《景观设计学》2017年第6期

作    者:慕晓东(Xiaodong MU),王志芳(Zhifang WANG,),朱莉亚·泽尼亚克(Julia CZERNIAK)等
类    别:景观
出 版 社:高等教育出版社有限公司
出版时间:2017年12月

导言 目录 作品信息 书评

俞孔坚•论景观评论
——《景观设计学》2017年第6期“主编寄语”
On Landscape Criticism
By Kongjian Yu


景观评论,确切而言是指对景观作品的批判和品评。评论之于景观正如家庭教育之于子女:健康的景观评论犹如常怀关爱之心的父母,总是为子女日后的成才而苦口婆心,即使偶有责备,却也无碍;不健康的评论犹如对子女不负责任的捧杀或恶意的惩罚,其并非出于对子女未来成长和成才的考虑;缺乏评论的景观则如同孤儿流落街头,往往容易走向畸形的发展。

景观评论亦是一项艰巨的工作,其难度堪比培育孩子的成长,远甚于创造景观本身。早在1979年,美国人文地理学家唐纳德·W·迈尼希就曾提出“一景十解”的经典观点,即景观可以理解为自然、栖息地、艺术品、物质系统、尚待解决的问题、财富、意识形态的表达、历史、场所,以及优美的风景[1]。如迈尼希所言,“景观不仅仅是我们眼前所见,更是心中所想。”[1]人们对景观的感知和评价并非是客观的,它是观者人生观、价值观和审美观的反映,且融合了观者彼时或喜悦、或悲伤的心境。由迈尼希的观点可见,景观评论是复杂的,应从上述10个甚至更多的角度展开,概括而言即自然生态、社会经济、历史文化和审美等方面。

在中国的景观学界,学术意义上的景观评论几乎不存在。其原因是多方面的,作为一个现代学科,景观设计学资历尚浅,景观设计行业尚处在幼年阶段。因此,如同年轻一代的景观设计师一样,潜在的景观评论家也尚在成长。我们呼唤富有责任感的景观评论家尽快出现和成长,呼唤景观评论作为一门学科尽快出现。正如儿童的成长离不开父母的呵护与引导,发展中的景观设计行业和景观作品也亟待健康的评论环境。新时代中国的景观既不需要阿谀奉承的捧杀,也应远离不着边际的谩骂和批判,其真正需要的是学术而全面的、以推动学科进步和促进学科发展为伦理底线的批评。我们呼唤健康的景观评论,犹如呼唤良好的教育体系!我们呼唤优秀的景观评论学者,犹如呼唤肩负推动社会发展使命的灵魂工程师!

Landscape criticism means to consider the meaning and place of landscape as a form of cultural production, which is an education for landscape professionals just as the education from parents to children. Helpful landscape criticism is like parents’ advice with the best of intentions, even though it is sometimes difficult to hear. Criticism that lacks a cultural critique, on the other hand, might become irresponsible attack or harmful flattery. Landscape architecture lacking criticism is easily misled.

Landscape criticism is in many ways more challenging than creating a landscape itself. In 1979, Donald W. Meinig, an American historical geographer, stated that “any landscape is composed not only of what lies before our eyes but what lies within our heads.”[1] As suggested by Meinig, there are “ten versions of the same scene” — ten ways to read the same scene — Nature, Habitat, Artifact, System, Problem, Wealth, Ideology, History, Place, and Aesthetic[1]. Meinig implied that perceptions and comments on the landscape can hardly ever be objective because they are a reflection of the viewers’ outlook on life, values, and aesthetic standards, incorporating their moods at that time. Thus, landscape criticism, derived from Meinig’s concept, can unfold in ten or more ways, including the natural and ecological, social and economic, historical and cultural, and aesthetic aspects.

In Chinese academic landscape architecture, meaningful criticism hardly exists. One reason is the short history of modern landscape architecture and the emerging professionalization of landscape architecture. We need more landscape critics and scholars to continue to establish landscape criticism as a discipline, since academic and inclusive criticism can help grow and develop China’s landscape profession in ways that continue to challenge the field’s role and responsibility without excessive flattery or diatribe. We call for landscape criticism, as if calling for a sound education system! We call upon outstanding landscape critics, as if calling upon soul engineers responsible for the future of humanity!

