未来的暴雨之害。总体规划确立后,哥本哈根市政府开始着手为城市的各个分区制定具体的海绵城市景观设计方案。此次景观设计将不仅能够应对日益频繁的极端暴雨天气,还可以大幅度提升城市的宜居性,造福今时与后世的居民。此外,整套规划的总体耗资也低于传统的暴雨防控工程设计。

关键词
海绵城市;暴雨防控规划;宜居性;雨水滞留;公园;街道

Abstract
Improved livability and climate adaption should go hand in hand when designing sponge cities. The cloudburst masterplan for Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark, is an example of an ambitious effort to protect the city against future heavy rain events. Following the masterplan, the city began to implement the sponge city landscape design for each Copenhagen district. The landscape design was intended to not only deal with more frequent extreme weather events, but also significantly improve urban livability for both present and future residents. This effort was achieved for less of an investment than traditional cloudburst engineering design.

Key words
Sponge City; Cloudburst Plan; Liveability; Retention; Park; Street

从闲置土地到生态基础设施——休斯顿市曼彻斯特街区弹性设计方案
From Idle Grounds to Ecological Infrastructures — The Resilient Design of Manchester Neighborhood in Houston
作者:盖伦•纽曼,金埈铉,菲尔•伯克,杰里米•梅里尔,王洋镝,李秋硕 Galen NEWMAN, Jun-Hyun KIM, Phil BERKE, Jeremy MERRELL, Yangdi WANG, Qiushuo LI

摘要
该项目位于美国德克萨斯州休斯顿市曼彻斯特街区,项目采用了参与式过程及时通报各类设计决策。在生态基础设施建设过程中,闲置及未得到充分利用的土地是设计关注的重点。该设计方案将场地绿地面积提高了7倍,大大加强了街区减缓洪水的能力。

关键词

休斯顿;洪水;生态基础设施;绿地;参与式设计

Abstract
This project uses a participatory process to inform design decision making in the Manchester neighborhood of Houston, Texas, USA. Vacant and underutilized parcels are stressed as key facets for ecological infrastructure placement. The proposed design increases green spaces seven times its current amount, strengthening the neighborhood’s capability to attenuate flooding.

Key words
Houston; Flood; Ecological Infrastructure; Green Space; Participatory Design

菲律宾阿纳纳斯新社区总体规划——以整体性食物系统方式改善人居环境与社会可持续性
Master Plan for Ananas New Community in the Philippines — A Holistic Food Systems Approach to Habitat Enhancement and Social Sustainability
作者:Sasaki设计事务所 Sasaki

摘要
像世界上许多正在发展的大都市地区一样,马尼拉的经济增长是以牺牲农业用地和水资源质量为代价的,这导致该地区现有社区赖以生存的资源受到了威胁。阿纳纳斯社区代表了一种非传统的城市开发方式,其旨在保护这些极为关键的资源,并彰显菲律宾的农业、社会和生态传统,为歌颂社区团结与合作的“百雅尼汉”精神予以了全新诠释。

关键词
农业街区;生态设计;总体规划;菲律宾;社会和经济效益

Abstract
Like many growing metropolitan areas worldwide, Manila’s growth comes at the expense of agricultural land and water quality, compromising the lifeline resources of the region’s existing communities. Ananas represents an alternative approach to urban development that aspires to secure these vital resources while celebrating the agricultural, social, and ecological heritage of the Philippines and its “bayanihan” spirit of communal unity and cooperation in a contemporary and innovative manner.

Key words
Agricultural Neighborhoods; Ecological Design; Master Plan; The Philippines; Social and Economic Benefits

以山水为画布:衢州鹿鸣公园
Terrain and Water as Canvas: Luming Park in Quzhou
作者:俞孔坚 Kongjian YU

摘要
鹿鸣公园项目场地地形复杂,丘陵地貌、河滩沙洲、平原灌丛兼具,乡土景观遗产零星分布于其间。在这样的境况下,设计师摒弃了铲平式的工程处理方式,转而将具有生产性的农业景观与低维护的乡土植物融于景观设计之中,创造出了一个景观层次丰富、风光旖旎的城市公园。项目中运用“雨洪管理”、“都市农业与生产性景观”、“最小干预”等理念,在利用山水格局和自然植被的基础上,通过栈道等游憩网络来“框定”山水和植被,最终实现对景观的改造。

关键词
滨水公园;生态;步道;生产性景观;文化遗产

Abstract
The site of the Luming Park was a remnant patchwork landscape made up of rolling hills, a riparian flood plain along the river basin and vegetated areas of bushes and grasses, etc. Scattered in this landscape were some local landscape heritages. Instead of leveling the site, which is conventionally used in dealing with such situation, the landscape architects created a dynamic urban park by incorporating the agricultural strategy of crop rotation and a low maintenance meadow. Ideas such as “stormwater management,” “agricultural urbanism and productive landscape,” and “minimum intervention” were integrated into the landscape design strategy to “frame the terrain and water,” by quilting boardwalks and trail networks for recreation onto the site.

