《景观设计学》2016年第6期

作    者:法雅•加瓦赫里安(Faryar JAVAHERIAN),安妮•惠斯顿•斯本(Anne Whiston SPIRN)等
类    别:景观
出 版 社:高等教育出版社有限公司
出版时间:2016年12月

导言 目录 作品信息 书评

俞孔坚•阅读西溪南 
——《景观设计学》2016年第6期“主编寄语”
Reading the Book of Xixi’nan
By Kongjian Yu



景观是一本书,每个村子都有属于自己的那一本——有的厚重,有的轻薄;有的深邃,有的浅陋;有的华丽而喜气,有的含蓄而凄楚。徽州的西溪南则是一本美丽动人又充满意味的书!

除去我的故乡浙江金华的东俞村,坐落在丰乐河南岸的西溪南村便是我最爱不释手的一本景观之书了。它章节分明,有人与自然和谐共生的智慧,有充满恩怨情仇的故事,有历史的宏大叙事,也有当下的邻里政治,令人百读不厌。

这本书的第一章——也是浓墨重彩的开篇——便是村北的枫杨林,这是我在祖国见过的最美的河滩林地了!枫杨是江南地区最适应河水季节性涨落生境的乔木树种,这样的枫杨林曾广泛分布于大小江河之畔。但在过去几十年,由于无度的水利工程建设(包括河道的硬化和渠化),它们大面积地消失,美丽的丰乐河上也仅存这一处林子了。春汛来临,河水淹没滩地,林在水上,俨然复原了古西溪南村八景之一的“山源春涨”;汛期过后,我每每徜徉其中,深深呼吸着带着蘑菇香气的空气,视线透过树干编织的幽帘,眺望依稀的古桥、村舍、远山和波光,这样的徽州恍如梦境,只是梦与现实在这里可以如此相近!

书的第二章是村庄边缘的菜园。致密的菜畦中,生长着种类繁多的果蔬,有萝卜、青菜、茄子、辣椒、大蒜、洋葱、生姜、大豆、花生,还有被齐齐架起的蔓生的豇豆和黄瓜,它们成条成块地拼接在一起,高低错落却井然有序,如鳞次栉比的村庄瓦顶;在这里,采摘的妇女可以隔着豇豆架对话,也常常互换各自的成果,菜园成为了住宅邻里关系的延伸。这里不仅产出了果蔬,还培育着友谊、促进着交流。穿梭其中,就如品读词语朴实、断句纤巧、娓娓道来却妙曼无限的寻常故事。

书的高潮便是村子本身。每座房子都是一个单词,房子围合成的院落构成了一个个词组,街道串起了院落而成为句子。众多的句子南北穿插,曲折幽深,描绘着神秘的历史故事与当下的寻常生活。我常常陶醉于在村子里迷路的感觉,这种迷路是悠闲的、探幽的,也是快乐的,就像爱丽丝梦游仙境,绝没有慌张与焦虑。每一块刻字的青砖、每一方磨损的石板路面、每一个屋角的“石敢当”、每一阶临水的石埠、每一尊残破的柱础或石臼……都是下一个故事或情节的暗示。一个曾经富甲一方、响誉江南、名士云集、诗画璀璨的千年名村,悄悄述说着它辉煌的过去和凄楚的经历。

串起上述三个篇章的物质和精神的纽带,便是那水系。作为古徽州地区的后代,宋代诗人朱熹的《观书有感》最准确地表达出了西溪南的水的精神与形态:

半亩方塘一鉴开,
天光云影共徘徊。
问渠那得清如许?
为有源头活水来。

村头的林子和梦境、村边菜园的寻常故事、村子里院落与街道的神秘和凄楚,皆因这充满智慧的水系而灵动了起来。那汩汩活水源自黄山主峰,是新安江上游唯一以黄山为源的溪流。清澈与灵秀自不必说,而锤炼千余年的理水艺术,更使西溪南的水系显得精妙绝伦:通过古堨和鱼嘴分水,将水引入村中;而后由一个石关控制流量,旱涝无忧;水口是一组由桥、庙、石埠和大树构成的景观,像是一个重重的感叹号;随后,水流过家家户户,或被引入庭院和天井,或进入方塘,遂成古村八景之一的“清溪涵月”;最后,被引入下游的良田美池,用于灌溉。

景观是一本书,每个村子都有属于自己的那一本。中国有数以百万计的村庄和无限的田园美景,有的甚至已经存在了数百年乃至上千年之久,它们经由数以亿计的人民世代“编写”,或用泪水,或用血汗!品读它们,就是品读中国,就是品读我们的祖先;呵护它们,就是呵护我们自己。如今,它们有的破败了,有的满是喷绘涂鸦,有的甚至已被夷为平地。就像不孝的子孙将族谱毁掉,我哀叹我们这一代不孝的子孙们正将这样魅力无限而意味深远的景观之书毁掉!