Translated by Sara JACOBS Angus ZHANG

Reference
[1] Meinig, D. W. (1979). The Beholding Eye: Ten Versions of the Same Scene. In D. W. Meinig (Ed.), The Interpretation of Ordinary Landscapes: Geographical Essays. New York: Oxford University Press.

主编寄语
论景观评论(俞孔坚)

论文
景观与批评:可见与不可见的交错(慕晓东)
生态系统负面服务研究与城市问题诊断(王志芳,李迪华,杨凌,孟珈民,赵妍)

观点与评论
景观设计评论写作(朱莉亚·泽尼亚克)
以景观为媒介(琼·艾弗森·纳索尔)
景观与建筑设计中的语言(金秋野)
评社区营造新局面:探讨如何共同生活(黄瑞茂)
建筑策划的反思与完善:从前策划-后评估到全过程咨询(庄惟敏)
套路禁锢了创新——当代中国景观设计的保守主义(李建伟)
孩子们的自然博物馆——成都麓湖生态城云朵乐园(张东,唐子颖)
弹性的防洪基础设施:纽约市东海岸弹性修复计划(比雅克·英格斯,杰里米·阿兰·西格尔,西蒙·大卫,奥特姆·维斯康提,卢南迪)
上海大型公共绿地的未来(张斗)

探索与过程
探秘香港西区公众货物装卸区(庞宇灵)
魅影生态:美学、伦理与生态(菲恩·伯恩)

简讯
 

【中文刊名】《景观设计学》——景观评论
【英文刊名】Landscape Criticism
【作者】慕晓东(Xiaodong MU),王志芳(Zhifang WANG,),朱莉亚·泽尼亚克(Julia CZERNIAK)等
【出版社】高等教育出版社有限公司
【页码】162页彩色印刷
【刊号】ISSN 2096-336X
【出版日期】2017年12月
【定价】58.00元

景观与批评:可见与不可见的交错
Landscape and Criticism: The Crossing of Visible and Invisible
作者:慕晓东 Xiaodong MU

摘要
景观批评之于风景园林学在很大程度上是缺失的,此现状判断是本文写作的初衷。景观与批评的理论思辨、景观批评缺失的历史性分析、设计批评与阐释性批评的基本印象、景观设计批评的操作,以及批评家应该扮演的角色,是本文论述的主要内容。本文试图提供一种认识景观批评的具体语境,以增进人们对于这个被忽视议题的理解。本文假设景观与批评之间的双向互动,既能够激发景观的文化想象力,又能够促进景观空间的社会效应,还可以对风景园林学科产生一定的积极作用。

关键词
景观;批评;历史;理论;文本写作;视觉图像;空间建造

Abstract
With an intention to criticize the poor development of criticism in the discipline of Landscape Architecture, this paper will discuss six aspects of this topic: some theoretical speculations on landscape and criticism, historical investigations on its deficiency, a simulative panel of concrete landscape design criticism, various landscape criticism in different fields, three operations of criticism on landscape design, and the role what critics ought to play in this profession. The paper attempts to build a context that helps enhance professionals’ understanding of landscape criticism, which has been neglected in Landscape Architecture for decades, arguing that the interaction between landscape and criticism might stimulate the cultural imaginations of landscape, increase the social effect by landscape spaces, and partly promote the practical level of Landscape Architecture.