Key words
Waterfront Park; Ecology; Pedestrian Paths; Productive Landscape; Cultural Heritage


宁波甬江平台公园
Yong River Platform Park in Ningbo
作者:艾奕康环境规划设计(上海)有限公司 AECOM

摘要
密集的高层住宅区普遍缺乏开放空间,这已成为了一种典型的中国城镇化现象。这样的居住环境会导致人们形成一种疏于运动的生活方式,与自然的接触也非常有限。这个占地面积83hm2的平台公园坐落于宁波市中心以东5km处,致力于解决上述由城镇化所带来的矛盾,并创建一个城市开发核心区域,同时为周边的新建社区、技术企业、高等院校,以及文化机构(包括一座历史悠久的寺庙)提供重要的开放空间。尤其值得一提的是,项目一期工程为多代家庭提供了其大量所需的开放空间,造福了搬迁至此的周边社区。这个面积为2.5hm2的一期工程增进了人与水滨的关系,通过提供一系列功能设施和景观类型,为人们营造了日常锻炼和接触自然的机会。甬江平台公园不仅具备应对台风的弹性和适应气候变化的能力,还为居民健康、社交互动以及生态修复创造了契机。

关键词
平台公园;生态基础设施;甬江;弹性;气候变化;生态

Abstract
Typical of urbanization in China, dense, high-rise relocation residences have poor open space provision, leading to sedentary lifestyles and limited contact with nature. Located 5 km east of the city center of Ningbo, the 83-hectare Platform Park strives to solve the conflict and creates a centerpiece of the urban development, providing a significant open space for adjacent new communities, technology sector, universities, and cultural facilities including a historic temple. Particularly, the first phase provides a much-needed open space for multi-generational families, directly benefiting an adjacent relocation community. The 2.5-hectare area has transformed the way people connect to the waterfront, encouraging daily exercise and contact with nature through a diverse range of uses and landscape types. The park integrates typhoon resilience, climate change adaptation and creates a platform for health, fitness, social interaction and ecological restoration.

Key words
Platform Park; Ecological Infrastructure; Yong River; Resilience; Climate Change; Ecological Restoration

关于暴洪与沙漠的思考
Flash Floods and Desert Claims
作者:伊尔玛•赫尔克斯肯斯 Ilmar HURKXKENS

摘要
美国亚利桑那州的索诺兰沙漠集潮湿与干燥、酷热与严寒、永恒与短暂为一身。瑞士苏黎世联邦理工大学克里斯托弗•吉鲁特教授的景观设计课程,正是选择在这样极端的环境条件下研究新的聚落类型。从初期的沙盘模型草图到后期的计算机模拟、数控模型和水动力模拟,该设计课程以动手实践的方式来了解该场地暴洪和侵蚀的自然过程。该课程要求学生在构造聚落时囊括对自然过程和杰斐逊网格的双重考量,以期将基础设施、建筑与生态融合在一套设计方案之中。对于学生来说,针对形式及功能的聚落设计方案都源于这种对自然—人工双重规则的叠加;这片壮美的自然之地几乎找寻不到任何人为的痕迹,使索诺兰沙漠成为完美的试验场地。伴随着设计课程的推进,我们逐渐明晰:在这一洪水多发地区,生成聚落方案的唯一方法就是将山谷之大尺度与人的足迹之小尺度同时考量。该课程的最终方案呈现出了一种对构造学及类型学都具有清晰认知的新型沙漠环境聚落设计策略。

关键词
景观设计学;基础设施;沙漠;聚落;类型学

Abstract
The landscape design studio of Professor Christophe Girot at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland investigated new settlement typologies within the extreme environmental condition of the Sonoran Desert in Arizona: wet and dry, hot and cold, permanent and ephemeral. From early sketches in sand models to computer simulations, CNC models and water dynamics, the studio took a hands-on approach in understanding the natural processes of flash floods and erosion on the site. The integration of infrastructure, architecture and ecology into a single design solution challenged the students to structure the settlements with respect to both natural processes and the Jeffersonian grid. For the students, both the formal and the performative settlement solutions arose from this superimposition where the sublime nature of the site, being exempt of almost any human artifact, proved to be the perfect testing ground. During the course of the studio, it became clear that the only way to solve a settlement principle in this flood prone area was to develop design solutions on the large scale of the valley and at the scale of a single step simultaneously. The final projects showed a clear understanding of the tectonic and topological expression for a new type of occupation in the desert.

Key words
Landscape Architecture; Infrastructure; Desert; Settlement; Typology

探寻卓有成效的基础设施——生态机场景观
The Search for Fertile Infrastructure — Ecological Airport Landscapes
作者:劳拉•西普里亚尼 Laura CIPRIANI

摘要
航空运输如何改变了景观?景观和机场基础设施是否能够根据生态标准进行整合?机场如何能够融入当地环境?我们能够运用什么样的设计工具?城市环境又会因此发生怎样的变化?我们如何协调机场当前所需的技术要求与不可预知的场地未来的新需求?在未来,废弃的机场基础设施如何能够得到“回收利用”?
带着这些问题,本文讲述了针对机场景观的4个研究议题——“机场都市主义”、“生态机场都市主义”、“特雷维索机场都市主义”和“卓有成效的基础设施”——背后的故事,试图在景观与城市层面探索设计生态机场系统的实验方法。

关键词
生态基础设施;机场景观;机场都市主义

Abstract
How is the landscape modified by air transportation? Can the landscape and airport infrastructure be integrated following ecological criteria? How can an airport be integrated into the local context? What design devices can be used? What are the influences on the urban context? How can we accommodate the current technological needs of airports with new unexpected uses in the future? In the future, how might disused airport infrastructure possibly be “recycled”?
This article tells the story behind four main research projects on airport landscapes — “Airport Urbanism,” “Ecological Airport Urbanism,” “Treviso Airport Urbanism” and “Fertile Infrastructure” — in an attempt to explore an experimental methodology to design an ecological airport system at landscape and urban scale.

Key words
Ecological Infrastructure; Airport Landscape; Airport Urbanism