The landscape is a book. Every village holds its own book of the landscape — some are thick and heavy, others thin and light; some villages are profound, others crude; often they are magnificent and jubilant, and at times implicit and miserable. Among the books of villages, the Xixi’nan Village in Huizhou, Anhui Province is a beautiful book, deep with meaning.

Other than my hometown of Dongyu Village in Jinhua, Zhejiang Province, Xixi’nan is my most favorite landscape book. Located on the south bank of Fengle River, the village maintains a harmonious co-existence between humans and nature. A long history and various stories combined with current neighborhood trifles and politics make for a book worth reading and re-reading.

The first chapter of the book begins with a Chinese wingnut (Pterocarya stenoptera) forest to the north of the village, the most beautiful river floodplain forest I have ever seen in China. Chinese wingnut is the most suitable tree species for rivers with seasonal fluctuations in southern China. Similar forests used to be found widely in river areas of different sizes. However, over the past several decades most of these forests have disappeared as a consequence of the hardening and channeling of waterways. This is the only forested areas that have survived on the Fengle River. When the spring flood comes, the forest stands in flooded river, vividly reproducing one of the Eight Ancient Xixi’nan Scenes, the “Spring Flood Deep in Mountains.” I have often wandered in the forest after the flood season, deeply breathing in the mushroom smell in the air, gazing towards the old bridges, cottages, and distant mountains, feeling like I am in the dream of Huizhou, a dream so close to reality!

The second chapter is the vegetable gardens planted on the edge of the village. A variety of vegetables are grown in the dense garden plots, including radish, greens, eggplant, pepper, garlic, onion, ginger, soybeans, and peanuts. Clumps of cowpeas and cucumbers are tidily set up on holders. These plots range in size and are scattered by height, yet they remain orderly and well-regulated, mimicking the rows of tiled roofs. The women picking peas chat with each other across the trellises, or exchange their gains. The vegetable garden is an extension of the neighborhoods. It is a space not only for fruits and vegetables, but also friendship. When moving within the garden, you feel like reading an ordinary yet wonderful story told with artless words and delicate sentences.

The climax of the book is the village itself. Every house acts as a word, the blocks phrases, stringed together by streets to become sentences. These numerous sentences are interspersed north and south, they twist and turn, deeply and quietly, depicting the timeless stories of this place. I often stroll through the village, obsessed by the feeling of being lost in time and place. It is a leisurely, probing and pleasant kind of lost, just like Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland, with no panic or anxiety. Every brick wall, every piece of the worn paving, every door with god stone tablets to ward off evil spirits in the corner, every step of the stone dock, every broken plinth or stone mortar is hints at the next storyline. The once wealthy village, whose fame is widespread in the area south of Yangtze River area, flourished with poetry and painting, quietly telling the story of its glorious but tragic past.

The material and spiritual bond that links these three chapters together is the water system. Xi Zhu, a famous poet of the Song Dynasty, whose ancestors lived in the ancient Huizhou area, most accurately manifested the spirit and form of water in Xixi’nan in his poetry Reflections on Reading:

A square pond opens up like a mirror, clear and bright; 
Shadows of the skylight and clouds reflected together into it, shining and shaking.
“Why is the water body so clear?” you may ask — 
For the continuous flow upstream from its source.