Key words
Landscape; Criticism; History; Theory; Textual Writing; Visual Image; Spatial Construction


生态系统负面服务研究与城市问题诊断
Ecosystem Disservice Research into Urban Problem Diagnosis
作者:王志芳,李迪华,杨凌,孟珈民,赵妍 Zhifang WANG, Dihua LI, Ling YANG, Jiamin MENG, Yan ZHAO

摘要
在中国城镇化率超过50%之后,“城市双修”成为了城市未来规划设计的核心趋势。然而,如何确定城市双修的范围和重点是一大难题。本文提议结合生态系统负面服务的相关研究,对城市问题进行诊断与评价。生态系统负面服务是与生态系统服务相对的概念,主要指生态系统对人类造成的不适或负面影响。同时,需要诊断分析其产生原因(自然状态与人工干预)、发生状态(实际现状与潜在能力),以及影响程度(相对值与绝对值)。以生态系统负面服务框架为基础,可以在城市及地域尺度上对城市双修或城市更新重点问题做出系统性的梳理和评价,并分类归纳负面清单,进而从提升生态系统自身生态功能、降低负面服务、正负服务博弈等途径系统制定城市双修策略。

关键词
生态系统服务;生态系统负面服务;负效益;负面清单;生态系统社会服务

Abstract
With the acceleration of urbanization rate over 50%, the initiative of Ecological Restoration and Urban Regeneration tends to be the focus of future planning and design in China. However, how to identify where and what to be regenerated is challenging. This paper calls for the integration of ecosystem disservice (EDS) research into urban problem diagnosis. Ecosystem disservice is raised up in opposite to ecosystem services, referring to ecosystem’s uncomfortable or negative influences to humans. The investigation of EDS should distinguish causes (natural factors and human intervention), influenced status (actual disservices and latent disservices), and influenced level (relative disservices and absolute disservices). Using EDS as a diagnosing framework, cities could systematically analyze key issues and hotspots, summarize the checklist of disservices, and utilize varied strategies for solutions including enhancing services, mitigating disservices and tradeoff between services and disservices.

Key words
Ecosystem Service; Ecosystem Disservice; Negative Impact; Disservice Checklist; Social Service of Ecosystem


景观设计评论写作
Writing Landscape Design Criticism
作者:朱莉亚·泽尼亚克 Julia CZERNIAK

摘要
在本文中,朱莉娅·泽尔尼克教授分享了景观设计评论写作过程中的经验与总结。其评论写作主要从三个层面进行:建立学科框架,并在这一框架之下评价设计师的设计方案或建成项目;通过评论他人的项目,思考整个设计领域;以及基于限定条件较少的设计空间撰写评论。在泽尔尼克教授看来,撰写评论的目的是传播有价值的学科知识。未来,她将通过策展、出版特刊等活动继续探索更多景观设计评论的可能。

关键词
景观设计评论;写作;学科知识;空间设计

Abstract
In this article, Professor Julia Czerniak shares her opinions and experiences on landscape design criticism. Generally, she writes three types of criticism, including setting up disciplinary frameworks to examine designer’s drawings or built artifacts, writing through design projects to think about design at large, and writing to project design into a space of less constraint. From her point of view, writing criticism is to invoke valuable disciplinary knowledge. Professor Czerniak will further focus on curating an exhibition and publishing a special issue to explore more possibilities in landscape design criticism.

Key words
Landscape Design Criticism; Writing; Disciplinary Knowledge; Spatial Design


以景观为媒介
Landscape as Medium
作者:琼·艾弗森·纳索尔 Joan Iverson NASSAUER

摘要
本次访谈聚焦于景观的媒介属性。受访人琼·艾弗森·纳索尔认为,景观感知十分重要,设计师应当让设计更为人们所接受,并关注景观如何影响人们的日常生活。同时,她强调景观可持续性的核心是维护。对于景观设计学科而言,实践和研究都非常重要,设计也能够成为科学的一部分。相比其他学科,景观设计学的核心竞争力在于景观设计师懂得如何运用想象力来改变看不见的社会关系。作为《景观与城市规划》的联合主编,纳索尔认为媒体应当更多地为学者和从业者服务,促进更多元的学术交流。

关键词
媒介;受欢迎性;维护;科学;研究;想象力

Abstract
This interview focuses on landscape’s role of being a medium. Joan Iverson Nassauer, the interviewee, believes that landscape architects should make designs plausible and care about how landscape influences people’s everyday life since landscape perception matters. Meanwhile, she underscores that maintenance is key to the sustainability of a landscape project. She further argues that both practice and research are important to the discipline of landscape architecture, and design can be part of science. Landscape architects’ capacity of imagination defines the power and uniqueness of the discipline what allows landscape architecture to change social relationships. As a co-editor-in-chief of Landscape and Urban Planning, Nassauer believes that media need to serve more scholars and practitioners and to encourage a broad communication with diverse communication forms.

