- 作者：俞孔坚 来源：景观中国 2014年08月19日 浏览：
How can we construct urban parks and green spaces without costly investment? To irrigate without consuming large quantities of water? To maintain without large inputs of energy and labor? To maintain their functions to cities and urban residents, rather than becoming wastelands? The only way is to learn from peasants.
I am not interested in industrial farmers operating modern combine harvesters and seeders on the great plains of North America, but peasants living within traditional farming methods and economies. I once criticized the "small-peasants consciousness", including the ideas of comparison, wild weeds and feast, but I now believe we can learn from this land ethic, as well as the techniques and art of field making, which are precious references for constructing urban landscape today.
In terms of land ethics and sense of values, the merit of small-scale peasant characterized by self-sufficiency (which might be limits in other perspectives) is a reciprocal relationship with the land where demand does not exceed need, which means peasants’ intervention with nature is limited — the minimum intervention. They aim for a good harvest and cherish hard-earned yields. Nature is only altered where needed, and thus being "diligent and thrifty" is one of the core criteria to evaluate their activities. The relationship between peasants and their lands is intrinsically sustainable. The most important economy is the legacy of carrying forward the family name. At the core of modern sustainability is the idea that we will offer future generations better lives. The constraints of tools and technologies determine the suitable scale and arrangement of land transformation and management, while the production process and season rhythm adaptation (sowing in spring and harvesting in autumn) determine the cooperation among neighbors, family members and friends, enabling communities to be formed. All of these — minimum intervention, industriousness and thrift, sustainability, suitable scales, and a sense of community — are characteristics and functions that should be found in the modern urban landscape.
Of course, in-depth and careful analysis is needed to translate these good characteristics, reflected in traditional agricultural production process, into the specific practice of landscape creation and management. These techniques can be summarized as follows.
Cut and fill. For peasants, cut and fill are simultaneous and inseparable. However, in modern construction, cut and fill are evaluated as two separate concepts and calculated separately. A review of modern urban landscapes would show many examples of waste generated to create constructed terrains, such as the digging out of lakes and transportation of new earth to create hills. Following the peasant model of equal cut and fill, our landscapes would be more energy efficient and easily constructed.
Irrigation. Many vegetated areas in cities could not thrive without sprinkling irrigation and drainage pipelines. To learn from peasants is to construct urban landscapes without such "modern" irrigation systems. Energy-efficient landscapes can be constructed if we know how to use natural rainfalls to irrigate land. For example, in the designs of Qiaoyuan Park in Tianjin and Qunli Wetland Park in Harbin, rains are the primary irrigation source. Because of this strategy, their maintenance costs are less than one third that of other urban parks.
Fertilization. Do we really need to fertilize urban green spaces? The tropic chain in modern cities has long been severed, and organic fertilizers, once cherished by peasants, have become urban disasters, polluting our rivers and lakes. To learn from peasants is to re-stitch the trophic chain and turn fertilization into water purification. The cost put towards buying fertilizers would be saved and the cost of purifying wastewater reduced. In the Houtan Park in Shanghai, the eutrophicated "wastewater" from the Huangpu River is used as fertilizer for wetland plants and crops on terraced fields, purifying river water while removing the need of artificial fertilization. The consumptive park has become productive energy-efficient landscape.
Sowing and Harvesting. Peasants sowing not for harvest will be seen as worthless peasants. It is perfectly justified to have fertile lands. To learn from peasants is to restore the productive function of urban green areas and make our landscapes more energy-efficient and meaningful. Of course, the "harvest" of landscape is no longer limited to food production, but also comprehensive ecosystem services.
Therefore, to increase the energy-efficiency of parks and green space in cities, we must learn from peasants, look to a traditional land ethic and bring back such fundamental techniques of field making, irrigation, fertilization, sowing and harvesting. It is both return and innovation.
The 200 hm2 Harbin Cultural Center Wetland Park uses urban storm and tail-water to createan urban park that is accessible to local residents with minimum intervention. It also minimizesthe management cost through grazing management and brings the ecological service functionof landscape into play（Taken by Kongjian Yu, September 22nd, 2013）.
Source: Yu, K. (2014).Energy Efficient Landscape. Landscape Architecture Frontiers, 2 (3):5-7.