The woods to the north of the village, the gardens on the edge, the homes and streets within the village come to life thanks to the intelligence of water. The flowing water comes from the main peak of the Mount Huangshan, the only stream in the upstream area of Xin’an River originating from the mount. Its clarity and beauty is made all the more exquisite through Xixi’nan’s water system developed over a thousand years. The system channels the river water into the village, and then separates it through a system of ancient weirs and fish-mouth dikes. The water is then sent through a stone barrier to ensure water supply during both drought and flood. The water inlet area consists of a bridge, a temple, a stone dock, and a large tree, looking like a weighty exclamation mark. From here, water flows to every house, it is channelized into courtyards, patios or ponds, or forming into another of the Eight Ancient Xixi’nan Scenes, “The Moon in Clear Water.” Finally, the water flows into downstream farmland and ponds for irrigation use.

The landscape is a book, and every village has its own. There are millions of beautiful villages and rural landscapes in China, some hundreds years old. Their books have been written by hundreds of millions of people, one generation after another, written with tears, sweat, and blood. To read them is to read China, to read our history and our ancestors. To protect them is to protect ourselves. Today, some of these books are dilapidated, full of graffiti, or razed to the ground. I am saddened by our generation’s devastation of these glamorous and meaningful landscape books!

Translated by   Sara JACOBS   Angus ZHANG

主编寄语
阅读西溪南(俞孔坚)

论文
伊朗野餐文化及其对公共空间设计与社会文化的影响(法雅•加瓦赫里安)

观点与评论
景观的语言(安妮•惠斯顿•斯本)
景观设计的意象与表现——对话劳瑞•欧林(蔡哲铭)
肢体感知教育方法——对话卡特琳•格鲁(安建国,卡特琳•格鲁)
“空间”与“缺席”——一场关于“美术史研究与景观及建筑”的演讲和讨论(巫鸿)

主题实践
巴黎马丁•路德•金公园(杰奎琳•奥斯蒂合伙人工作室)
等待下一个十分钟——北京五道口优盛大厦广场改造(张唐景观)
林中空地——挪威于特岛纪念景观(3RW建筑事务所)
共同的洞穴——巴米扬文化中心国际竞赛参赛方案(临界工作室)
我们的公园——对事件性景观永久建设的反思与批判(奚碧莹)

探索与过程
文化多样性与传统制盐工艺下的盐景观(迈克尔•兰达,埃拉泽那•奥钱蒂诺,卢克•达格尔比)
景观之语(贝尼亚米诺•塞尔维诺)

简讯


【中文刊名】《景观设计学》——景观传达
【英文刊名】Landscape Architecture Frontiers • Landscape Messages
【作者】法雅•加瓦赫里安(Faryar JAVAHERIAN),安妮•惠斯顿•斯本(Anne Whiston SPIRN)等
【出版社】高等教育出版社有限公司
【页码】174页彩色印刷
【刊号】ISSN 2095-5405
【出版日期】2016年12月
【定价】58.00元

伊朗野餐文化及其对公共空间设计与社会文化的影响
Iranian Picnic Culture and Its Influence on Public Space Design and Social Culture
作者:法雅•加瓦赫里安 Faryar JAVAHERIAN

摘要
在户外就餐是伊朗文化中一个有着悠久历史的传统,可追溯到三千年前琐罗亚斯德教的踏青日习俗。上至皇室的丰盛御膳,下至普通百姓的简易野外小餐,都涵盖其中。而波斯花园作为野餐的重要场所,对于伊朗人民而言具有重要的象征意义,体现了其对大自然的深切喜爱与享受。
如今,野餐这种简单却能给人无限愉悦的形式仍在延续并深深影响着当代的城市生活。在野餐“桌布”的周围,阶级界限变得模糊,政治限制得以放松,甚至性别差异也消失了。伊朗野餐的艺术不但形成了其特有的衍生品,更创造了伊朗文化中独特的空间结构。野餐是伊朗人民生活的重要组成部分,但相关研究还很匮乏。

关键词
野餐;波斯花园;伊朗文化;踏青日;桌布

Abstract
Eating in the open air is a ritual engrained in Iranian culture, a tradition that dates back 3,000 years to the Zoroastrian practice of sizdah bedar, from the lavish picnics prepared for kings to ordinary folk’s love of eating in nature. The picnic itself is related to the Persian Garden, which is often the backdrop of these feasts, a place of symbolic importance in the Iranian imagination, embodying their love and enjoyment of the natural world.
This simple and joyous practice still lives on strongly and affects our urban lives in present society. Around the picnic “sofreh,” class lines blur, political restrictions are loosened and gender divides disappear. The art of the Iranian picnic has its own accessories and creates spatial organizations that are unique to Iranian culture. The picnic is a key aspect of Iranian life so far understudied.