Key words
Medium; Plausibility; Maintenance; Science; Research; Imagination


景观与建筑设计中的语言
Issue on the Languages in Landscape and Architectural Design
作者:金秋野 Qiuye JIN

摘要
本次访谈围绕人与自然的关系、设计与评论的价值观等问题展开。受访者金秋野认为,评论需要具备完整的生命意识,不拘泥于固定的文体表达,是评论者以自身的历史知识和对时间的理解做出的理性判断,目的在于表达评论者独立的价值观。他指出,真正好的建筑师,其设计过程是从视觉到视觉的,超越了语言搭建的世界。

关键词
建筑评论;景观评论;设计语言;批判思维

Abstract
This interview centers on the relationship between human and nature, and the philosophy of architectural design and criticism. Qiuye Jin, the interviewee, believes that design criticism needs to reflect a complete life consciousness, which should not rigidly adhere to certain literary forms; a critique expresses the critic’s philosophy and critical thinking based on his / her historical knowledge and own understanding of time. Jin also believes that a good architect can go beyond words, whose design work is visually constructed and conducted, and can speak itself.

Key words
Architectural Criticism; Landscape Criticism; Design Language; Critical Thinking


评社区营造新局面:探讨如何共同生活
Emerging Challenges of Community Empowerment: Exploring a Harmonious Living among Different Community Stakeholders
作者:黄瑞茂 Jui-mao HUANG

摘要
在全球化、城镇化、金融危机等的影响下,当代人的生活方式不断转变,在城市愈发拥挤、持续扩张的同时,许多乡村却面临着已经“空掉”或将要“空掉”的危机,这种城乡移民现象及其带来的土地性质变更使得城乡之间的界线愈发模糊。在此种现状面前,我们试图借助“社区营造”手法,并将“社区”的定义扩充至城乡、城际尺度,统筹考虑大尺度范围内的生活营造。受访者黄瑞茂结合其20余年的社区营造经验,发表了其对于认同感、公众参与、设计师角色等议题的看法。其提出,随着时代的发展,设计师们关注的重点已由“这是我们所期望的生活空间吗”,转变为“我们需要怎样的生活方式”,并进而转向“我们要如何共同生活在一起”,形成了社区营造的新局面。

关键词
社区营造;公众参与;生活方式;都市意识;认同感

Abstract
Contemporary lifestyles are changing due to influences of globalization, urbanization, and financial crisis. While cities are increasingly crowded and continuously expanding, many rural areas face a crisis of labor shortage and changes of land types, blurring the boundaries between urban and rural areas. Under this background, the scope of community empowerment has been expanded to a larger scale, from one certain community to the whole urban-rural integration to deal with urban problems caused by rural-urban migration. The interviewee, Jui-mao Huang, shared his views on identity, public participation, roles of designers, etc. basing on his 20-year experience of community empowerment. He pointed out that over time, designers’ focus has shifted from creating spaces to meet dwellers’ demands to affecting dwellers’ lifestyles with practices of community empowerment, and to realizing a harmonious living for different community stakeholders.

Key words
Community Empowerment; Public Participation; Life Style; Urban Consciousness; Identity


建筑策划的反思与完善:从前策划-后评估到全过程咨询
Reflections and Improvements on Architectural Programming: Programming and Post-Occupancy Evaluation to Whole-Process Consultation
作者:庄惟敏 Weimin ZHUANG

