- 作者：俞孔坚 来源：景观中国 2014年08月13日 浏览：
Recently I traveled to two previously beautiful rivers, but the result I found was sad and depressing.
The two rivers were the Halaha River and Yimin River in the Inner Mongolian Plateau. The Halaha snakes laboriously among the volcanic rocks of the Arxan Mountains. From time to time she steals into the rock caves without a trace, like a mischievous kid; sometimes she rests in a lake, like a quiet and timid girl; other times she penetrates the hard basalt, running cheerfully among the
rocks and silver birches like an energetic and restless youngster. It was on this part of the Halaha that I saw orange rubber rafts carried by the current and filled with excited people confronting the rapids, many tourists chatted and laughed on shore while walking among silver birches. After passing through the neighboring mountains, amiss a sea of mysterious clouds, fog, and forest, the Halaha River flowed across the Hulun Buir Grassland, into beautiful lakes on the Chinese and Mongolian boarder, and finally into Buir Lake.
The Yimin, by contrast, meanders vast and flat grassland, like a gentle and peaceful mother opening her arms, full of maternal love, and embracing the flow of water from any direction. With infinite tenderness, like a roll of loose ribbon, the Yimin River carves out crescent sandbanks on the Hulun Buir Grassland, a region known as “father” by the local herdsmen. The sandbanks retained in the river become wetlands with lush vegetation. Grassland extends to the water, where flocks of cattle and sheep play and graze. On the banks people fish, receiving generous gifts from the mother river, delightedly and contently.
These two rivers are physically different but offer whatever they could in the same way. If treated nicely, they would continue to offer what ecologists called “ecological services”. Both rivers provide services such as supply (of food and clean water), adjustment (of discharge in flood and drought times, temperature in cold and hot seasons, and water purification), life carrying (of providing habitats and migratory passages for a large amount of living creatures), and culture (such as aesthetic appreciation, intellectual inspiration, physical and mental recovery, and a place to put hopes).
However, these two rivers are threatened in the same way that hundreds of rivers in China are threatened. During my visit, the beaches of the Halaha River were buzzing with construction for a new tourist town. Black peat, which had been buried below the beautiful meadow for thousands of decades, was being dug out, underground streams were being drained, and the lower reach of the river was no longer clean. The natural meandering water had been channelized with cement flood control embankments, transforming the river into a narrow and hardened ditch, all for the purpose of constructing highway embankments. The delightful and fresh Halaha had lost her vitality in a flash, like a charming girl instantly turned into a decomposing, dead body.
Similarly, in Hailar, where the Yimin River passes, I saw her ruefulness. A row of dredging vehicles, connected with long, rusted iron pipes, were sucking sand from the riverbed, like a greedy vampire sucking bone marrow from a beautiful life. Willows and poplars had been cut down and removed from both banks, and the once colorful flowerbeds on the sandbanks were now
filled with quarries, ponding stagnant water, like an ulcer on beautiful skin. A new monumental water conservancy project was forcing the river to be re-channelized. The new flood control embankments will compress the flood plain, forcing the river to flow into a narrow cement river course. Grand buildings are planned in the wetlands and meadows on both sides of the river. Finally, at least three rubber dams will be built on the river to complete the vision of making Hulun Buir a “beautiful water city”. In total, four billion RMB have been invested in this “river beautification project” that will, by the time it is completed, have drastically changed the destiny of Yimin, the mother river.
I was saddened and downhearted by the misfortune experienced by these two remote and beautiful rivers. I felt certain that the devil butchering these rivers has brewed massacres everywhere. But why? Is it ignorance? Or greed? Or corruption? Or lost morals? Or the powerlessness of design? In response to what I have seen firsthand, I would like to once again make an appeal: Please save the Halaha River, please save the Yimin River, and please save every river that has provided gifts to our ancestors and will continue to provide gifts to our future generations. Treat the rivers well, for their fate is tied to ours.
Yimin River that flows through Hulun Buir Grassland. On the Hailar section, a row of dredging vehicles,connected with long, rusted iron pipes, were sucking sand from the riverbed, like a greedy vampire suckingbone marrow from a beautiful life. Willows and poplars had been cut down and removed from both banks,and the once colorful flowerbeds on the sandbanks were now filled with quarries, ponding stagnant water,like an ulcer on beautiful skin.(Taken by Kongjian Yu, Hailar section of Yimin River, August 13th, 2013).
Source: Yu, K. (2013). Ecological Water System Design. Landscape Architecture Frontiers, 1 (4):5-7.