Key words
Picnic; Persian Garden; Iranian Culture; Sizdah Bedar; Sofreh


景观的语言
The Language of Landscape
作者:安妮•惠斯顿•斯本 Anne Whiston SPIRN

摘要
阅读、讲述和设计景观的能力,是人类最伟大的才能之一。这种能力使人类得以栖居在广阔的环境中——从温暖的热带稀树草原到凉爽、郁闭的森林,再到寒冷、宽广的苔原。景观作为语言的一种形式,既是生存的工具又是艺术的媒介。景观的语言使我们得以学习先祖的智慧,并向后世传达信息。景观的各种元素组合在一起构成景观的意义。景观的书写者们通过运用修辞与隐喻的手法建立起有效而巧妙的交流。人类一直都懂得景观的语言,但如今对它们的使用却趋于碎片化,其中很多甚至已被遗忘。缺失、虚假或断章取义导致了条理不清的景观表达,使其充斥着莫名其妙、功能失调、支离破碎的对话,以及残缺的故事情节。因此,我们有必要重新学习并更新景观的语言,以此来讲述城市与乡村生活中新的智慧。

关键词
景观;语言;意义;隐喻

Abstract
The power to read, tell, and design landscape is one of the greatest human talents; it enabled humans to spread from warm savannas to cool, shady forests and even to cold, open tundra. Landscape as a form of language is a tool of survival and a medium of art. The language of landscape permits us to learn from distant ancestors and to speak to generations as yet unborn. Landscape elements combine to shape meaning. Landscape authors employ rhetoric and metaphor to communicate effectively and artfully. Humans have always known the language of landscape, but now use it piecemeal, with much forgotten. Absent, false, or partial readings lead to inarticulate expression: landscape gibberish, dysfunctional, fragmented dialogues, and broken storylines. It is time to relearn and renew the language of landscape, to speak new wisdom into life in city and countryside.

Key words
Landscape; Language; Meaning; Metaphor


景观设计的意象与表现——对话劳瑞•欧林
Image and Representation of Landscape Architecture — Conversation with Laurie Olin

作者:蔡哲铭 Zheming CAI

摘要
本次对话从设计师的角度出发审视当代景观设计中涉及的意象与表现问题。劳瑞•欧林结合自身经历阐述了个人体验和摄影对于景观和城市意象的影响,并就设计师的设计方式和表现手法提出了自己的建议。另一位对话者蔡哲铭则就信息时代中景观感知环境下的空间弹性设计和乡土景观提出了相关问题,欧林就此阐述了其“当代乡土风格”这一理念。

关键词
景观感知;城市意象;表现;活动策划
Abstract
The conversation aims to provide an opportunity for designers to review the image and the representation in the contemporary landscape. Laurie Olin explained how personal experience and photography can influence the image of landscape and cities from his personal experience. He also provided feedback on methodology and representation. Zheming Cai, the interviewer, raised a few questions related to the same topic within the context of the digital technology focusing on the flexible design and the vernacular landscape. Olin put forward his view of the contemporary vernacular on these questions.

Key words
Landscape Perception; City Image; Representation; Programming


肢体感知教育方法——对话卡特琳•格鲁
Teaching Methods of Body Perception — An Interview with Catherine Grout
作者:安建国,卡特琳•格鲁 Alexandre AN, Catherine GROUT

摘要
卡特琳•格鲁是当今世界最为杰出的感知学研究学者之一,亦是安建国在法国里尔国家高等建筑与景观设计学院攻读景观规划设计专业时的导师。在此次对谈中,安建国就新的感知教育方法、肢体感知的尺度、设计师和使用者的差异等问题对格鲁进行了提问。格鲁则结合自身教学及实践经验,从教师、学者等角度出发,同时也引用身边舞蹈家、雕塑家等其他与艺术领域相关的工作者们的事例,对问题一一进行了解答。最后,她也为中国的景观设计师提出了具有参考意义的建议。

关键词
肢体感知;教育;尺度;景观

Abstract
Catherine Grout is one of the world’s most recognized scholars in perceptual studies. She was also Alexandre An’s tutor during his study of landscape planning and design at École National Supérieure D’Architecture et de Paysage de Lille in France. In this interview, Alexandre An raises questions concerning teaching methods, scales of body perception, and differences between landscape architects and users. As an educator and scholar, Catherine Grout offers opinions grounded in her experiences with teaching and practice, and quotes dancers’, sculptors’ and other artists’ cases. In addition, she makes some suggestions for Chinese landscape architects.