摘要
“建筑策划”概念诞生于20世纪50年代,并于90年代引入中国,对中国的城镇化建设产生了积极影响。受访者庄惟敏自博士论文起就一直致力于建筑策划理论的研究,并先后出版了《建筑策划导论》《建筑策划与设计》等著作。近几年,其逐渐意识到“策划-设计-施工-运营-后评估-策划”闭环过程对于建筑创作的重要性。2017年9月,庄惟敏等人出版最新著作《后评估在中国》,也由此构建了“前策划-后评估”的完整研究体系。在对自身的塑造及对学生的培养中,其一直倡导“全体论”的发展方向,强调中国建筑师应具备符合国际要求的职业素质及知识储备。本文梳理了建筑策划、使用后评估、全体论等理论的发展历程,并评述了这些理论在中国的推行现状及相关举措,以形成对早期建筑策划理论的反思与完善。此外,其还特别指出,虽然评估与评论是两个不同的概念,但都属于建筑师应掌握的技能范畴。

关键词
建筑策划;使用后评估;全体论;全过程咨询;功能;评论

Abstract
The concept of Architectural Programming was proposed in the 1950s, but has only guided China’s urbanization since the 1990s. The interviewee, Weimin Zhuang, studied architectural programming for his dissertation and has since published Architectural Programming Guide and Architectural Programming and Design. In recent years, he comes to emphasize that architects need to master the closed-loop process of “programming — design — construction — operation — post-occupancy evaluation — programming.” In September 2017, Zhuang and his co-authors published Post-Occupancy Evaluation in China, and formed the research methodology for “Architectural Programming and Post-Occupancy Evaluation.” For years, Zhuang argues for a “holistic approach” in education to both students and himself, and emphasizes the importance of Chinese architects to meet international professional standards. This article explores how the development of architectural programming, post-occupancy evaluation, and holistic approach has been adopted in China, and reveals reflections and suggestions for the improvement of architectural programming. Finally, Zhuang points out that architects are supposed to build the skills in both evaluation and criticism.

Key words
Architectural Programming; Post-Occupancy Evaluation; Holistic Approach; Whole-Process Consultation; Function; Criticism


套路禁锢了创新——当代中国景观设计的保守主义
Stereotype Shackles Creativity: The Conservatism in China’s Contemporary Landscape Design
作者:李建伟 Jianwei LI

摘要
本文就当代中国景观设计行业中的“新中式”运动进行了批判,认为中国元素的滥用已经导致了景观设计的同质化,并直指其盛行的原因是中国当前设计领域中普遍存在的狭隘的保守主义。文章继而就中国文化如何在当代景观设计中展现的问题展开讨论,分别对景观文化以及中国文化的层次和维度进行了梳理,并指出设计师应当跳脱出场地尺度的设计,而要拥有更加宏大的视野、承担更大的社会责任。

关键词
中国元素;中国文化;“新中式”景观设计;保守主义;设计创新;艺术

Abstract
This paper starts with criticizing the design tide of Neo Chinese-style in China’s contemporary landscape design, where it argues that the indiscriminate use of Chinese elements in landscape design has terribly deadened design uniqueness and diversity, and points out that the popularity of Neo Chinese-style mirrors the narrow conservatism prevalent in China’s contemporary design industry. The article also explores the topic of how to celebrate the Chinese culture in contemporary landscape design by reviewing the levels and dimensions of landscape culture and Chinese culture, with an argument that designers ought to have a broader horizon with a greater social responsibility.

Key words
Chinese-style Element; Chinese Culture; Neo Chinese-style Landscape Design; Conservatism; Design Creativity; Art


孩子们的自然博物馆——成都麓湖生态城云朵乐园
A Natural Museum for Children: Cloud Paradise in Luxelakes Eco-City, Chengdu
作者:张东,唐子颖 Dong ZHANG, Ziying TANG

摘要
云朵乐园位于成都市麓湖生态城—一处集产业、商业、居住功能为一体的新型城市片区。设计旨在为生态城中新入住的居民提供涵盖公园、游乐场等空间的休闲场地,同时引入自然教育功能,以加强人与自然的联系。该项目的一大特色在于设计与建造过程的相辅相成。此外,设计基于儿童的行为特征及发育规律选择多样化的游乐设施,同时鼓励良好亲子关系的建立。
《景观设计学》编辑部就云朵乐园项目对该项目负责人张东和唐子颖进行了采访。两位负责人就主题选择、设计理念、设计与建造的关系,以及景观评论之于设计的影响进行了详细阐释。

