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俞孔坚:两条远方的河流——《景观设计学》2013年第4期“主编寄语”
  • 作者:俞孔坚 来源:景观中国 2014年08月13日 浏览:
  •   最近,因为两条美丽河流的召唤,我做了一次远行,但结果却令我忧伤。

      这是两条流淌在内蒙古高原上的河流,一条名为哈拉哈河,另一条名为伊敏河。哈拉哈河艰难地行走在阿尔山的火山岩中,时而钻入岩壳之下,不留痕迹,如同顽皮的孩童;时而因堰塞而成湖泊,静若处子,饱含羞涩;时而穿破坚硬的玄武岩,形成跌宕的激流,泛起白色的浪花,欢快地在岩壁间与白桦林间奔流,像是充满活力的躁动的青年。在那河流之上,我看到漂流的人们奋力划动橘色的橡皮筏,兴奋地搏击着迎面而来的浪花;而在岸上,三三两两的游客说说笑笑,漫步在木栈道上,游走于白桦林间。在阅尽阿尔山的绵绵山峦、妙曼云雾和苍茫林海之后,哈拉哈河最终流向广阔无垠的呼伦贝尔草原,汇入中国和蒙古国共有的美丽湖泊——贝尔湖。

      伊敏河则更像是持重而安详的母亲,缓缓地流淌在辽阔的草原上,敞开母爱的怀抱,接纳来自八方的、恣意流淌的泉流;以无限的温存,像一条松散的绸带,蜿蜒在被当地牧民称为“父亲”的呼伦贝尔草原之上,雕刻出一片片月牙形的沙洲。这些留存在河中的沙洲,成为了植被茂密的湿地。两岸的草地一直延伸到水边,成群的牛羊在草地上自由地嬉戏。我看到岸边垂钓的人们,在接受母亲河慷慨的馈赠的同时,也收获了无限的欢乐和满足。

      这是两条有着不同性格的河流,却都同样无私地向人们奉献着她们所能给予的一切。如果能够得到善待,她们还将持续地、无止尽地如此奉献。生态学家们将这种奉献称之为生态服务,包括:供给服务——提供食物和洁净的水源;调节服务——调节洪涝和干旱、气温之寒暑,净化水质;生命承载服务——为众多的生物提供栖息地,以及繁衍和迁徙的通道;文化服务——提供诸如审美、启智、身心再生和精神寄托。

      然而,这两条身处祖国偏远边疆的河流,却和中国大地上千万条大大小小的河流一样,面临着同样的厄运。就在哈拉哈河流经的河谷滩地上,一个旅游小镇正在如火如荼地兴建着。那埋葬在美丽草甸之下已万年之久的黑色草炭被挖开,潜涌在地下的泉水被排干,而下游的河水也变得不再清丽;水泥防洪堤将蜿蜒的自然河道渠化成狭窄的、僵直的水沟,并在防洪大堤上修建了高速公路。欢快而鲜活的哈拉哈河瞬间失去了生命,如同魅力无限的少女变成了一具糜烂的尸体。
      
      同样,就在伊敏河流经并哺育的海拉尔市,我也看到了她的悲戚:多台采砂机正拖着长长的锈色铁管,吃力地抽取水底的河砂,如同吸血鬼在贪婪地允吸着一个美丽生命的骨髓。两岸的河柳与杨林早已被砍去,沙洲上丰富多彩的花甸已变成深浅不一的乱石坑,滞留下一汪汪浑浊的死水,如同美丽肌肤上溃烂的疮痍。而一项宏伟的水利工程和河道景观工程正在轰轰烈烈地上演:高高的防洪堤将挤压原本宽阔的河漫滩,迫使水流只能在狭窄的水泥河道中流过;恢弘的建筑物将在河堤两岸的大片湿地和草甸上拔地而起;至少三条橡胶坝将在河道上建造,渴望令呼伦贝尔成为一座“美丽的水城”。这项号称投资40亿的“河道美化工程”将彻底改变这温存如母亲的伊敏河的命运。

      这两条地处偏远边疆的美丽河流的厄运令我忧伤,因为我已确信,那屠杀河流生命的恶魔已无处不在,并且竟如此地肆无忌惮。是无知?是贪婪?是腐败?是道德的沦丧?抑或是设计专业的苍白无力?我因此再次呼吁:救救远方的哈拉哈河,救救伊敏河,救救曾给予我们和我们的祖先以恩惠,并还将恩泽千万后代的每一条河流!善待河流吧,因为善待河流就是善待人类自己。

    Recently I traveled to two previously beautiful rivers, but the result I found was sad and depressing.