Key words
Body Perception; Teaching; Scales; Landscape


“空间”与“缺席”——一场关于“美术史研究与景观及建筑” 的演讲和讨论
“Space” and “Absence” — A Lecture and Discussions on Research of Fine Art History and Landscape and Architecture
作者:巫鸿 Hung WU

摘要
常规美术史是关于“在场”的而不是关于“缺席”的历史, 但是随处可见的缺席是本文着重关注的。“缺席”表达了关于“空间”的想象,见于美术、雕塑、建筑、景观、城市等等领域,且尺度各异。本文基于对一场讲座内容的整理,通过一些作品漫谈对“空”的思考:离开、死亡、回忆、生命、灵魂、穿越。脱开了实的描述,用虚的叙事表达来引起共鸣,成为这些作品的共通之处, 这些理解有些全人类通用,有些属于在地文化。演讲现场的嘉宾分别从文学、设计的角度解析了空、文化、废墟、桃花源等内容,互为补充。

关键词
缺席;建筑;景观;美术史

Abstract
This article focuses mainly on ubiquitous “absence” rather than “presence,” which is usually the core of history of fine arts. On imagination of spaces, absence is common in various scales, including painting, sculpture, architecture, landscape and urban design. Based on a lecture, this article discusses absence from concepts of departure, death, memory, life, soul and travel through time. The narratives of absence in different works, without concrete description, resonate with each other, some drawing universal understanding of people and some belonging to local cultures. The lecturer, together with other speakers, makes an in-depth analysis of absence, culture, ruins and the Peach Garden from perspectives of literature and design respectively.

Key words
Absence; Architecture; Landscape; Fine Art History


巴黎马丁•路德•金公园
Martin Luther King Park, Paris
作者:杰奎琳•奥斯蒂合伙人工作室 Atelier Jacqueline Osty & Associés

摘要
克利希-巴蒂尼奥勒地区是巴黎市中心仅剩的几个保留区域之一,项目旨在通过设计使之成为一处面积达43hm2的新区域。起初,这个项目是为巴黎申办2012年奥运会而设计。它包括了一个可以容纳17 000名运动员的奥运村、训练场所,及为这些基础设施的转换利用而创造的条件。目前,该项目的重点是将这个地区嵌入到现有的城市肌理中,这个新区域将包含3 500个住宅单元,写字楼、商业设施和围绕一个公园建立的公共服务设施。这个面积达10hm2的公园将成为城市可持续发展的试点工程。

关键词
身体;季节;水管理;可持续发展

Abstract
As one of the last reserved areas available in the center of Paris, the Clichy Batignolles area has been designed to be a new 43-hectare quarter. The project, at the beginning, was elaborated for the purpose of the Paris candidature for the 2012 Olympic Games. It integrated an Olympic village for 17,000 athletes, training spaces and re-conversion conditions for these infrastructures. The project focuses on the insertion into the existing urban fabric of a new quarter made of 3,500 housing units, offices, commercial facilities and public services set out around a park. This 10-hectare park is a pilot realized in terms of sustainable development.

Key words
Body; Season; Water Management; Sustainable Development


等待下一个十分钟——北京五道口优盛大厦广场改造
Waiting for the Next Ten Minutes — Redevelopment of the U-Center Plaza, Wudaokou, Beijing

作者:张唐景观 Z+T STUDIO

摘要
本文介绍了优盛大厦广场景观改造的项目背景及解决策略。基于这一小型城市开放空间景观改造项目,论述了张唐景观在设计中对于主题植入、空间弹性及场地参与的理解,并以项目为基础展开探讨了景观设计中的直觉与理性、景观语汇及可持续性等话题。

关键词
商业景观;空间弹性;参与性;可持续性景观

Abstract
Background and strategies of this redevelopment project located in the U-Center plaza had been introduced in this paper. Based on such a redevelopment project of small urban open space, it illustrated the understanding of design concept, space flexibility, and participation within landscape design from the view of Z+T STUDIO. In addition, it discussed the content of intuition and rationality, landscape vocabulary, as well as sustainability.