关键词
游乐场;互动装置;自然教育;建造;评论

Abstract
The Cloud Paradise is located at the Luxelakes Eco-City, a new urban community in Chengdu that incorporates industrial, commercial, and residential functions. The design team aimed to provide a new park and playground for the neighborhood by creating a natural environment for people to connect with nature. The project is distinct for its efforts to facilitate construction as part of the design process. The recreational facilities at the park were designed in response to children’s behavioral characteristics and development, and for the purpose of encouraging better parent-child relationships.
The editorial team of Landscape Architecture Frontiers interviewed Dong Zhang and Ziying Tang, designers of the Cloud Paradise to better understand their ideas on issues related to the theme, design concepts, the relationship between design and construction, and the influence of landscape criticism on the design process.

Key words
Playground; Interactive Facilities; Natural Education; Construction; Criticism


弹性的防洪基础设施:纽约市东海岸弹性修复计划
Resilient Flood Protection Infrastructure: The East Side Coastal Resiliency project of New York City
作者:比雅克·英格斯,杰里米·阿兰·西格尔,西蒙·大卫,奥特姆·维斯康提,卢南迪 Bjarke INGELS, Jeremy Alain SIEGEL, Simon DAVID, Autumn VISCONTI, Nandi LU

摘要
为应对飓风侵袭及海平面上升等问题,BIG建筑事务所提出了针对曼哈顿主岛滨水区的U型保护系统,以为该区域的未来弹性海岸建设和城市发展描绘出崭新的图景。作为该大型项目的第一阶段任务,东海岸弹性修复(ESCR)项目旨在探索如何使防洪基础设施激发更多的社会效益。这一变革性的城市转型项目不仅可以满足当前社区的特定需求,更能够根据城市未来发展状况进行调整和完善。ESCR项目集结了来自社会各界的力量,通过典型材料的运用和对细节特征的把控来打造一种多样化的滨海城市景观空间。在此过程中,景观亦充分展现了它作为教育载体的意义。

关键词
弹性;基础设施;防洪;适应性;社会效益

Abstract
As a response to the issues of hurricane attack and sea level rise, the BIG U imagines a new future of coastal resiliency and urbanism for Manhattan’s waterfront. The East Side Coastal Resiliency (ESCR) project is the first phase of this huge project, showing how flood protection infrastructure could have more social effects. This radical urban transformation not only responds to the specific needs of communities today, but also remains flexible enough to develop over time, as urban conditions continue to change. ESCR gets designers, communities, and city agencies united, and creates a diversified city coastal landscape with a toolbox of materials and details that are typical of the city’s past. In this process, landscape is the medium that expresses educational aspects.

Key words
Resilience; Infrastructure; Flood Protection; Adaptability; Social Effects


上海大型公共绿地的未来
What is next for Large Public Green Spaces in Shanghai?
作者:张斗 Dou ZHANG

摘要
大量的人口和有限的土地对上海未来的发展提出了前所未有的挑战。
填海造陆工程以牺牲栖息地为代价创造了更多的土地。然而这些吹填出来的土地自然条件恶劣,在成陆多年后仍不适宜居住。无论是海岸带还是新填出的土地都有待长期的恢复和修复。
为了控制城市无限蔓延并保护农业用地,对建成区域进行城市更新在近些年来备受重视。这类项目受到当前需求、历史保护、现状基础设施、用地性质、政治等多重因素的影响,需要全面整合设计才能取得成功。
在公共项目中,公众参与的缺乏往往导致政治诉求变成决定设计的主导因素。这可能致使设计偏离最佳的专业解决方案。那么,景观设计师如何能够影响决策过程以使其更加合理?