    The two rivers were the Halaha River and Yimin River in the Inner Mongolian Plateau. The Halaha snakes laboriously among the volcanic rocks of the Arxan Mountains. From time to time she steals into the rock caves without a trace, like a mischievous kid; sometimes she rests in a lake, like a quiet and timid girl; other times she penetrates the hard basalt, running cheerfully among the
    rocks and silver birches like an energetic and restless youngster. It was on this part of the Halaha that I saw orange rubber rafts carried by the current and filled with excited people confronting the rapids, many tourists chatted and laughed on shore while walking among silver birches. After passing through the neighboring mountains, amiss a sea of mysterious clouds, fog, and forest, the Halaha River flowed across the Hulun Buir Grassland, into beautiful lakes on the Chinese and Mongolian boarder, and finally into Buir Lake.

    The Yimin, by contrast, meanders vast and flat grassland, like a gentle and peaceful mother opening her arms, full of maternal love, and embracing the flow of water from any direction. With infinite tenderness, like a roll of loose ribbon, the Yimin River carves out crescent sandbanks on the Hulun Buir Grassland, a region known as “father” by the local herdsmen. The sandbanks retained in the river become wetlands with lush vegetation. Grassland extends to the water, where flocks of cattle and sheep play and graze. On the banks people fish, receiving generous gifts from the mother river, delightedly and contently.

    These two rivers are physically different but offer whatever they could in the same way. If treated nicely, they would continue to offer what ecologists called “ecological services”. Both rivers provide services such as supply (of food and clean water), adjustment (of discharge in flood and drought times, temperature in cold and hot seasons, and water purification), life carrying (of providing habitats and migratory passages for a large amount of living creatures), and culture (such as aesthetic appreciation, intellectual inspiration, physical and mental recovery, and a place to put hopes).

    However, these two rivers are threatened in the same way that hundreds of rivers in China are threatened. During my visit, the beaches of the Halaha River were buzzing with construction for a new tourist town. Black peat, which had been buried below the beautiful meadow for thousands of decades, was being dug out, underground streams were being drained, and the lower reach of the river was no longer clean. The natural meandering water had been channelized with cement flood control embankments, transforming the river into a narrow and hardened ditch, all for the purpose of constructing highway embankments. The delightful and fresh Halaha had lost her vitality in a flash, like a charming girl instantly turned into a decomposing, dead body.

    Similarly, in Hailar, where the Yimin River passes, I saw her ruefulness. A row of dredging vehicles, connected with long, rusted iron pipes, were sucking sand from the riverbed, like a greedy vampire sucking bone marrow from a beautiful life. Willows and poplars had been cut down and removed from both banks, and the once colorful flowerbeds on the sandbanks were now
    filled with quarries, ponding stagnant water, like an ulcer on beautiful skin. A new monumental water conservancy project was forcing the river to be re-channelized. The new flood control embankments will compress the flood plain, forcing the river to flow into a narrow cement river course. Grand buildings are planned in the wetlands and meadows on both sides of the river. Finally, at least three rubber dams will be built on the river to complete the vision of making Hulun Buir a “beautiful water city”. In total, four billion RMB have been invested in this “river beautification project” that will, by the time it is completed, have drastically changed the destiny of Yimin, the mother river.

    I was saddened and downhearted by the misfortune experienced by these two remote and beautiful rivers. I felt certain that the devil butchering these rivers has brewed massacres everywhere. But why? Is it ignorance? Or greed? Or corruption? Or lost morals? Or the powerlessness of design? In response to what I have seen firsthand, I would like to once again make an appeal: Please save the Halaha River, please save the Yimin River, and please save every river that has provided gifts to our ancestors and will continue to provide gifts to our future generations. Treat the rivers well, for their fate is tied to ours.

    点此在新窗口浏览图片

      流经呼伦贝尔的伊敏河。在海拉尔段,多台采砂机正拖着长长的锈色铁管,吃力地抽取水底的河砂,如同吸血鬼在贪婪地允吸着一个美丽生命的骨髓。两岸的河柳与杨林早已被砍去,沙洲上丰富多彩的花甸已变成深浅不一的乱石坑,滞留下一汪汪浑浊的死水,如同美丽肌肤上溃烂的疮痍(俞孔坚,2013年8月13日摄于伊敏河海拉尔段)。
     
    Yimin River that flows through Hulun Buir Grassland. On the Hailar section, a row of dredging vehicles,connected with long, rusted iron pipes, were sucking sand from the riverbed, like a greedy vampire suckingbone marrow from a beautiful life. Willows and poplars had been cut down and removed from both banks,and the once colorful flowerbeds on the sandbanks were now filled with quarries, ponding stagnant water,like an ulcer on beautiful skin.(Taken by Kongjian Yu, Hailar section of Yimin River, August 13th, 2013).

    原文出处:俞孔坚.(2013).水系统生态设计.景观设计学,1(4):5-7.
    Source: Yu, K. (2013). Ecological Water System Design. Landscape Architecture Frontiers, 1 (4):5-7.

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