Key words
Commercial Landscape; Space Flexibility; Participation; Sustainable Landscape


林中空地——挪威于特岛纪念景观
The Clearing — Memorial at Utøya, Norway

作者:3RW建筑事务所 3RW Arkitekter AS

摘要
位于挪威于特岛的“林中空地”纪念景观为我们揭示了大自然的疗愈功能。自然的本质在于它可以经历演变,慢慢地清除曾在这里发生的悲惨事件的痕迹。而随着四季更迭、潮涨潮落,新的生命不断延续。通过维护和强化景观培植过程中的自然循环,自然本身便可以帮助我们更好地理解生命和死亡。“林中空地”项目由逝者父母和政府人员共同评选并携手建造完成。借此,人们可以了解挪威社会处理这类悲惨事件的方式。

关键词
林中空地;纪念景观;于特岛;枪击事件;治愈性景观

Abstract
The Clearing at Utøya Island in Norway tells the story about nature as a healing landscape. The essence of nature is that it can, through transformation, slowly erase all traces of the tragic events that happened here. With the changing of the seasons, as the waves wash away the shore, new growth can begin. To support and strengthen the natural cycle in landscape cultivating, nature in itself can help us to get a better understanding of life and death. The Clearing is a project that has been selected by the parents and politicians themselves and has also been built together with them. In that sense, one can read here the way Norwegian society has decided to deal with such a tragic event.

Key words
The Clearing; Memorial Landscape; Utøya; Gun Crime; Healing Landscape

共同的洞穴——巴米扬文化中心国际竞赛参赛方案
Con-Cave — Proposal for the International Competition of the Bamiyan Cultural Centre
作者:临界工作室 reMIX Studio

摘要
“共同的洞穴”坐落于远望巴米扬大佛废墟的高地上, 由诸多嵌入陡坡的地下和半地下的洞穴和隧道共同组成,它将当地社区的新生活渗入到了原有地貌中。一系列新与旧、明与暗、粗糙与细腻的强烈对比,充斥着这个新的文化中心场所。我们强调原有地形浑厚、坚实的特质,而对与当地氛围相契合材料混凝土的使用则强化了这种对原有地形的特殊的纪念意义。在特定的角度和位置,室内外的视野和光线被连通,形成一系列步移景异的序列。自然光在一些地方渗透进来,可使来访者沉浸于对阿富汗当地景观的历史与文化的凝视中。

关键词
洞穴;隧道;文化中心;可持续性

Abstract
Con-cave is a spatial intervention that shapes the steep terrain of the site playing with the infiltration of the light: gathering, concentrating and dissipating it through the earthy sinuosity of interconnected underground and semi-underground caves and tunnels. The varying chiaroscuro embraces the spaces, highlighting the materiality of the terrain, the solidity, and the different levels of humidity of the concrete walls. The building opens towards the outside with rooms and terraces only in specific locations, offering an intentional selection of belvedere and sublime points of view. The light, blooming locally, becomes a sublime wave investing the visitor and inundating the gaze with the history and the culture of the Afghan landscape.

Key words
Cave; Tunnel; Cultural Centre; Sustainability


我们的公园——对事件性景观永久建设的反思与批判
Our Park — Reflections and Criticisms on Permanent Construction of the Event Landscape
作者:奚碧莹 Biying XI

摘要
随着中国国力的增强,各种规模的城市事件不断发生, 相应的配套设施也随之不断建立。大量服务于短期城市事件的景观设施通常被永久建设,但在事件结束后却并没有很好地与城市环境相结合,使这类型景观往往绩效差,并造成了土地浪费。
本设计以北京园博园为例,对此类事件性景观提出反思与批判。并从项目全生命周期运营的角度进行考量,设计了一系列改建方案。期望使用一种低成本、低维护、多方参与的模式,带动更多市民参与到“后事件性景观”的建设中。通过本次设计与研究总结出的事件性景观的新型运营模式将适用于同类型景观建设项目。
关键词
事件性景观;全生命周期;更新;运营模式

Abstract
As China continues to grow, all types of urban events and supporting facilities continue to occur. The landscape for short-term urban events are usually built as permanent interventions, and are often not well integrated with the rest of the urban environment after completion of the event. This type of landscape construction usually results in low performance and land waste.
Using the Beijing Garden Expo Park as an example, this paper reflects and criticizes the permanent construction and considers the full life-cycle reuse of the event landscape. We draw on a low-cost, low-maintenance, and multi-participatory model to encourage citizens’ participation in construction of the post-event landscape. Our design and research proposes a new operating model for other post-event landscapes.