关键词
海岸保护;自然演替;修复;城市更新;绿色基础设施;公众意识

Abstract
Large population and land shortage bring Shanghai unique challenges on future development.
Ocean landfill has created more lands at the cost of losing habitats. The harsh conditions of the reclaimed land, however, make them still difficult places to live, even many years after being filled in. Long-term restoration and remediation are needed both along the shoreline and in reclaimed land areas.
Urban regeneration of developed areas has gained more attention in recent years, as a way to control urban sprawl and preserve agricultural land. Such projects face complex mixture of current needs, historic preservation, constraints from existing infrastructure, land uses, and political issues. Strong design integration helps to enable the success of these projects.
Lacking public engagement in the decision-making process for public projects often results in political agendas becoming the driving force of the design direction. As this direction can deviate from the best professional solutions, how can landscape architects influence the decision-making process for the better?

Key words
Coastal Protection; Succession; Remediation; Urban Regeneration; Green Infrastructure; Public Awareness


探秘香港西区公众货物装卸区
Unfolding the Western District Public Cargo Working Area in Hong Kong
作者:庞宇灵 Benni Yu-ling PONG

摘要
香港西区公众货物装卸区(WDPCWA)是一个“非设计”和“非规划”的空间。这个被公众占用的空间不但吸引了本地和海外媒体的关注,更深受人们喜爱。相较于主流规划和设计实践对城市空间的演绎,这种活泼的空间展示了人们对城市空间别样的理解和美学价值观。
本项目旨在通过人类学研究方法和视觉再现手法,纪录和定义在WDPCWA发生的现象,并探究人们对城市空间的感知。针对设计实践过程极易忽视人们对空间的抽象感知这一现象,本项目尝试发掘一套方法论,以展示这些难以被量化的讯息。

关键词
公共空间;非设计空间;设计人类学;再现;香港

Abstract
The Western District Public Cargo Working Area (WDPCWA) in Hong Kong is an appropriated public space that is “undesigned” and “unplanned” in nature. Yet, it is one of the most popular public spaces among the local residents and has received the extensive coverage by both local and overseas media. The vibrant space has represented a different understanding and aesthetic appreciation on the quality of urban space that is not incorporated in the mainstream design and planning practice and pedagogy.
This project aims to record and conceptualize the urban phenomenon happened in the WDPCWA and scrutinize human perception on space through ethnographic methodology and visual representation. It intends to explore a methodology to unveil the perceptually-defined qualitative aspects in urban space which are often overlooked in design practice.

Key words
Public Space; Undesigned Space; Design Anthropology; Representation; Hong Kong


魅影生态:美学、伦理与生态
Phantom Ecology: Aesthetics, Ethics, and Ecology
作者:菲恩·伯恩 Fionn BYRNE

摘要
阿萨巴斯卡油砂矿区位于加拿大亚阿尔伯达省北部,是太空可见的人造景观之一,目前其施工规模几乎可以媲美任何其他人文景观项目。尽管这一项目巨大的土方工程量很容易让人误以为是区域性城市开发项目,但其实际目的却只有一个—石油开采。
然而,在这样一个石油储备十分丰富的地区,景观设计师鲜少参与到开采、生产、废物堆积和废物回收等场地设计—特别是地形塑造—的过程中。同时,能够反映人类在这一地区中的感受经历及对物质空间进行塑造的小尺度景观设计项目也寥寥无几。因此,尽管该项目所构想的在现有阿萨巴斯卡油砂矿工业景观中设计10座休憩站的方案可能最终难以落地,但其核心在于呼吁人们意识到这些代表着加拿大当代景观的工业景观的存在。

关键词
油砂;开采;基础设施;工业景观;修复

Abstract
Visible from space, the Athabasca bituminous sands region of Northern Alberta, Canada, is currently being engineered at a scale equal to or greater than any other human landscape projects. This massive earth moving operation which at first glance could be confused for a regional urban development, has but one single objective: oil.
Yet we do not see landscape architects engaged in the design and specifically the topographic shaping of these sites of extraction, production, waste, and reclamation. Nor are there many examples of landscape architects contributing smaller scale interventions that acknowledge the human occupation of these sites, their experience and material realities. Thus, ten rest stops are proposed to set in the working industrial landscape of the Athabasca bituminous sands, though they might not be built, to emphasize the importance of remembering that these landscapes already exist, showcasing the contemporary Canadian landscape.

Key words
Oil Sands; Extraction; Infrastructure; Industrial Landscape; Restoration