Key words
Event Landscape; Full Life-Cycle; Renewal; Operation Mode


文化多样性与传统制盐工艺下的盐景观
Salt Landscapes Created by Cultural Diversity and Traditional Production Methods
作者:迈克尔•兰达,埃拉则那•奥钱蒂诺,卢克•达格尔比 Mikel LANDA, Alazne OCHANDIANO, Luke DUGGLEBY

摘要
盐——这一珍贵的物品,一直以来在国际贸易和战争中都有着深远的历史影响。而到了近代,地质学的发展已使其沉析过程愈发简化。工业革命和技术进步,使盐成为一种廉价且易得的产品,进而对传统制盐业造成了巨大威胁。
事实上,人们数百年来一直不断探寻新的制盐方法, 找寻一种既原料易得,亦可适应气候和地形等因素的创新方法。文化多样性、纬度以及卤水浓度等因素影响着人们改造自然景观的方式,继而决定盐场的大小和形态。不论是在沿海还是内陆、平滩或是台地,不论是运用自然或是人工的蒸发工艺,制盐景观都是人类所创造的最为特别的景观之一。
如今,那些幸存下来的传统制盐场地已成为丰富且珍贵的活态遗产。本文的两位作者迈克尔•兰达和卢克•达格尔比历时5年走访世界各地,只为记录下关于盐的传统与制造过程,尝试利用影像传递这类景观及其文化的视觉力量,并期许其能够拥有一个可持续的未来。

关键词
盐;景观;传统;生产;文化多样性

Abstract
Until recent times, when geology eased the way to salt deposits, salt has been a valuable good with a relevant influence in history, including international commerce and even wars. Industrial revolution and technological advances turned salt into a cheap and widely available product, which consequently led to a deep crisis in traditional salt making.
Nevertheless, for many centuries, man has struggled to find new ways to produce salt, developing imaginative methods that had to adapt to the manner in which the raw material was available, as well as to climate and topography. Factors such as cultural diversity, latitude and concentration of brine contributed to the way the natural landscape was anthropized, having an effect on the size and shape of the sites. Coastal or inland, flat pans or terraced, produced by natural or artificial evaporation, salt-works are among the most extraordinary landscapes created by man.
Today many of the traditional production sites still survive, representing a rich and valuable living heritage. For five years, Mikel Landa and Luke Duggleby have travelled around the world, documenting traditions and processes, and using photography to transmit the visual power of those landscapes and cultures, keeping to the idea that a sustainable future for them is possible.

Key words
Salt; Landscape; Tradition; Production; Cultural Diversity


景观之语
Landscape Message
作者:贝尼亚米诺•塞尔维诺 Beniamino SERVINO

摘要
景观非环境。环境是包纳生命活动的三维空间;景观是呈现环境的二维平面。环境吟唱着完整、健康、生物多样性,或是这些特质的对立面;景观有如记录下这层层信息的羊皮书。环境具有历时性;景观具有共时性。景观并非已有模式的不断再生。景观既呈现凝聚完整,又从其所依存的表面抽离。景观将其上万物维持在一种辩证的平衡之中,而非强硬地将其以高低等级依序排列。

关键词
景观;诗歌;废墟;纪念碑;记忆
Abstract
The Landscape is not the Environment. The Environment is three-dimensional space where life happens, the Landscape is the two-dimensional plane that represents it. Environment lists wholesomeness, health, biodiversity, and their opposite. Landscape documents a palimpsest. The Environment is diachronic. The Landscape is synchronic. The Landscape is not built by reproducing models. The Landscape keeps together, simultaneously, detaching the surfaces that compose it. The Landscape not hierarchically structured parties that make it up, it holds them dialectically in balance.

Key words
Landscape; Poetry; Ruins; Monument; Memory